android:ToolBar详解(手把手教程)

标签: androidtoolbar
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来源 http://blog.mosil.biz/2014/10/android-toolbar/

这篇文章因为是台湾人写的,语言风格很别致。本文在原文的基础上做了一些微调(主要是繁体字的问题)。

今年(2014) 的 google i/o 发表令多数人为之一亮的 material design,而 google 也从「google i/o 2014」 开始,大家也陆陆续续地看到其更新的 android app 皆套用了这个设计介面。当然,这个设计介面著实让大家感到惊艳外,更让 android 开发者开始担心未来 app 的界面处理了。

不过,所幸有着之前 actionbar 的经验后,android 也很快地在 support library 里面提供了相对应的 api 给开发者使用,本篇就为各位介绍 – toolbar,这是用来取代过去 actionbar 的控件,而现在于 material design 中也对之有一个统一名称:app bar,在未来的 android app 中,就以 toolbar 这个元件来实作之。

1. 概述

Android 3.0  Android 推了 ActionBar 这个控件,而到了2013 年 Google 开始大力地推动所谓的 android style,想要逐渐改善过去 android 纷乱的界面设计,希望让终端使用者尽可能在 android 手机有个一致的操作体验。ActionBar 过去最多人使用的两大套件就是 ActionBarSherlock 以及官方提供在 support library v 7 里的 AppCompat。

既然会有本篇跟各位介绍的 Toolbar,也意味着官方在某些程度上认为 ActionBar 限制了 android app 的开发与设计的弹性,而在 material design 也对之做了名称的定义:App bar。接下来将为各位分成几个阶段进行说明,如何在 android app 中用 toolbar 这个控件来做出一个基本的 app bar 喽。

本篇所使用到的程序请到 Github 取得。

2. 基础套用

这个阶段从 toolbar_demo_checkpoint0 开始,分成下列三个部份:

风格 (style)
界面 (layout)
程序 (java)

2.1 风格(style)

风格要调整的地方有二

一在 res/values/styles.xml中

二在 /res/values-v21/styles.xml中

为了之后设定方便,我们先在 res/values/styles.xml 里增加一个名为 AppTheme.Base 的风格

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<style name="AppTheme.Base" parent="Theme.AppCompat">
  <item name="windowActionBar">false</item>
  <item name="android:windowNoTitle">true</item>
</style>

因为此范例只使用 Toolbar,所以我们要将让原本的 ActionBar 隐藏起来,然后将原本 AppTheme 的 parent 属性 改为上面的AppTheme.Base,代码如下:

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<resources>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
  <!-- Base application theme. -->
  <style name="AppTheme" parent="AppTheme.Base">
  </style>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
  <style name="AppTheme.Base" parent="Theme.AppCompat">
    <item name="windowActionBar">false</item>
    <item name="android:windowNoTitle">true</item>
  </style>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
</resources>

再来调整Android 5.0的style:  /res/values-v21/styles.xml,也将其 parent 属性改为  AppTheme.Base:

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
    <style name="AppTheme" parent="AppTheme.Base">
    </style>
</resources>
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<br>

2.2  界面(Layout)

在 activity_main.xml 里面添加 Toolbar 控件:

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<android.support.v7.widget.Toolbar
  android:id="@+id/toolbar"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:minHeight="?attr/actionBarSize">
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
</android.support.v7.widget.Toolbar>

请记得用 support v7 里的 toolbar,不然然只有 API Level 21 也就是 Android 5.0 以上的版本才能使用。

这里需注意,要将 RelatvieLayout 里的四个方向的padding 属性去掉,并记得将原本的 Hello World 设为 layout_below="@+id/toolbar" ,否则会看到像下面这样的错误画面。

2.3 程序 (Java)

在 MainActivity.java 中加入 Toolbar 的声明:

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Toolbar toolbar = (Toolbar) findViewById(R.id.toolbar);
setSupportActionBar(toolbar);

声明后,再将之用 setSupportActionBar 设定,Toolbar即能取代原本的 actionbar 了,此阶段完成画面如下:

完整代码见:toolbar_demo_checkpoint1


3. 自定义颜色(Customization color)

这个阶段将从 toolbar_demo_checkpoint1 接着往下进行:


上图是将本阶段要完成的结果画面做了标示,结合下面的描述希望大家能明白。

  1. colorPrimaryDark(状态栏底色):在风格 (styles) 或是主题 (themes) 里进行设定。

  2. App bar 底色

    这个设定分为二,若你的 android app 仍是使用 actionbar ,则直接在风格 (styles) 或是主题 (themes) 里进行设定 colorPrimary 参数即可;
    可若是采用 toolbar 的话,则要在界面 (layout) 里面设定 toolbar 控件的 background 属性。

  3. navigationBarColor(导航栏底色):

仅能在 API v21 也就是 Android 5 以后的版本中使用, 因此要将之设定在 res/values-v21/styles.xml 里面。

  1. 主视窗底色:windowBackground

也因此在这个阶段,我们需要设定的地方有三,一是 style中(res/values/styles.xml)

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<style name="AppTheme.Base" parent="Theme.AppCompat">
  <item name="windowActionBar">false</item>
  <item name="android:windowNoTitle">true</item>
  <!-- Actionbar color -->
  <item name="colorPrimary">@color/accent_material_dark</item>
  <!--Status bar color-->
  <item name="colorPrimaryDark">@color/accent_material_light</item>
  <!--Window color-->
  <item name="android:windowBackground">@color/dim_foreground_material_dark</item>
</style>

再来是 v21 的style中 (res/values-v21/styles.xml)

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<style name="AppTheme" parent="AppTheme.Base">
  <!--Navigation bar color-->
  <item name="android:navigationBarColor">@color/accent_material_light</item>
</style>

最后,就是为了本篇的主角 – Toolbar 的 background 进行设定。

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<android.support.v7.widget.Toolbar
  android:id="@+id/toolbar"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:background="?attr/colorPrimary"
  android:minHeight="?attr/actionBarSize">
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
</android.support.v7.widget.Toolbar>


在本范例中,toolbar 是设定来在 activity_main.xml,对其设定 background 属性: android:background="?attr/colorPrimary" ,这样就可以使之延用 Actionbar 的颜色设定喽。

最后,再来看一下结果画面。

完整代码见: toolbar_demo_checkpoint2

4. 控件 (component)

本阶段将从 toolbar_demo_checkpoint2 接续,在还未于 <android.support.v7.widget.Toolbar/>  标签中,自行添加元件的 toolbar 有几个大家常用的元素可以使用,请先见下图:


大抵来说,预设常用的几个元素就如图中所示,接着就依序来说明之:

  1. setNavigationIcon
    即设定 up button 的图标,因为 Material 的介面,在 Toolbar这里的 up button样式也就有別于过去的 ActionBar 哦。

  1. setLogo
    APP 的图标。

  2. setTitle
    主标题。

  3. setSubtitle
    副标题。

  4. setOnMenuItemClickListener
    设定菜单各按鈕的动作。

先來看到菜单外的代码,在 MainActivity.java 中:

先来看到

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Toolbar toolbar = (Toolbar) findViewById(R.id.toolbar);
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
// App Logo
toolbar.setLogo(R.drawable.ic_launcher);
// Title
toolbar.setTitle("My Title");
// Sub Title
toolbar.setSubtitle("Sub title");
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
setSupportActionBar(toolbar);
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
// Navigation Icon 要設定在 setSupoortActionBar 才有作用
// 否則會出現 back button
toolbar.setNavigationIcon(R.drawable.ab_android);

这边要留意的是setNavigationIcon需要放在 setSupportActionBar之后才会生效。

菜单部分,需要先在res/menu/menu_main.xml左定义:

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      xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
      tools:context=".MainActivity">
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
  <item android:id="@+id/action_edit"
        android:title="@string/action_edit"
        android:orderInCategory="80"
        android:icon="@drawable/ab_edit"
        app:showAsAction="ifRoom" />
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
  <item android:id="@+id/action_share"
        android:title="@string/action_edit"
        android:orderInCategory="90"
        android:icon="@drawable/ab_share"
        app:showAsAction="ifRoom" />
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
  <item android:id="@+id/action_settings"
        android:title="@string/action_settings"
        android:orderInCategory="100"
        app:showAsAction="never"/>
</menu>

再回到MainActivity.java 中加入OnMenuItemClickListener 的监听者:

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private Toolbar.OnMenuItemClickListener onMenuItemClick = new Toolbar.OnMenuItemClickListener() {
  @Override
  public boolean onMenuItemClick(MenuItem menuItem) {
    String msg = "";
    switch (menuItem.getItemId()) {
      case R.id.action_edit:
        msg += "Click edit";
        break;
      case R.id.action_share:
        msg += "Click share";
        break;
      case R.id.action_settings:
        msg += "Click setting";
        break;
    }
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
    if(!msg.equals("")) {
      Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, msg, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    }
    return true;
  }
};

将onMenuItemClick监听者设置给toolbar

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setSupportActionBar(toolbar);
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
// Menu item click 的監聽事件一樣要設定在 setSupportActionBar 才有作用
toolbar.setOnMenuItemClickListener(onMenuItemClick);

和 setNavigationIcon 一样,需要將之设定在 setSupportActionBar 之后才有作用。执行上面的代码便会得到下面的界面。

完完整程序见:toolbar_demo_checkpoint3

5. 总结

在这样的架构设计下,ToolBar直接成了Layout中可以控制的东西,相对于过去的actionbar来说,设计与可操控性大幅提升。

本文上面的解释中用到的完成代码:toolbar demo check point 0 ~ 4,请到Github 取得。

最后再附上一个界面上常用的属性说明图:

这里按照图中从上到下的顺序做个简单的说明:

  • colorPrimaryDark


    • 状态栏背景色。

    • 在 style 的属性中设置。

  • textColorPrimary


    • App bar 上的标题与更多菜单中的文字颜色。

    • 在 style 的属性中设置。

  • App bar 的背景色


    • Actionbar 的背景色设定在 style 中的 colorPrimary。

    • Toolbar 的背景色在layout文件中设置background属性。

  • colorAccent


    • 各控制元件(如:check box、switch 或是 radoi) 被勾选 (checked) 或是选定 (selected) 的颜色。

    • 在 style 的属性中设置。

  • colorControlNormal


    • 各控制元件的预设颜色。

    • 在 style 的属性中设置

  • windowBackground


    • App 的背景色。

    • 在 style 的属性中设置

  • navigationBarColor


    • 导航栏的背景色,但只能用在 API Level 21 (Android 5) 以上的版本

    • 在 style 的属性中设置


最后需要注意的是:使用material主题的时候,必须设定targetSdkVersion = 21,否则界面看起来是模糊的              

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