Process ID and special processes

原创 2006年05月17日 14:51:00

Process ID and special processes

(From 8.2. Process Identifiers)


Process ID

1. Keywords: unique, reuse


2. "unique: "Because the process ID is the only well-known identifier of a process that is always unique, it is often used as a piece of other identifiers, to guarantee uniqueness."


3.reuse: Instant reuse? no. "Most UNIX systems implement algorithms to delay reuse so that newly created processes are assigned IDs different from those used by processes that terminated recently. This prevents a new process from being mistaken for the previous process to have used the same ID."


Special processes


1. NOTE: the details differ from implementation to implementation.

2. ALL:

0         swapper (scheduler process)       system process

1         init process                              user process                

2         pagedaemon                            kernel process (NOTE: on some virtual memory implementations of the UNIX System)


About swapper:

"No program on disk corresponds to this process, which is part of the kernel and is known as a system process."


About init process:

" Invoked by the kernel at the end of the bootstrap procedure. The program file for this process was /etc/init in older versions of the UNIX System and is /sbin/init in newer versions. This process is responsible for bringing up a UNIX system after the kernel has been bootstrapped. init usually reads the system-dependent initialization files (the /etc/rc* files or /etc/inittab and the files in /etc/init.d)and brings the system to a certain state, such as multiuser. The init process never dies. It is a normal user process, not a system process within the kernel, like the swapper, although it does run with superuser privileges. Later in this chapter, we'll see how init becomes the parent process of any orphaned child process."


About pagedaemon:

"This process is responsible for supporting the paging of the virtual memory system."


3. What is bootstrap?



4. Kernel processes provide operating system services, for example, pagedaemon.


Figure 1.1

Figure 1.2

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