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GDI+编程10个基本技巧

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GDI+编程10个基本技巧

补充:“橡皮筋”


创建绘图表面

创建绘图表面有两种常用的方法。下面设法得到PictureBox的绘图表面。


private void Form1_Load(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

//得到pictureBox1的绘图表面

Graphics g = this.pictureBox1.CreateGraphics();

}


private void pictureBox1_Paint(object sender, System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)

{

//得到pictureBox1的绘图表面

Graphics g = e.Graphics;

}


可以利用Graphics对象绘制出各种图形图案。控件的Paint事件和OnPaint方法都可以绘图都是好时机。在OnPaint方法里绘制图案一定从参数e里面得到Graphics属性。下面是两个例子。


protected override void OnPaint(PaintEventArgs e)

{

e.Graphics.Clear(Color.White);


float x, y, w, h;

x = this.Left+2;

y = this.Top+2;

w = this.Width-4;

h = this.Height-4;

Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Red, 2);

e.Graphics.DrawRectangle(pen, x, y, w, h);


base.OnPaint (e);

}


private void PictureBoxII_Resize(object sender, EventArgs e)

{

this.Invalidate();

}


private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics().FillEllipse(

Brushes.Blue, 10, 20, 50, 100);

}


和文本有关的三个类:


FontFamily——定义有着相似的基本设计但在形式上有某些差异的一组字样。无法继承此类。

Font——定义特定的文本格式,包括字体、字号和字形属性。无法继承此类。

FontStyle——该枚举用来指定字形信息。包括:粗体、斜体、普通文本、下划线、中间穿过的横线。可以任意组合,像下面这样:

FontStyle fs = FontStyle.Underline | FontStyle.Italic | FontStyle.Strikeout | FontStyle.Bold;//任意组合

Font f = new Font("宋体", 20, fs);

e.Graphics.DrawString("aaaaa", f, Brushes.Black, 50, 50);

StringFormat——封装文本布局信息(如对齐方式和行距),显示操作(如省略号插入和国家标准 (National) 数字位替换)和 OpenType 功能。无法继承此类。


下面的程序显示了一段文字。


private void button2_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

Graphics g = this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics();

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.White, this.pictureBoxII1.ClientRectangle);


string s = "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa";

FontFamily fm = new FontFamily("ËÎÌå");

Font f = new Font(fm, 20, FontStyle.Bold, GraphicsUnit.Point);

RectangleF rectF = new RectangleF(30, 20, 180, 205);

StringFormat sf = new StringFormat();

SolidBrush sbrush = new SolidBrush(Color.FromArgb(255, 0, 0, 255));

sf.LineAlignment = StringAlignment.Center;

sf.FormatFlags = StringFormatFlags.DirectionVertical;

g.DrawString(s, f, sbrush, rectF, sf);

}


GDI+的路径——GraphicsPath


GraphicsPath类提供了一系列属性和方法,利用它可以获取路径上的关键点,可以添加直线段、圆等几何元素。可以获得包围矩形,进行拾取测试。这些功能都怎么用,要仔细看一下。


private void button3_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

//绘图表面

Graphics g = this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics();

//填充成白色

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.White, this.ClientRectangle);


//弄一个绘图路径

GraphicsPath gp = new GraphicsPath();

//添加一些集合图形

gp.AddEllipse(20, 20, 300, 200);

gp.AddPie(50, 100, 300, 100, 45, 200);

gp.AddRectangle(new Rectangle(100, 30, 100, 80));


//在绘图表面上绘制绘图路径

g.DrawPath(Pens.Blue, gp);

//平移

g.TranslateTransform(200, 20);

//填充绘图路径

g.FillPath(Brushes.GreenYellow, gp);


gp.Dispose();

}


区域——Region


从已有的矩形和路径可以创建Region。使用Graphics.FillRegion方法绘制Region。该类指示由矩形和由路径构成的图形形状的内部。无法继承此类。


渐变色填充


需要使用两个刷子:

线性梯度刷子(LinearGradientBrush)

路径梯度刷子(PathGuadientBrush)


private void button4_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

//绘图表面

Graphics g = this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics();

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.White, this.pictureBoxII1.ClientRectangle);

//定义一个线性梯度刷子

LinearGradientBrush lgbrush =

new LinearGradientBrush(

new Point(0, 10),

new Point(150, 10),

Color.FromArgb(255, 0, 0),

Color.FromArgb(0, 255, 0));

Pen pen = new Pen(lgbrush);


//用线性笔刷梯度效果的笔绘制一条直线段并填充一个矩形

g.DrawLine(pen, 10, 130, 500, 130);

g.FillRectangle(lgbrush, 10, 150, 370, 30);


//定义路径并添加一个椭圆

GraphicsPath gp = new GraphicsPath();

gp.AddEllipse(10, 10, 200, 100);

//用该路径定义路径梯度刷子

PathGradientBrush brush =

new PathGradientBrush(gp);

//颜色数组

Color[] colors = {

Color.FromArgb(255, 0, 0),

Color.FromArgb(100, 100, 100),

Color.FromArgb(0, 255, 0),

Color.FromArgb(0, 0, 255)};

//定义颜色渐变比率

float[] r = {0.0f, 0.3f, 0.6f, 1.0f};

ColorBlend blend = new ColorBlend();

blend.Colors = colors;

blend.Positions = r;

brush.InterpolationColors = blend;

//在椭圆外填充一个矩形

g.FillRectangle(brush, 0, 0, 210, 110);


//用添加了椭圆的路径定义第二个路径梯度刷子

GraphicsPath gp2 = new GraphicsPath();

gp2.AddEllipse(300, 0, 200, 100);

PathGradientBrush brush2 = new PathGradientBrush(gp2);

//设置中心点位置和颜色

brush2.CenterPoint = new PointF(450, 50);

brush2.CenterColor = Color.FromArgb(0, 255, 0);

//设置边界颜色

Color[] color2 = {Color.FromArgb(255, 0, 0)};

brush2.SurroundColors = color2;

//用第二个梯度刷填充椭圆

g.FillEllipse(brush2, 300, 0, 200, 100);

}


GDI+的坐标系统


通用坐标系——用户自定义坐标系。

页面坐标系——虚拟坐标系。


设备坐标系——屏幕坐标系。


当页面坐标系和设备坐标系的单位都是象素时,它们相同。


private void button10_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

Graphics g = this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics();

g.Clear(Color.White);

this.Draw(g);

}

private void Draw(Graphics g)

{

g.DrawLine(Pens.Black, 10, 10, 100, 100);

g.DrawEllipse(Pens.Black, 50, 50, 200, 100);

g.DrawArc(Pens.Black, 100, 10, 100, 100, 20, 160);

g.DrawRectangle(Pens.Green, 50, 200, 150, 100);

}


private void button5_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

//左移

Graphics g = this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics();

g.Clear(Color.White);

g.TranslateTransform(-50, 0);

this.Draw(g);

}


private void button6_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

//右移

Graphics g = this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics();

g.Clear(Color.White);

g.TranslateTransform(50, 0);

this.Draw(g);

}


private void button7_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

//旋转

Graphics g = this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics();

g.Clear(Color.White);

g.RotateTransform(-30);

this.Draw(g);

}


private void button8_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

//放大

Graphics g = this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics();

g.Clear(Color.White);

g.ScaleTransform(1.2f, 1.2f);

this.Draw(g);

}


private void button9_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

//缩小

Graphics g = this.pictureBoxII1.CreateGraphics();

g.Clear(Color.White);

g.ScaleTransform(0.8f, 0.8f);

this.Draw(g);

}


全局坐标——变换对于绘图表面上的每个图元都会产生影响。通常用于设定通用坐标系。


一下程序将原定移动到控件中心,并且Y轴正向朝上。


//先画一个圆

Graphics g = e.Graphics;

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.White, this.ClientRectangle);

g.DrawEllipse(Pens.Black, -100, -100, 200, 200);


//使y轴正向朝上,必须做相对于x轴镜像

//变换矩阵为[1,0,0,-1,0,0]

Matrix mat = new Matrix(1, 0, 0, -1, 0, 0);

g.Transform = mat;

Rectangle rect = this.ClientRectangle;

int w = rect.Width;

int h = rect.Height;

g.TranslateTransform(w/2, -h/2);


//以原点为中心,做一个半径为100的圆

g.DrawEllipse(Pens.Red, -100, -100, 200, 200);


g.TranslateTransform(100, 100);

g.DrawEllipse(Pens.Green, -100, -100, 200, 200);

g.ScaleTransform(2, 2);

g.DrawEllipse(Pens.Blue, -100, -100, 200, 200);



局部坐标系——只对某些图形进行变换,而其它图形元素不变。


protected override void OnPaint(PaintEventArgs e)

{

Graphics g = e.Graphics;

//客户区设置为白色

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.White, this.ClientRectangle);

//y轴朝上

Matrix mat = new Matrix(1, 0, 0, -1, 0, 0);

g.Transform = mat;

//移动坐标原点到窗体中心

Rectangle rect = this.ClientRectangle;

int w = rect.Width;

int h = rect.Height;

g.TranslateTransform(w/2, -h/2);

//在全局坐标下绘制椭圆

g.DrawEllipse(Pens.Red, -100, -100, 200, 200);

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, -108, 0, 8, 8);

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, 100, 0, 8, 8);

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, 0, 100, 8, 8);

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, 0, -108, 8, 8);


//创建一个椭圆然后在局部坐标系中进行变换

GraphicsPath gp = new GraphicsPath();

gp.AddEllipse(-100, -100, 200, 200);

Matrix mat2 = new Matrix();

//平移

mat2.Translate(150, 150);

//旋转

mat2.Rotate(30);

gp.Transform(mat2);

g.DrawPath(Pens.Blue, gp);


PointF[] p = gp.PathPoints;

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, p[0].X-2, p[0].Y+2, 4, 4);

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, p[3].X-2, p[3].Y+2, 4, 4);

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, p[6].X-4, p[6].Y-4, 4, 4);

g.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, p[9].X-4, p[9].Y-4, 4, 4);


gp.Dispose();


//base.OnPaint (e);

}


Alpha混合


Color.FromArgb()A就是AlphaAlpha的取值范围从02550表示完全透明,255完全不透明。


当前色=前景色×alpha/255+背景色×255alpha/255


protected override void OnPaint(PaintEventArgs e)

{

Graphics g = e.Graphics;

//创建一个填充矩形

SolidBrush brush = new SolidBrush(Color.BlueViolet);

g.FillRectangle(brush, 180, 70, 200, 150);

//创建一个位图,其中两个位图之间有透明效果

Bitmap bm1 = new Bitmap(200, 100);

Graphics bg1 = Graphics.FromImage(bm1);

SolidBrush redBrush =

new SolidBrush(Color.FromArgb(210, 255, 0, 0));

SolidBrush greenBrush =

new SolidBrush(Color.FromArgb(210, 0, 255, 0));

bg1.FillRectangle(redBrush, 0, 0, 150, 70);

bg1.FillRectangle(greenBrush, 30, 30, 150, 70);

g.DrawImage(bm1, 100, 100);

//创建一个位图,其中两个位图之间没有透明效果

Bitmap bm2 = new Bitmap(200, 100);

Graphics bg2 = Graphics.FromImage(bm2);

bg2.CompositingMode = CompositingMode.SourceCopy;

bg2.FillRectangle(redBrush, 0, 0, 150, 170);

bg2.FillRectangle(greenBrush, 30, 30, 150, 70);

g.CompositingQuality = CompositingQuality.GammaCorrected;

g.DrawImage(bm2, 300, 200);


//base.OnPaint (e);

}




反走样


protected override void OnPaint(PaintEventArgs e)

{

Graphics g = e.Graphics;

//放大8

g.ScaleTransform(8, 8);

//没有反走样的图形和文字

Draw(g);


//设置反走样

g.SmoothingMode = SmoothingMode.AntiAlias;


//右移40

g.TranslateTransform(40, 0);

//再绘制就是反走样之后的了

Draw(g);


//base.OnPaint (e);

}


private void Draw(Graphics g)

{

//绘制图形和文字

g.DrawLine(Pens.Gray, 10, 10, 40, 20);

g.DrawEllipse(Pens.Gray, 20, 20, 30, 10);

string s = "反走样测试";

Font font = new Font("宋体", 5);

SolidBrush brush = new SolidBrush(Color.Gray);


g.DrawString(s, font, brush, 10, 40);

}

完了。暂时先总结那么多。以后发现必要的可以再补充。
补充:“橡皮筋”

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