关闭

oracle里的常用命令

492人阅读 评论(0) 收藏 举报

第一章:日志管理

1.forcing log switches

sql> alter system switch logfile;

2.forcing checkpoints

sql> alter system checkpoint;

3.adding online redo log groups

sql> alter database add logfile [group4]

sql>('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;

4.adding online redo log members

sql> alter database add logfile member

sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,

sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;

5.changes the name of the online redologfile

sql>alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'

sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

6.drop online redo log groups

sql> alter database drop logfile group3;

7.drop online redo log members

sql> alter database drop logfile member'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

8.clearing online redo log files

sql> alter database clear [unarchived]logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';

9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles

a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ''

b. sql> executedbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:\oracle\oradb\log');

c. sql>execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo01.log',

sql>dbms_logmnr.new);

d. sql>execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo02.log',

sql>dbms_logmnr.addfile);

e. sql>execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:\oracle\oradb\log\oradb.ora');

f. sql> select * fromv$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters

sql> v$logmnr_logs);

g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;

第二章:表空间管理

1.create tablespaces

sql> create tablespace tablespace_namedatafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\file1.dbf' size 100m,

sql> 'c:\oracle\oradata\file2.dbf' size100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]

sql> default storage (initial 500k next500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)

sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary][extent_management_clause]

2.locally managed tablespace

sql> create tablespace user_datadatafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\user_data01.dbf'

sql> size 500m extent management localuniform size 10m;

3.temporary tablespace

sql> create temporary tablespace temptempfile 'c:\oracle\oradata\temp01.dbf'

sql> size 500m extent management localuniform size 10m;

4.change the storage setting

sql> alter tablespace app_data minimumextent 2m;

sql> alter tablespace app_data defaultstorage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);

5.taking tablespace offline or online

sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;

sql> alter tablespace app_data online;

6.read_only tablespace

sql> alter tablespace app_data readonly|write;

7.droping tablespace

sql> drop tablespace app_data includingcontents;

8.enableing automatic extension of datafiles

sql> alter tablespace app_data adddatafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data01.dbf' size 200m

sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize500m;

9.change the size fo data files manually

sql> alter database datafile'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' resize 200m;

10.Moving data files: alter tablespace

sql> alter tablespace app_data renamedatafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'

sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';

11.moving data files:alter database

sql> alter database rename file'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'

sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';

第三章:表

1.create a table

sql> create table table_name (columndatatype,column datatype]....)

sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfreeinteger] [pctused integer]

sql> [initransinteger] [maxtrans integer]

sql> storage(initial 200k next 200kpctincrease 0 maxextents 50)

sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]

2.copy an existing table

sql> create table table_name[logging|nologging] as subquery

3.create temporary table

sql> create global temporary tablexay_temp as select * from xay;

on commit preserve rows/on commit deleterows

4.pctfree = (average row size - initial rowsize) *100 /average row size

pctused = 100-pctfree- (average rowsize*100/available data space)

5.change storage and block utilizationparameter

sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30pctused=50 storage(next 500k

sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100);

6.manually allocating extents

sql> alter table table_name allocateextent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');

7.move tablespace

sql> alter table employee movetablespace users;

8.deallocate of unused space

sql> alter table table_name deallocateunused [keep integer]

9.truncate a table

sql> truncate table table_name;

10.drop a table

sql> drop table table_name [cascadeconstraints];

11.drop a column

sql> alter table table_name drop columncomments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;

alter table table_name drop columnscontinue;

12.mark a column as unused

sql> alter table table_name set unusedcolumn comments cascade constraints;

alter table table_name drop unused columnscheckpoint 1000;

alter table orders drop columns continuecheckpoint 1000

data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs

第四章:索引

1.creating function-based indexes

sql> create index summit.item_quantityon summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);

2.create a B-tree index

sql> create [unique] index index_name ontable_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace

sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer][initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort]storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0

sql> maxextents 50);

3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number ofrows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows

4.creating reverse key indexes

sql> create unique index xay_id onxay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k

sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents50) tablespace indx;

5.create bitmap index

sql> create bitmap index xay_id onxay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k

sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)tablespace indx;

6.change storage parameter of index

sql> alter index xay_id storage (next400k maxextents 100);

7.allocating index space

sql> alter index xay_id allocateextent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');

8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;

第五章:约束

1.define constraints as immediate ordeferred

sql> alter session set constraint[s] =immediate/deferred/default;

set constraint[s] constraint_name/allimmediate/deferred;

2. sql> drop table table_name cascadeconstraints

sql> drop tablespace tablespace_nameincluding contents cascade constraints

3. define constraints while create a table

sql> create table xay(id number(7)constraint xay_id primary key deferrable

sql> using index storage(initial 100knext 100k) tablespace indx);

primary key/unique/referencestable(column)/check

4.enable constraints

sql> alter table xay enable novalidateconstraint xay_id;

5.enable constraints

sql> alter table xay enable validateconstraint xay_id;

第六章:LOAD数据

1.loading data using direct_load insert

sql> insert /*+append */ into empnologging

sql> select * from emp_old;

2.parallel direct-load insert

sql> alter session enable parallel dml;

sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ intoemp nologging

sql> select * from emp_old;

3.using sql*loader

sql> sqlldr scott/tiger \

sql> control = ulcase6.ctl \

sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true

第七章:reorganizing data

1.using expoty

$exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp)file=c:\emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y

2.using import

$imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp)file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y

3.transporting a tablespace

sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;

$exp sys/.. file=xay.dmptransport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts

triggers=n constraints=n

$copy datafile

$imp sys/.. file=xay.dmptransport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2

/sles02.dbf)

sql> alter tablespace sales_ts readwrite;

4.checking transport set

sql>DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true);

在表transport_set_violations中查看

sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是,表示自包含

第八章: managing password security andresources

1.controlling account lock and password

sql> alter user juncky identified byoracle account unlock;

2.user_provided password function

sql> function_name(userid invarchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),

old_password in varchar2(30)) returnboolean

3.create a profile : password setting

sql> create profile grace_5 limitfailed_login_attempts 3

sql> password_lock_time unlimitedpassword_life_time 30

sql>password_reuse_time 30password_verify_function verify_function

sql> password_grace_time 5;

4.altering a profile

sql> alter profile defaultfailed_login_attempts 3

sql> password_life_time 60 password_grace_time10;

5.drop a profile

sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade];

6.create a profile : resource limit

sql> create profile developer_prof limitsessions_per_user 2

sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60connect_time 480;

7. view => resource_cost : alterresource cost

dba_Users,dba_profiles

8. enable resource limits

sql> alter system setresource_limit=true;

第九章:Managing users

1.create a user: database authentication

sql> create user juncky identified byoracle default tablespace users

sql> temporary tablespace temp quota 10mon data password expire

sql> [account lock|unlock] [profileprofilename|default];

2.change user quota on tablespace

sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users;

3.drop a user

sql> drop user juncky [cascade];

4. monitor user

view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas

第十章:managing privileges

1.system privileges: view =>system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs

2.grant system privilege

sql> grant create session,create tableto managers;

sql> grant create session to scott withadmin option;

with admin option can grant or revokeprivilege from any user or role;

3.sysdba and sysoper privileges:

sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter databaseopen|mount,alter database backup controlfile,

alter tablespace begin/end backup,recoverdatabase

alter database archivelog,restrictedsession

sysdba: sysoper privileges with adminoption,create database,recover database until

4.password file members: view:=>v$pwfile_users

5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =truerestriction access to view or tables in other schema

6.revoke system privilege

sql> revoke create table from karen;

sql> revoke create session from scott;

7.grant object privilege

sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe topublic;

sql> grant update(first_name,salary) onemployee to karen with grant option;

8.display object privilege : view =>dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs

9.revoke object privilege

sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe fromscott [cascade constraints];

10.audit record view :=> sys.aud$

11. protecting the audit trail

sql> audit delete on sys.aud$ by access;

12.statement auditing

sql> audit user;

13.privilege auditing

sql> audit select any table by summit byaccess;

14.schema object auditing

sql> audit lock on summit.employee byaccess whenever successful;

15.view audit option : view=>all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,dba_priv_audit_opts,dba_obj_audit_opts

16.view audit result: view=>dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement

第十一章: manager role

1.create roles

sql> create role sales_clerk;

sql> create role hr_clerk identified bybonus;

sql> create role hr_manager identifiedexternally;

2.modify role

sql> alter role sales_clerk identifiedby commission;

sql> alter role hr_clerk identifiedexternally;

sql> alter role hr_manager notidentified;

3.assigning roles

sql> grant sales_clerk to scott;

sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager;

sql> grant hr_manager to scott withadmin option;

4.establish default role

sql> alter user scott default rolehr_clerk,sales_clerk;

sql> alter user scott default role all;

sql> alter user scott default role allexcept hr_clerk;

sql> alter user scott default role none;

5.enable and disable roles

sql> set role hr_clerk;

sql> set role sales_clerk identified bycommission;

sql> set role all except sales_clerk;

sql> set role none;

6.remove role from user

sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott;

sql> revoke hr_manager from public;

7.remove role

sql> drop role hr_manager;

8.display role information

view:=>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles

第十二章: BACKUP and RECOVERY

1.v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat

2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves orbackup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size

3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback

> v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions

4.perform a closed database backup(noarchivelog)

> shutdown immediate

> cp files /backup/

> startup

5.restore to a different location

> connect system/manager as sysdba

> startup mount

> alter database rename file'/disk1/../user.dbf' to '/disk2/../user.dbf';

> alter database open;

6.recover syntax

--recover a mounted database

>recover database;

>recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf';

>alter database recover database;

--recover an opened database

>recover tablespace user_data;

>recover datafile 2;

>alter database recover datafile 2;

7.how to apply redo log files automatically

>set autorecovery on

>recover automatic datafile 4;

8.complete recovery:

--method 1(mounted databae)

>copy c:\backup\user.dbfc:\oradata\user.dbf

>startup mount

>recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf;

>alter database open;

--method 2(opened database,initiallyopened,not system or rollback datafile)

>copy c:\backup\user.dbfc:\oradata\user.dbf (alter tablespace offline)

>recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf'or

>recover tablespace user_data;

>alter database datafile'c:\oradata\user.dbf' online or

>alter tablespace user_data online;

--method 3(opened database,initially closednot system or rollback datafile)

>startup mount

>alter database datafile'c:\oradata\user.dbf' offline;

>alter database open

>copy c:\backup\user.dbfd:\oradata\user.dbf

>alterdatabase rename file 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' to 'd:\oradata\user.dbf'

>recover datafile 'e:\oradata\user.dbf'or recover tablespace user_data;

>alter tablespace user_data online;

--method 4(loss of data file with no backupand have all archive log)

>alter tablespace user_data offlineimmediate;

>alterdatabase create datafile 'd:\oradata\user.dbf' as 'c:\oradata\user.dbf''

>recover tablespace user_data;

>alter tablespace user_data online

5.perform an open database backup

> alter tablespace user_data beginbackup;

> copy files /backup/

> alter database datafile'/c:/../data.dbf' end backup;

> alter system switch logfile;

6.backup a control file

> alter database backup controlfile to'control1.bkp';

> alter database backup controlfile totrace;

7.recovery (noarchivelog mode)

> shutdown abort

> cp files

> startup

8.recovery of file in backup mode

>alter database datafile 2 end backup;

9.clearing redo log file

>alter database clear unarchived logfilegroup 1;

>alter database clear unarchived logfilegroup 1 unrecoverable datafile;

10.redo log recovery

>alter database add logfile group 3'c:\oradata\redo03.log' size 1000k;

>alter database drop logfile group 1;

>alterdatabase open;

or >cpc:\oradata\redo02.log' c:\oradata\redo01.log

>alter database clear logfile'c:\oradata\log01.log';

0
0

查看评论
* 以上用户言论只代表其个人观点,不代表CSDN网站的观点或立场
    个人资料
    • 访问:613588次
    • 积分:6748
    • 等级:
    • 排名:第3447名
    • 原创:131篇
    • 转载:49篇
    • 译文:0篇
    • 评论:71条
    文章分类
    最新评论