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深入理解iPhone数据持久化

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在所有的移动开发平台数据持久化都是很重要的部分:在j2me中是rms或保存在应用程序的目录中,在symbian中可以保存在相应的磁盘目录中和数据库中。symbian中因为权限认证的原因,在3rd上大多数只能访问应用程序的private目录或其它系统共享目录。在iphone中,apple博采众长,提供了多种数据持久化的方法,下面笔者会逐个进行详细的讲解。

iphone提供的数据持久化的方法,从数据保存的方式上讲可以分为三大部分:属性列表、对象归档、嵌入式数据库(SQLite3)、其他方法。

、属性列表NSUserDefaults

NSUserDefaults类的使用和NSKeyedArchiver有很多类似之处,但是查看NSUserDefaults的定义可以看出,NSUserDefaults直接继承自NSObject而NSKeyedArchiver 继承自NSCoder。这意味着NSKeyedArchiver实际上是个归档持久化的类,也就可以使用NSCoder类的[encodeObject: (id)objv forKey:(NSString *)key]方法来对数据进行持久化存储。

 


- (void)applicationDidFinishLaunching:(UIApplication *)application {
 NSString *strOne = @"Persistent data1";
 NSString *strTwo = @"Persistent data 2";
 
 NSMutableArray *persistentArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
 [persistentArray addObject:strOne];
 [persistentArray addObject:strTwo];
 
 //archive
 NSUserDefaults *persistentDefaults = [NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults];
 [persistentDefaults setObject:persistentArray forKey:@"myDefault"];
 NSString *descriptionDefault = [persistentDefaults description];
 NSLog(@"NSUserDefaults description is :%@",descriptionDefault);
 
 //unarchive
 NSArray *UnpersistentArray =

[persistentDefaults objectForKey:@"myDefault"];


 NSString *UnstrOne = [UnpersistentArray objectAtIndex:0];
 NSString *UnstrTwo = [UnpersistentArray objectAtIndex:1];
 
 NSLog(@"UnstrOne = %@,UnstrTwo = %@",UnstrOne,UnstrTwo);
 
 // Override point for customization after application launch
 [window makeKeyAndVisible];
}


二、对象归档NSKeyedArchiver和NSKeyedUnarchiver

iPhone和symbian 3rd一样,会为每一个应用程序生成一个私有目录,这个目录位于

/Users/sundfsun2009/Library/Application Support/iPhone Simulator/User/Applications下,并随即生成一个数字字母串作为目录名,在每一次应用程序启动时,这个字母数字串都是不同于上一次的,上一次的应用程序目录信息被转换成名为.DS_Store隐藏文件,这个目录的文件结构如下图:


通常使用Documents目录进行数据持久化的保存,而这个Documents目录可以通过NSSearchPathForDirectoriesInDomains(NSDocumentDirectory,NSUserdomainMask,YES)得到,代码如下:

- (void)applicationDidFinishLaunching:(UIApplication *)application {
 NSString *strOne = @"Persistent data1";
 NSString *strTwo = @"Persistent data 2";
 
 NSArray *persistentArray = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:strOne,strTwo,nil];
 NSArray *pathArray = NSSearchPathForDirectoriesInDomains(NSDocumentDirectory,    NSAllDomainsMask, YES);
 
 int pathLen = [pathArray count];
 
 NSLog(@"path number is :%d",pathLen);
 
 NSString *filePath;
 
 for(int i = 0; i < pathLen; i++)
 {
  filePath = [pathArray objectAtIndex:i];
  NSLog(@"%d path is :%@",i,filePath);
 }
 
 NSString *myFilename = [filePath stringByAppendingPathComponent:@"myFile.rtf"];
 
 NSLog(@"myfile's path is :%@",myFilename);
 
 // no files generated in correspond directory now
 
 [NSKeyedArchiver archiveRootObject:persistentArray toFile:myFilename];
 // now the myFile.rtf is generated
 
 // Override point for customization after application launch
 [window makeKeyAndVisible];
}

 

NSSearchPathForDirectoriesInDomains()的第二个参数是个枚举值,在笔者的测试代码中,只有NSUserDomainMask和NSAllDomainsMask可以获取到目录数为1,其余的皆为0,打印出来的结果如下:

[Session started at 2009-11-10 21:30:08 +0800.]
2009-11-10 21:30:10.516 PersistentExample[763:207] path number is :1
2009-11-10 21:30:10.518 PersistentExample[763:207] 0 path is :/Users/sundfsun2009/Library/Application Support/iPhone Simulator/User/Applications/C93DC783-F137-4660-AE5A-08C3E11C774B/Documents
2009-11-10 21:30:10.521 PersistentExample[763:207] myfile's path is :/Users/sundfsun2009/Library/Application Support/iPhone Simulator/User/Applications/C93DC783-F137-4660-AE5A-08C3E11C774B/Documents/myFile.rtf
Terminating in response to SpringBoard's termination.

[Session started at 2009-11-10 21:32:27 +0800.]
2009-11-10 21:32:30.091 PersistentExample[803:207] path number is :1
2009-11-10 21:32:30.092 PersistentExample[803:207] 0 path is :/Users/sundfsun2009/Library/Application Support/iPhone Simulator/User/Applications/763E6772-E754-452F-8532-80C2CE4466B5/Documents
2009-11-10 21:32:30.100 PersistentExample[803:207] myfile's path is :/Users/sundfsun2009/Library/Application Support/iPhone Simulator/User/Applications/763E6772-E754-452F-8532-80C2CE4466B5/Documents/myFile.rtf
Terminating in response to SpringBoard's termination.


从打印的结果如下,每次应用程序启动时生成的数字字母串目录名字并不一样。在调用[NSKeyedArchiver archiveRootObject:persistentArray toFile:myFilename]方法前,文件myFile.rtf并每生成,只有在调用此方法后才产生相应的文件。

下面需要把数据从属性列表中读取出来,在上面的代码中,笔者使用NSArray保存数据。但在大多数应用程序中,数据的尺寸并不是固定的,这个时候就需要使用NSMutalbeArray动态的保存数据,代码优化如下:

-          (void)applicationDidFinishLaunching:(UIApplication *)application {
 NSString *myFilename;
 // archive
 {
  NSString *strOne = @"Persistent data1";
  NSString *strTwo = @"Persistent data 2";
 
  NSMutableArray *persistentArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
  [persistentArray addObject:strOne];
  [persistentArray addObject:strTwo];

  NSArray *pathArray = NSSearchPathForDirectoriesInDomains(NSDocumentDirectory,    NSAllDomainsMask, YES);
 
  int pathLen = [pathArray count];
  NSLog(@"path number is :%d",pathLen);
 
  NSString *filePath;
 
  for(int i = 0; i < pathLen; i++)
  {
   filePath = [pathArray objectAtIndex:i];
  
   NSLog(@"%d path is :%@",i,filePath);
  }
 
  myFilename = [filePath stringByAppendingPathComponent:@"myFile.rtf"];
 
  NSLog(@"myfile's path is :%@",myFilename);
 
  [NSKeyedArchiver archiveRootObject:persistentArray toFile:myFilename];
 }
 
 // unarchive
 {
  NSArray *unarchiveArray = [NSKeyedUnarchiver unarchiveObjectWithFile:myFilename];
  NSString *UnstrOne = [unarchiveArray objectAtIndex:0];
  NSString *UnstrTwo = [unarchiveArray objectAtIndex:1];
 
  NSLog(@"UnstrOne = %@,UnstrTwo = %@",UnstrOne,UnstrTwo);
 }
 
 
 // Override point for customization after application launch
 [window makeKeyAndVisible];
}

 

输出结果如下:

 

[Session started at 2009-11-10 22:41:57 +0800.]
2009-11-10 22:41:59.344 PersistentExample[1082:207] path number is :1
2009-11-10 22:41:59.346 PersistentExample[1082:207] 0 path is :/Users/sundfsun2009/Library/Application Support/iPhone Simulator/User/Applications/055CD17C-864E-4A83-ABF0-5F01EE85BD5A/Documents
2009-11-10 22:41:59.355 PersistentExample[1082:207] myfile's path is :/Users/sundfsun2009/Library/Application Support/iPhone Simulator/User/Applications/055CD17C-864E-4A83-ABF0-5F01EE85BD5A/Documents/myFile.rtf
2009-11-10 22:41:59.357 PersistentExample[1082:207] UnstrOne = Persistent data1,UnstrTwo = Persistent data 2
Terminating in response to SpringBoard's termination.


从上面的图中可以看到,目录中还有个tmp目录,读者也可以把数据保存在tmp目录中,获取这个目录使用NSTemporaryDirectory()方法。


三、嵌入式数据库(SQLite3)

嵌入式数据库持久化数据就是把数据保存在iphone的嵌入式数据库系统SQLite3中,本质上来说,数据库持久化操作是基于文件持久化基础之上的。
要使用嵌入式数据库SQLite3,首先需要加载其动态库libsqlite3.dylib,这个文件位于/Xcode3.1.4/Platforms/iPhoneOS.platform/Developer/SDKs/iPhoneOS3.1.sdk/usr/lib目录下。在Framework文件夹上右击,选择“Adding->Existing Files...”,定位到上述目录并加载到文件夹。

首先在头文件中做如下修改:

#import <UIKit/UIKit.h>

#include "sqlite3.h"
#define kFileName @"mydb.sql"

@interface PersistentExampleAppDelegate : NSObject <UIApplicationDelegate> {
 sqlite3 *database;
 UIWindow *window;
}

@property (nonatomic, retain) IBOutlet UIWindow *window;

@end




- (void)applicationDidFinishLaunching:(UIApplication *)application {
 
 NSArray *path = NSSearchPathForDirectoriesInDomains(NSDocumentDirectory, NSUserDomainMask, YES);
 NSString *paths = [[path objectAtIndex:0] stringByAppendingPathComponent:kFileName];
 
 NSFileManager *fileManager = [NSFileManager defaultManager];
 BOOL findFile = [fileManager fileExistsAtPath:paths];
 
 NSLog(@"Database file path = %@",paths);
 
 // 如果找到了数据库文件
 if(findFile)
 {
  NSLog(@"Database file have already existed.");
 
  if(sqlite3_open([paths UTF8String], &database) != SQLITE_OK)//打开数据库失败
  {
   sqlite3_close(database);
   NSAssert(0,@"Failed to open database");
  }
 }else
 {
  NSLog(@"Database file does not exsit!");
  if(sqlite3_open([paths UTF8String], &database) != SQLITE_OK)//打开数据库失败
  {
   sqlite3_close(database);
   NSAssert(0,@"Failed to open database");
  }
 }
 
 char *errorMsg;

 

//创建表
 NSString *createSQL = @"create table if not exists fields (row integer primary key, field_data text);";
 if(sqlite3_exec(database, [createSQL UTF8String],NULL,NULL,&errorMsg)!=SQLITE_OK)
 {
  sqlite3_close(database);
  NSAssert1(0,@"Error creating table: %s",errorMsg);
 }
 
 NSString *strOne = @"Persistent data1";
 NSString *strTwo = @"Persistent data 2";
 
 NSMutableArray *persistentArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
 [persistentArray addObject:strOne];
 [persistentArray addObject:strTwo];
 
 for (int i = 0; i < [persistentArray count]; i++) {
  NSString *upDataSQL = [[NSString alloc] initWithFormat:@"insert or replace into

fields (row,field_data) values (%d,'%@');",i,[persistentArray objectAtIndex:i]];


  char* errorMsg;
  if(sqlite3_exec(database,[upDataSQL UTF8String],NULL,NULL,&errorMsg)

!= SQLITE_OK)
  {
   sqlite3_close(database);
   NSAssert(0,@"Failed to open database");
  }
 }
 
 //unarchive
 NSString *query = @"select row, field_data from fields order by row";//查找表中的数据
 sqlite3_stmt *statement;
 if(sqlite3_prepare_v2(database, [query UTF8String], -1, &statement, nil)

== SQLITE_OK)
 {
  while(sqlite3_step(statement) == SQLITE_ROW)
  {
   int row = sqlite3_column_int(statement, 0);
   char *rowData = (char *)sqlite3_column_text(statement, 1);
  
   NSString *fieldName = [[NSString alloc] initWithFormat:@"show%d",row];
   NSString *fieldValue = [[NSString alloc] initWithUTF8String:rowData];

   NSLog(@"fieldName is :%@,fieldValue is :%@",fieldName,fieldValue);
  
   [fieldName release];
   [fieldValue release];
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(statement);
 }
 
 // Override point for customization after application launch
 [window makeKeyAndVisible];
}


在上面的代码中,我们使用
NSFileManager *fileManager = [NSFileManager defaultManager];
BOOL findFile = [fileManager fileExistsAtPath:paths];
来判断数据库文件是否已经存在,其实在大多数情况下是没有必要的,sqlite3_open()方法会自动帮我们判断数据库文件是否存在,如果不存在则创建心的数据库文件。

四、其它方法


除了上面的三种方法来保存持久化数据以外,我们还可以用写文件到磁盘的方式来保存持久化数据。

-          (void)applicationDidFinishLaunching:(UIApplication *)application {
 
 NSString *strOne = @"Persistent data1";
 NSString *strTwo = @"Persistent data 2";
 
 NSMutableArray *persistentArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
 [persistentArray addObject:strOne];
 [persistentArray addObject:strTwo];
 
 
 
 NSArray *filePathArray = NSSearchPathForDirectoriesInDomains(NSDocumentDirectory, NSUserDomainMask, YES);
 NSString *filePath =

-          [[filePathArray objectAtIndex:0] stringByAppendingPathComponent:@"mydatas.plist"];
 
 [[NSArray arrayWithObjects:persistentArray,nil] writeToFile:filePath atomically:NO];
 
 //load
 NSMutableArray *saveDataArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
 if([[NSFileManager defaultManager] fileExistsAtPath:filePath])
  saveDataArray = [NSMutableArray arrayWithContentsOfFile:filePath]; 
 else
  saveDataArray = [NSMutableArray arrayWithContentsOfFile:[[NSBundle

-                  mainBundle] pathForResource:@"Savedatas" ofType:@"plist"]];

-         
 NSArray *strArray = [saveDataArray objectAtIndex:0];
 
 NSString *UnstrOne = [strArray objectAtIndex:0];
 NSString *UnstrTwo = [strArray objectAtIndex:1];

 // Override point for customization after application launch
 [window makeKeyAndVisible];
}

 

转载自:http://blog.csdn.net/dongfengsun/archive/2009/11/11/4799249.aspx


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