十分钟解析LocalBroadcastManager

标签: 源码广播broadcastreceiver
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关于LocalBroadcastManager,首先要从BroadcastReceiver 说起,一次无意间打开BroadcastReceiver 源码,最上面的说明里面会有这么一段话:

If you don’t need to send broadcasts across applications, consider using this class with LocalBroadcastManager instead of the more general facilities described below. This will give you a much more efficient implementation (no cross-process communication needed) and allow you to avoid thinking about any security issues related to other applications being able to receive or send your broadcasts.

(⊙o⊙)…,LocalBroadcastManager是什么东东?从上述说明里面可知道,如果不需要跨进程通信,可以考虑LocalBroadcastManager替代BroadcastReceiver,这样会更高效更安全的实现广播。

行了,现在简单的知道了LocalBroadcastManager是什么玩意了,单从功能上通俗点说,可以理解为阉割版的BroadcastReceiver(本质上不是,最后会叙述本质区别),在BroadcastReceiver 设计之初是从全局考虑的,可以方便应用程序和系统、应用程序之间、应用程序内的通信,但是这样的设计会有一些问题,有一些软件就是通过拦截系统启动广播去操作自己的应用程序,比如android.intent.action.BOOT_COMPLETED。

现在我们把重心放到LocalBroadcastManager,首先先看一下源码中对LocalBroadcastManager的说明:

Helper to register for and send broadcasts of Intents to local objects within your process. This is has a number of advantages over sending global broadcasts with sendBroadcast(Intent):

  • You know that the data you are broadcasting won’t leave your app, so don’t need to worry about leaking private data.

  • It is not possible for other applications to send these broadcasts to your app, so you don’t need to worry about having security holes they can exploit.

  • It is more efficient than sending a global broadcast through the system.

通过上述可知,LocalBroadcastManager 对比BroadcastReceiver 的三个优点:

  1. 发送的广播只会在当前APP中传播,不会泄露给其它APP,确保了数据传输的安全。

  2. 其它APP的广播无法发送到本APP中,不用担心安全漏洞被其它APP所利用。

  3. 比系统全局广播更加高效。

先看下LocalBroadcastManager 的完整源码,如下:

package android.support.v4.content;

import android.content.BroadcastReceiver;
import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.content.IntentFilter;
import android.net.Uri;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Looper;
import android.os.Message;
import android.util.Log;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Set;

public class LocalBroadcastManager
{
  private static final String TAG = "LocalBroadcastManager";
  private static final boolean DEBUG = false;
  private final Context mAppContext;
  private final HashMap<BroadcastReceiver, ArrayList<IntentFilter>> mReceivers = new HashMap();

  private final HashMap<String, ArrayList<ReceiverRecord>> mActions = new HashMap();

  private final ArrayList<BroadcastRecord> mPendingBroadcasts = new ArrayList();
  static final int MSG_EXEC_PENDING_BROADCASTS = 1;
  private final Handler mHandler;
  private static final Object mLock = new Object();
  private static LocalBroadcastManager mInstance;

  public static LocalBroadcastManager getInstance(Context context)
  {
    synchronized (mLock) {
      if (mInstance == null) {
        mInstance = new LocalBroadcastManager(context.getApplicationContext());
      }
      return mInstance;
    }
  }

  private LocalBroadcastManager(Context context) {
    this.mAppContext = context;
    this.mHandler = new Handler(context.getMainLooper())
    {
      public void handleMessage(Message msg)
      {
        switch (msg.what)
        {
        case 1:
          LocalBroadcastManager.this.executePendingBroadcasts();
          break;
        default:
          super.handleMessage(msg);
        }
      }
    };
  }

  public void registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver, IntentFilter filter)
  {
    synchronized (this.mReceivers) {
      ReceiverRecord entry = new ReceiverRecord(filter, receiver);
      ArrayList filters = (ArrayList)this.mReceivers.get(receiver);
      if (filters == null) {
        filters = new ArrayList(1);
        this.mReceivers.put(receiver, filters);
      }
      filters.add(filter);
      for (int i = 0; i < filter.countActions(); ++i) {
        String action = filter.getAction(i);
        ArrayList entries = (ArrayList)this.mActions.get(action);
        if (entries == null) {
          entries = new ArrayList(1);
          this.mActions.put(action, entries);
        }
        entries.add(entry);
      }
    }
  }

  public void unregisterReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver)
  {
    synchronized (this.mReceivers) {
      ArrayList filters = (ArrayList)this.mReceivers.remove(receiver);
      if (filters == null) {
        return;
      }
      for (int i = 0; i < filters.size(); ++i) {
        IntentFilter filter = (IntentFilter)filters.get(i);
        for (int j = 0; j < filter.countActions(); ++j) {
          String action = filter.getAction(j);
          ArrayList receivers = (ArrayList)this.mActions.get(action);
          if (receivers != null) {
            for (int k = 0; k < receivers.size(); ++k) {
              if (((ReceiverRecord)receivers.get(k)).receiver == receiver) {
                receivers.remove(k);
                --k;
              }
            }
            if (receivers.size() <= 0)
              this.mActions.remove(action);
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }

  public boolean sendBroadcast(Intent intent)
  {
    synchronized (this.mReceivers) {
      String action = intent.getAction();
      String type = intent.resolveTypeIfNeeded(this.mAppContext.getContentResolver());

      Uri data = intent.getData();
      String scheme = intent.getScheme();
      Set categories = intent.getCategories();

      boolean debug = (intent.getFlags() & 0x8) != 0;

      if (debug) Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager", "Resolving type " + type + " scheme " + scheme + " of intent " + intent);

      ArrayList entries = (ArrayList)this.mActions.get(intent.getAction());
      if (entries != null) {
        if (debug) Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager", "Action list: " + entries);

        ArrayList receivers = null;
        for (int i = 0; i < entries.size(); ++i) {
          ReceiverRecord receiver = (ReceiverRecord)entries.get(i);
          if (debug) Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager", "Matching against filter " + receiver.filter);

          if (receiver.broadcasting) {
            if (debug) {
              Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager", "  Filter's target already added");
            }
          }
          else
          {
            int match = receiver.filter.match(action, type, scheme, data, categories, "LocalBroadcastManager");

            if (match >= 0) {
              if (debug) Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager", "  Filter matched!  match=0x" + Integer.toHexString(match));

              if (receivers == null) {
                receivers = new ArrayList();
              }
              receivers.add(receiver);
              receiver.broadcasting = true;
            } else {
              if (!debug)
                continue;
              String reason;
              switch (match)
              {
              case -3:
                reason = "action"; break;
              case -4:
                reason = "category"; break;
              case -2:
                reason = "data"; break;
              case -1:
                reason = "type"; break;
              default:
                reason = "unknown reason";
              }
              Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager", "  Filter did not match: " + reason);
            }
          }
        }

        if (receivers != null) {
          for (int i = 0; i < receivers.size(); ++i) {
            ((ReceiverRecord)receivers.get(i)).broadcasting = false;
          }
          this.mPendingBroadcasts.add(new BroadcastRecord(intent, receivers));
          if (!this.mHandler.hasMessages(1)) {
            this.mHandler.sendEmptyMessage(1);
          }
          return true;
        }
      }
    }
    return false;
  }

  public void sendBroadcastSync(Intent intent)
  {
    if (sendBroadcast(intent))
      executePendingBroadcasts();
  }

  private void executePendingBroadcasts()
  {
    while (true) {
      BroadcastRecord[] brs = null;
      synchronized (this.mReceivers) {
        int N = this.mPendingBroadcasts.size();
        if (N <= 0) {
          return;
        }
        brs = new BroadcastRecord[N];
        this.mPendingBroadcasts.toArray(brs);
        this.mPendingBroadcasts.clear();
      }
      for (int i = 0; i < brs.length; ++i) {
        BroadcastRecord br = brs[i];
        int i;
        for (int i = 0; i < br.receivers.size(); ++i)
          ((ReceiverRecord)br.receivers.get(i)).receiver.onReceive(this.mAppContext, br.intent);
      }
    }
  }

  private static class BroadcastRecord
  {
    final Intent intent;
    final ArrayList<LocalBroadcastManager.ReceiverRecord> receivers;

    BroadcastRecord(Intent _intent, ArrayList<LocalBroadcastManager.ReceiverRecord> _receivers)
    {
      this.intent = _intent;
      this.receivers = _receivers;
    }
  }

  private static class ReceiverRecord
  {
    final IntentFilter filter;
    final BroadcastReceiver receiver;
    boolean broadcasting;

    ReceiverRecord(IntentFilter _filter, BroadcastReceiver _receiver)
    {
      this.filter = _filter;
      this.receiver = _receiver;
    }

    public String toString()
    {
      StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder(128);
      builder.append("Receiver{");
      builder.append(this.receiver);
      builder.append(" filter=");
      builder.append(this.filter);
      builder.append("}");
      return builder.toString();
    }
  }
}

首先,我们看一下执行流程,先看LocalBroadcastManager 中的部分字段,如下:

    private final HashMap<BroadcastReceiver, ArrayList<IntentFilter>> mReceivers = new HashMap();

    private final HashMap<String, ArrayList<ReceiverRecord>> mActions = new HashMap();

    private final ArrayList<BroadcastRecord> mPendingBroadcasts = new ArrayList();

通过HashMap 的对象mReceivers 存储广播和过滤器信息,以BroadcastReceiver 作为 key,ArrayList< IntentFilter>为 value。这样做主要是方便取消注册。

通过HashMap的对象mActions 以Action 为 key,ArrayList< ReceiverRecord>为 value。mActions 的主要作用是方便在广播发送后快速得到可以接收它的BroadcastReceiver。

mPendingBroadcasts 这个就不叙述了,就一个存放BroadcastRecord的ArrayList。

构造函数

    /**
     * created by zero on 2016-07-11
     * 
     * 采用单例,创建一个LocalBroadcastManager对象
     * 
     * 总觉得此处会造成内存泄漏,有人会和我一样这么想吗?(*^__^*) 嘻嘻……
     */
    public static LocalBroadcastManager getInstance(Context context) {
        /**
         * 对于此处的写法,我更喜欢使用双重检查
         */
        synchronized (mLock)
        {
            if (mInstance == null)
            {
                mInstance = new LocalBroadcastManager(
                        context.getApplicationContext());
            }
            return mInstance;
        }
    }

    private LocalBroadcastManager(Context context)
    {
        this.mAppContext = context;
        this.mHandler = new Handler(context.getMainLooper())
        {
            public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                switch (msg.what)
                {
                case 1:
                    LocalBroadcastManager.this.executePendingBroadcasts();
                    break;
                default:
                    super.handleMessage(msg);
                }
            }
        };
    }

此处是基于主线程的 Looper(context.getMainLooper()) new 了一个 Handler,handleMessage 中会调用接收器对广播的消息进行处理,也是 LocalBroadcastManager 的核心部分。

示例代码如下:

LocalBroadcastManager localBroadcastManager = LocalBroadcastManager.getInstance(this);

注册广播:

public void registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver, IntentFilter filter) {
        synchronized (this.mReceivers)
        {
            ReceiverRecord entry = new ReceiverRecord(filter, receiver);
            ArrayList filters = (ArrayList) this.mReceivers.get(receiver);
            if (filters == null)
            {
                filters = new ArrayList(1);
                this.mReceivers.put(receiver, filters);
            }
            filters.add(filter);
            for (int i = 0; i < filter.countActions(); ++i)
            {
                String action = filter.getAction(i);
                ArrayList entries = (ArrayList) this.mActions.get(action);
                if (entries == null)
                {
                    entries = new ArrayList(1);
                    this.mActions.put(action, entries);
                }
                entries.add(entry);
            }
        }
    }

通过key去mReceivers中获取ArrayList< IntentFilter>,如果为null,便把传过来的receiver和filters参数put到mReceivers里面,这步骤也便于后面取消注册移除一些必要元素做准备,包括下面对mActions的判断。

示例代码如下:

    /**
     * created by zero on 2016-07-11
     */
    private void rigsterReceiver()
    {
        // TODO Auto-generated method stub
        receiver = new BroadcastReceiver()
        {

            @Override
            public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent)
            {
                if (intent.getAction().equals(ZMIntentAction.MENU_TO_MY))
                {
                    //具体操作
                }
            }
        };
        registerLocalBroadcastManagerActionReceiver();
    }

    private void registerLocalBroadcastManagerActionReceiver()
    {
        // TODO Auto-generated method stub
        final IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter();
        filter.addAction(ZMIntentAction.MENU_TO_HOME);
        filter.addAction(ZMIntentAction.MENU_TO_MY);
        LocalBroadcastManager.getInstance(this).registerReceiver(
                receiver, filter);
    }

取消注册:

public void unregisterReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver) {
        synchronized (this.mReceivers)
        {
            ArrayList filters = (ArrayList) this.mReceivers.remove(receiver);
            if (filters == null)
            {
                return;
            }
            for (int i = 0; i < filters.size(); ++i)
            {
                IntentFilter filter = (IntentFilter) filters.get(i);
                for (int j = 0; j < filter.countActions(); ++j)
                {
                    String action = filter.getAction(j);
                    ArrayList receivers = (ArrayList) this.mActions.get(action);
                    if (receivers != null)
                    {
                        for (int k = 0; k < receivers.size(); ++k)
                        {
                            if (((ReceiverRecord) receivers.get(k)).receiver == receiver)
                            {
                                receivers.remove(k);
                                --k;
                            }
                        }
                        if (receivers.size() <= 0)
                            this.mActions.remove(action);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

取消注册,其实就是从mReceivers 及mActions 中移除相应元素而已,与上述的注册相对应,一个是添加操作,一个是移除操作。

示例代码如下:

LocalBroadcastManager.getInstance(this).unregisterReceiver(receiver);

发送广播:

public boolean sendBroadcast(Intent intent) {
        synchronized (this.mReceivers)
        {
            String action = intent.getAction();
            String type = intent.resolveTypeIfNeeded(this.mAppContext
                    .getContentResolver());

            Uri data = intent.getData();
            String scheme = intent.getScheme();
            Set categories = intent.getCategories();

            boolean debug = (intent.getFlags() & 0x8) != 0;

            if (debug)
                Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager", "Resolving type " + type
                        + " scheme " + scheme + " of intent " + intent);

            ArrayList entries = (ArrayList) this.mActions.get(intent
                    .getAction());
            if (entries != null)
            {
                if (debug)
                    Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager", "Action list: " + entries);

                ArrayList receivers = null;
                for (int i = 0; i < entries.size(); ++i)
                {
                    ReceiverRecord receiver = (ReceiverRecord) entries.get(i);
                    if (debug)
                        Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager",
                                "Matching against filter " + receiver.filter);

                    if (receiver.broadcasting)
                    {
                        if (debug)
                        {
                            Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager",
                                    "  Filter's target already added");
                        }
                    } else
                    {
                        int match = receiver.filter.match(action, type, scheme,
                                data, categories, "LocalBroadcastManager");

                        if (match >= 0)
                        {
                            if (debug)
                                Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager",
                                        "  Filter matched!  match=0x"
                                                + Integer.toHexString(match));

                            if (receivers == null)
                            {
                                receivers = new ArrayList();
                            }
                            receivers.add(receiver);
                            receiver.broadcasting = true;
                        } else
                        {
                            if (!debug)
                                continue;
                            String reason;
                            switch (match)
                            {
                            case -3:
                                reason = "action";
                                break;
                            case -4:
                                reason = "category";
                                break;
                            case -2:
                                reason = "data";
                                break;
                            case -1:
                                reason = "type";
                                break;
                            default:
                                reason = "unknown reason";
                            }
                            Log.v("LocalBroadcastManager",
                                    "  Filter did not match: " + reason);
                        }
                    }
                }

                if (receivers != null)
                {
                    for (int i = 0; i < receivers.size(); ++i)
                    {
                        ((ReceiverRecord) receivers.get(i)).broadcasting = false;
                    }
                    this.mPendingBroadcasts.add(new BroadcastRecord(intent,
                            receivers));
                    if (!this.mHandler.hasMessages(1))
                    {
                        this.mHandler.sendEmptyMessage(1);
                    }
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

先根据Action 从mActions 中取出ReceiverRecord 列表,循环每个ReceiverRecord 判断 filter 和 intent 中的 action、type、scheme、data、categoried 是否 match,是的话则保存到receivers列表中,发送 what 为MSG_EXEC_PENDING_BROADCASTS的消息,通过 Handler 去处理。

示例代码如下:

LocalBroadcastManager.getInstance(this)
                    .sendBroadcast(new Intent(ZMIntentAction.MENU_TO_HOME));

消息处理:

private void executePendingBroadcasts() {
        while (true)
        {
            BroadcastRecord[] brs = null;
            synchronized (this.mReceivers)
            {
                int N = this.mPendingBroadcasts.size();
                if (N <= 0)
                {
                    return;
                }
                brs = new BroadcastRecord[N];
                this.mPendingBroadcasts.toArray(brs);
                this.mPendingBroadcasts.clear();
            }
            for (int i = 0; i < brs.length; ++i)
            {
                BroadcastRecord br = brs[i];
                // 这里真心没看懂,这样写,会报Duplicate local variable i错误
                int i;
                for (int i = 0; i < br.receivers.size(); ++i)
                    ((ReceiverRecord) br.receivers.get(i)).receiver.onReceive(
                            this.mAppContext, br.intent);
            }
        }
    }

以上为消息处理的函数。mPendingBroadcasts 转换为数组BroadcastRecord,循环每个receiver,调用其onReceive 函数,这样便完成了广播的核心逻辑。

最后说下LocalBroadcastManager和BroadcastReceiver 的根本区别,BroadcastReceiver 的通信是走 Binder 机制,所以可以跨进程通信(Binder 机制在此不叙述,有兴趣的可以自己查下资料),LocalBroadcastManager 核心实现实际还是 Handler,因为是 Handler 实现的应用内的通信,这就可以理解上述所说的三个优点,本APP通信、不受非本APP广播影响、效率高,并且无法跨进程通信。

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