Struts学习笔记[3]使用ant来发布Struts应用

原创 2005年05月13日 20:16:00

使用ant来发布Struts应用

ant来编译规模较大的工程比较方便,每个工程对应一个build.xml文件。这个文件包含与这个工程有关的路径信息和任务。每个build.xml文件都包含一个<project>元素,和一个或多个<target>元素。ANT提供了内置任务集,用户可以开发自己的任务元素。下表为ANT的内置任务:

ANT任务

描述

Property

设置name/value形式的属性

Mkdir

创建目录

Copy

拷贝文件或文件夹

Delete

删除文件或文件夹

Javac

翻译java源文件

War

Web应用打包

Javadoc

java源文件创建JavaDoc文档

1Build.xml文件的<project>元素有三个属性:

l         name属性,即指定工程的名字

l         basedir属性,指定工程的路径,设置为”.”,就表示工程的路径为build.xml所在的文件夹

l         default属性,必须是给定的属性,用来指定工程默认的target元素,如果运行ant时不指定参数即target,则使用default所指向的target。在上面的例子中,默认的targethelp。则在命令提示符中输入ant指令,则执行help target所需要完成的功能。

2.建立一个名为build.properties的文件,内容为

tomcat.home=d:/tomcat

webapps.home=d:/tomcat/webapps

        则在build.xml文件里面使用<property file=”build.properties”>来调用build.properties文件,这样就可以在build.xml文件里面使用${tomcat.home}${webapps.home}来指定tomcat的安装目录,和工程压缩后应该存放的地点webapps.home

3.设置公共属性

       一个工程可以设置很多属性,属性由namevalue构成,例如:

<property name=”app.home” value=”.”/>

       build.xml文件中的其他地方如果需要访问属性,则使用的语法格式为${属性名},例如:<property name=”src.home” value=”${app.home}/src”/>

4.

一个规范的build.xml例子:

<project name="helloapp" default="help" basedir=".">

<!-- ========= Property Definitions========== -->

 <!--

         All properties should be defined in this section.

         Any host-specific properties should be defined

         in the build.properties file.

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

        o  webapps.home    - the place to copy the war file to deploy it

    -->

  <property file="build.properties" />

  <property name="app.home"          value="." />

  <property name="app.name"          value="helloapp" />

  <property name="javadoc.pkg.top"   value="hello" />

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

  <property name="lib.home"          value="${app.home}/lib"/>

  <property name="classes.home"       value="${app.home}/classes"/>

  <property name="deploy.home"       value="${app.home}/deploy"/>

  <property name="doc.home"          value="${app.home}/doc"/>

  <property name="web.home"          value="${app.home}/web"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

  <property name="build.classes"     value="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes"/>

  <property name="build.lib"         value="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib"/>

<!-- ========== Compilation Classpath =========-->

 <!--

         This section creates the classpath for compilation.

    -->

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

    <pathelement location="${classes.home}"/>

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

    <fileset dir="${lib.home}">

      <include name="*.jar"/>

      <include name="*.zip"/>

    </fileset>

  <!-- All files/jars that Tomcat makes available -->

    <fileset dir="${tomcat.home}/common/lib">

      <include name="*.jar"/>

    </fileset>

    <pathelement location="${tomcat.home}/common/classes"/>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

<!-- ============== Build Targets below here============= -->

<!-- ============== "help" Target ========= -->

 <!--

         This is the default ant target executed if no target is specified.

         This helps avoid users just typing 'ant' and running a

         default target that may not do what they are anticipating...

    -->

<target name="help" >

   <echo message="Please specify a target! [usage: ant &lt;targetname&gt;]" />

   <echo message="Here is a list of possible targets: "/>

   <echo message="  clean-all.....Delete build dir, all .class and war files"/>

   <echo message="  prepare.......Creates directories if required" />

   <echo message="  compile.......Compiles source files" />

   <echo message="  build.........Build war file from .class and other files"/>

   <echo message="  deploy........Copy war file to the webapps directory" />

   <echo message="  javadoc.......Generates javadoc for this application" />

 </target>

<!-- ================ "clean-all" Target========== -->

 <!--

          This target should clean up any traces of the application

          so that if you run a new build directly after cleaning, all

          files will be replaced with what's current in source control

   -->

 <target name="clean-all" >

    <delete dir="${build.home}"/>

    <delete dir="${classes.home}"/>

    <delete dir="${deploy.home}"/>

    <!-- can't delete directory if Tomcat is running -->

    <delete dir="${webapps.home}/${app.name}" failonerror="false"/>

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

    <delete dir="${webapps.home}/${app.name}.war" />

 <!-- delete the javadoc -->

    <delete dir="${doc.home}"/>

</target>

<!-- =========== "prepare" Target======== -->

 <!--

          This target is executed prior to any of the later targets

          to make sure the directories exist. It only creates them

          if they need to be created....

          Other, similar, preparation steps can be placed here.

    -->

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

    <echo message="webapps Home = ${webapps.home}" />

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${deploy.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${doc.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${doc.home}/api"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF" />

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes" />

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib" />

 </target>

<!-- ============= "compile" Target ===========-->

 <!--

 This only compiles java files that are newer

          than their corresponding .class files.

 -->

<target name="compile" depends="prepare" >

    <javac srcdir="${src.home}" destdir="${classes.home}" debug="yes" >

        <classpath refid="compile.classpath"/>

    </javac>

  </target>

<!--===================="build"Target=====================-->

 <!--

          This target builds the war file for the application

          by first building the directory structure of the

          application in ${build.home} and then creating the

          war file using the ant <war> task

     -->

<target name="build" depends="compile" >

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Note that this also copies the META-INF directory -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}">

      <fileset dir="${web.home}"/>

 </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the Java class files -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">

      <fileset dir="${classes.home}"/>

    </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the properties files, etc that go on the classpath -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">

      <fileset dir="${src.home}">

         <include name="**/*.properties" />

         <include name="**/*.prop" />

      </fileset>

    </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the jar files we need -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib">

      <fileset dir="${lib.home}" />

    </copy>

<!-- Create the <war> file -->

    <jar jarfile="${deploy.home}/${app.name}.war"

         basedir="${build.home}"/>

 </target>

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- This target simply copies the war file from the deploy

         directory into the Tomcat webapp directory.

     -->

 <target name="deploy" depends="build" >

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

    <copy todir="${webapps.home}"  file="${deploy.home}/${app.name}.war" />

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

<!-- ================ "doc" Target ================ -->

   <!--

         This task creates javadoc. It is dependent upon only the

         'compile' target so it is not executed in a normal build.

         As a result, the target needs to be run on its own.

    -->

  <target name="javadoc" depends="compile">

      <javadoc sourcepath = "${src.home}"

                  destdir = "${doc.home}/api"

             packagenames = "${javadoc.pkg.top}.*"/>

  </target>

</project>

一个规范的build.xml例子:

<project name="helloapp" default="help" basedir=".">

<!-- ========= Property Definitions========== -->

 <!--

         All properties should be defined in this section.

         Any host-specific properties should be defined

         in the build.properties file.

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

        o  webapps.home    - the place to copy the war file to deploy it

    -->

  <property file="build.properties" />

  <property name="app.home"          value="." />

  <property name="app.name"          value="helloapp" />

  <property name="javadoc.pkg.top"   value="hello" />

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

  <property name="lib.home"          value="${app.home}/lib"/>

  <property name="classes.home"       value="${app.home}/classes"/>

  <property name="deploy.home"       value="${app.home}/deploy"/>

  <property name="doc.home"          value="${app.home}/doc"/>

  <property name="web.home"          value="${app.home}/web"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

  <property name="build.classes"     value="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes"/>

  <property name="build.lib"         value="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib"/>

<!-- ========== Compilation Classpath =========-->

 <!--

         This section creates the classpath for compilation.

    -->

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

    <pathelement location="${classes.home}"/>

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

    <fileset dir="${lib.home}">

      <include name="*.jar"/>

      <include name="*.zip"/>

    </fileset>

  <!-- All files/jars that Tomcat makes available -->

    <fileset dir="${tomcat.home}/common/lib">

      <include name="*.jar"/>

    </fileset>

    <pathelement location="${tomcat.home}/common/classes"/>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

<!-- ============== Build Targets below here============= -->

<!-- ============== "help" Target ========= -->

 <!--

         This is the default ant target executed if no target is specified.

         This helps avoid users just typing 'ant' and running a

         default target that may not do what they are anticipating...

    -->

<target name="help" >

   <echo message="Please specify a target! [usage: ant &lt;targetname&gt;]" />

   <echo message="Here is a list of possible targets: "/>

   <echo message="  clean-all.....Delete build dir, all .class and war files"/>

   <echo message="  prepare.......Creates directories if required" />

   <echo message="  compile.......Compiles source files" />

   <echo message="  build.........Build war file from .class and other files"/>

   <echo message="  deploy........Copy war file to the webapps directory" />

   <echo message="  javadoc.......Generates javadoc for this application" />

 </target>

<!-- ================ "clean-all" Target========== -->

 <!--

          This target should clean up any traces of the application

          so that if you run a new build directly after cleaning, all

          files will be replaced with what's current in source control

   -->

 <target name="clean-all" >

    <delete dir="${build.home}"/>

    <delete dir="${classes.home}"/>

    <delete dir="${deploy.home}"/>

    <!-- can't delete directory if Tomcat is running -->

    <delete dir="${webapps.home}/${app.name}" failonerror="false"/>

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

    <delete dir="${webapps.home}/${app.name}.war" />

 <!-- delete the javadoc -->

    <delete dir="${doc.home}"/>

</target>

<!-- =========== "prepare" Target======== -->

 <!--

          This target is executed prior to any of the later targets

          to make sure the directories exist. It only creates them

          if they need to be created....

          Other, similar, preparation steps can be placed here.

    -->

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

    <echo message="webapps Home = ${webapps.home}" />

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${deploy.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${doc.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${doc.home}/api"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF" />

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes" />

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib" />

 </target>

<!-- ============= "compile" Target ===========-->

 <!--

 This only compiles java files that are newer

          than their corresponding .class files.

 -->

<target name="compile" depends="prepare" >

    <javac srcdir="${src.home}" destdir="${classes.home}" debug="yes" >

        <classpath refid="compile.classpath"/>

    </javac>

  </target>

<!--===================="build"Target=====================-->

 <!--

          This target builds the war file for the application

          by first building the directory structure of the

          application in ${build.home} and then creating the

          war file using the ant <war> task

     -->

<target name="build" depends="compile" >

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Note that this also copies the META-INF directory -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}">

      <fileset dir="${web.home}"/>

 </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the Java class files -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">

      <fileset dir="${classes.home}"/>

    </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the properties files, etc that go on the classpath -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">

      <fileset dir="${src.home}">

         <include name="**/*.properties" />

         <include name="**/*.prop" />

      </fileset>

    </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the jar files we need -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib">

      <fileset dir="${lib.home}" />

    </copy>

<!-- Create the <war> file -->

    <jar jarfile="${deploy.home}/${app.name}.war"

         basedir="${build.home}"/>

 </target>

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- This target simply copies the war file from the deploy

         directory into the Tomcat webapp directory.

     -->

 <target name="deploy" depends="build" >

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

    <copy todir="${webapps.home}"  file="${deploy.home}/${app.name}.war" />

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

<!-- ================ "doc" Target ================ -->

   <!--

         This task creates javadoc. It is dependent upon only the

         'compile' target so it is not executed in a normal build.

         As a result, the target needs to be run on its own.

    -->

  <target name="javadoc" depends="compile">

      <javadoc sourcepath = "${src.home}"

                  destdir = "${doc.home}/api"

             packagenames = "${javadoc.pkg.top}.*"/>

  </target>

</project>

一个规范的build.xml例子:

<project name="helloapp" default="help" basedir=".">

<!-- ========= Property Definitions========== -->

 <!--

         All properties should be defined in this section.

         Any host-specific properties should be defined

         in the build.properties file.

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

        o  webapps.home    - the place to copy the war file to deploy it

    -->

  <property file="build.properties" />

  <property name="app.home"          value="." />

  <property name="app.name"          value="helloapp" />

  <property name="javadoc.pkg.top"   value="hello" />

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

  <property name="lib.home"          value="${app.home}/lib"/>

  <property name="classes.home"       value="${app.home}/classes"/>

  <property name="deploy.home"       value="${app.home}/deploy"/>

  <property name="doc.home"          value="${app.home}/doc"/>

  <property name="web.home"          value="${app.home}/web"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

  <property name="build.classes"     value="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes"/>

  <property name="build.lib"         value="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib"/>

<!-- ========== Compilation Classpath =========-->

 <!--

         This section creates the classpath for compilation.

    -->

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

    <pathelement location="${classes.home}"/>

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

    <fileset dir="${lib.home}">

      <include name="*.jar"/>

      <include name="*.zip"/>

    </fileset>

  <!-- All files/jars that Tomcat makes available -->

    <fileset dir="${tomcat.home}/common/lib">

      <include name="*.jar"/>

    </fileset>

    <pathelement location="${tomcat.home}/common/classes"/>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

<!-- ============== Build Targets below here============= -->

<!-- ============== "help" Target ========= -->

 <!--

         This is the default ant target executed if no target is specified.

         This helps avoid users just typing 'ant' and running a

         default target that may not do what they are anticipating...

    -->

<target name="help" >

   <echo message="Please specify a target! [usage: ant &lt;targetname&gt;]" />

   <echo message="Here is a list of possible targets: "/>

   <echo message="  clean-all.....Delete build dir, all .class and war files"/>

   <echo message="  prepare.......Creates directories if required" />

   <echo message="  compile.......Compiles source files" />

   <echo message="  build.........Build war file from .class and other files"/>

   <echo message="  deploy........Copy war file to the webapps directory" />

   <echo message="  javadoc.......Generates javadoc for this application" />

 </target>

<!-- ================ "clean-all" Target========== -->

 <!--

          This target should clean up any traces of the application

          so that if you run a new build directly after cleaning, all

          files will be replaced with what's current in source control

   -->

 <target name="clean-all" >

    <delete dir="${build.home}"/>

    <delete dir="${classes.home}"/>

    <delete dir="${deploy.home}"/>

    <!-- can't delete directory if Tomcat is running -->

    <delete dir="${webapps.home}/${app.name}" failonerror="false"/>

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

    <delete dir="${webapps.home}/${app.name}.war" />

 <!-- delete the javadoc -->

    <delete dir="${doc.home}"/>

</target>

<!-- =========== "prepare" Target======== -->

 <!--

          This target is executed prior to any of the later targets

          to make sure the directories exist. It only creates them

          if they need to be created....

          Other, similar, preparation steps can be placed here.

    -->

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

    <echo message="webapps Home = ${webapps.home}" />

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${deploy.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${doc.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${doc.home}/api"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF" />

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes" />

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib" />

 </target>

<!-- ============= "compile" Target ===========-->

 <!--

 This only compiles java files that are newer

          than their corresponding .class files.

 -->

<target name="compile" depends="prepare" >

    <javac srcdir="${src.home}" destdir="${classes.home}" debug="yes" >

        <classpath refid="compile.classpath"/>

    </javac>

  </target>

<!--===================="build"Target=====================-->

 <!--

          This target builds the war file for the application

          by first building the directory structure of the

          application in ${build.home} and then creating the

          war file using the ant <war> task

     -->

<target name="build" depends="compile" >

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Note that this also copies the META-INF directory -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}">

      <fileset dir="${web.home}"/>

 </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the Java class files -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">

      <fileset dir="${classes.home}"/>

    </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the properties files, etc that go on the classpath -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">

      <fileset dir="${src.home}">

         <include name="**/*.properties" />

         <include name="**/*.prop" />

      </fileset>

    </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the jar files we need -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib">

      <fileset dir="${lib.home}" />

    </copy>

<!-- Create the <war> file -->

    <jar jarfile="${deploy.home}/${app.name}.war"

         basedir="${build.home}"/>

 </target>

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- This target simply copies the war file from the deploy

         directory into the Tomcat webapp directory.

     -->

 <target name="deploy" depends="build" >

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

    <copy todir="${webapps.home}"  file="${deploy.home}/${app.name}.war" />

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

<!-- ================ "doc" Target ================ -->

   <!--

         This task creates javadoc. It is dependent upon only the

         'compile' target so it is not executed in a normal build.

         As a result, the target needs to be run on its own.

    -->

  <target name="javadoc" depends="compile">

      <javadoc sourcepath = "${src.home}"

                  destdir = "${doc.home}/api"

             packagenames = "${javadoc.pkg.top}.*"/>

  </target>

</project>

一个规范的build.xml例子:

<project name="helloapp" default="help" basedir=".">

<!-- ========= Property Definitions========== -->

 <!--

         All properties should be defined in this section.

         Any host-specific properties should be defined

         in the build.properties file.

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

            In this app, the following properties are defined in build.properties:

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

           o  tomcat.home     - the home directory of your Tomcat installation

        o  webapps.home    - the place to copy the war file to deploy it

    -->

  <property file="build.properties" />

  <property name="app.home"          value="." />

  <property name="app.name"          value="helloapp" />

  <property name="javadoc.pkg.top"   value="hello" />

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

     <property name="src.home"          value="${app.home}/src"/>

  <property name="lib.home"          value="${app.home}/lib"/>

  <property name="classes.home"       value="${app.home}/classes"/>

  <property name="deploy.home"       value="${app.home}/deploy"/>

  <property name="doc.home"          value="${app.home}/doc"/>

  <property name="web.home"          value="${app.home}/web"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

     <property name="build.home"        value="${app.home}/build"/>

  <property name="build.classes"     value="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes"/>

  <property name="build.lib"         value="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib"/>

<!-- ========== Compilation Classpath =========-->

 <!--

         This section creates the classpath for compilation.

    -->

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

 <path id="compile.classpath">

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

       <!-- The object files for this application -->

    <pathelement location="${classes.home}"/>

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

       <!-- The lib files for this application -->

    <fileset dir="${lib.home}">

      <include name="*.jar"/>

      <include name="*.zip"/>

    </fileset>

  <!-- All files/jars that Tomcat makes available -->

    <fileset dir="${tomcat.home}/common/lib">

      <include name="*.jar"/>

    </fileset>

    <pathelement location="${tomcat.home}/common/classes"/>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

    </path>

<!-- ============== Build Targets below here============= -->

<!-- ============== "help" Target ========= -->

 <!--

         This is the default ant target executed if no target is specified.

         This helps avoid users just typing 'ant' and running a

         default target that may not do what they are anticipating...

    -->

<target name="help" >

   <echo message="Please specify a target! [usage: ant &lt;targetname&gt;]" />

   <echo message="Here is a list of possible targets: "/>

   <echo message="  clean-all.....Delete build dir, all .class and war files"/>

   <echo message="  prepare.......Creates directories if required" />

   <echo message="  compile.......Compiles source files" />

   <echo message="  build.........Build war file from .class and other files"/>

   <echo message="  deploy........Copy war file to the webapps directory" />

   <echo message="  javadoc.......Generates javadoc for this application" />

 </target>

<!-- ================ "clean-all" Target========== -->

 <!--

          This target should clean up any traces of the application

          so that if you run a new build directly after cleaning, all

          files will be replaced with what's current in source control

   -->

 <target name="clean-all" >

    <delete dir="${build.home}"/>

    <delete dir="${classes.home}"/>

    <delete dir="${deploy.home}"/>

    <!-- can't delete directory if Tomcat is running -->

    <delete dir="${webapps.home}/${app.name}" failonerror="false"/>

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

       <!-- deleting the deployed .war file is fine even if Tomcat is running -->

    <delete dir="${webapps.home}/${app.name}.war" />

 <!-- delete the javadoc -->

    <delete dir="${doc.home}"/>

</target>

<!-- =========== "prepare" Target======== -->

 <!--

          This target is executed prior to any of the later targets

          to make sure the directories exist. It only creates them

          if they need to be created....

          Other, similar, preparation steps can be placed here.

    -->

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <target name="prepare">

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

       <echo message="Tomcat Home = ${tomcat.home}" />

    <echo message="webapps Home = ${webapps.home}" />

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${classes.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${deploy.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${doc.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${doc.home}/api"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

       <mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF" />

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes" />

    <mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib" />

 </target>

<!-- ============= "compile" Target ===========-->

 <!--

 This only compiles java files that are newer

          than their corresponding .class files.

 -->

<target name="compile" depends="prepare" >

    <javac srcdir="${src.home}" destdir="${classes.home}" debug="yes" >

        <classpath refid="compile.classpath"/>

    </javac>

  </target>

<!--===================="build"Target=====================-->

 <!--

          This target builds the war file for the application

          by first building the directory structure of the

          application in ${build.home} and then creating the

          war file using the ant <war> task

     -->

<target name="build" depends="compile" >

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Copy all the webapp content (jsp's, html, tld's, xml, etc. -->

    <!-- Note that this also copies the META-INF directory -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}">

      <fileset dir="${web.home}"/>

 </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the Java class files -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">

      <fileset dir="${classes.home}"/>

    </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the properties files, etc that go on the classpath -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">

      <fileset dir="${src.home}">

         <include name="**/*.properties" />

         <include name="**/*.prop" />

      </fileset>

    </copy>

<!-- Now, copy all the jar files we need -->

    <copy    todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib">

      <fileset dir="${lib.home}" />

    </copy>

<!-- Create the <war> file -->

    <jar jarfile="${deploy.home}/${app.name}.war"

         basedir="${build.home}"/>

 </target>

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- ==================== "deploy" Target ================================= -->

<!-- This target simply copies the war file from the deploy

         directory into the Tomcat webapp directory.

     -->

 <target name="deploy" depends="build" >

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

   <!-- Copy the contents of the build directory -->

    <copy todir="${webapps.home}"  file="${deploy.home}/${app.name}.war" />

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

   </target>

<!-- ================ "doc" Target ================ -->

   <!--

         This task creates javadoc. It is dependent upon only the

         'compile' target so it is not executed in a normal build.

         As a result, the target needs to be run on its own.

    -->

  <target name="javadoc" depends="compile">

      <javadoc sourcepath = "${src.home}"

                  destdir = "${doc.home}/api"

             packagenames = "${javadoc.pkg.top}.*"/>

  </target>

</project>

struts2学习笔记3数据类型转换

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