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Gevent简介

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介绍

gevent 是一个python网络框架,对应Java的netty框架,使用greenlet提供异步API,基于libevent ,它为各种并发和网络相关的任务提供了整洁的API.

  • 快速基于libevent的event loop
  • 基于greenlet的轻量级执行单元
  • 重用python标准api(event,queue)
  • 协同的socket和ssl模块
  • 使用标准库和第三方模块写标准阻塞socket(gevent.monkey)
  • dns查询执行通过libevent-dns
  • 基于libevent-http的快速WSGI服务器

安装

=python2.4
greenlet
libevent1.4.x

from gevent import socket

说不能导入socket,参考http://stackoverflow.com/questions/6431096/gevent-does-not-install-properly-on-ubuntu

例子

import gevent
from gevent import socket
urls = ['www.google.com','www.python.org','www.foofish.net']
jobs = [gevent.spawn(socket.gethostbyname, url) for url in urls]
gevent.joinall(jobs, timeout=2)
print [job.value for job in jobs]

['74.125.128.147', '82.94.164.162', '106.186.27.60']

gevent.socket与python标准库的socket有相同的接口

http://sdiehl.github.io/gevent-tutorial/
http://architects.dzone.com/articles/threads-versus-greenlets
http://blog.pythonisito.com/2012/07/introduction-to-gevent.html

翻译

Gevent简介

官方网站是这么介绍Gevent:

gevent is a coroutine-based Python networking library that uses greenlet to provide a high-level synchronous API on top of the libevent event loop.

简单翻译过来就是:gevent一个基于协程的Python网络库,依赖于libeventevent loop使用greenlet提供高级同步API。

这段话简单描述了gevent的架构实现和技术,不过初学者看了还是一脸茫然。我能想到的能最快让人理解的定义是:

gevent给了你线程,但是没有使用线程

为什么不使用线程

为什么不使用线程呢?线程最大的缺点对我来说就是相比较greenlets(使用在gevent中的类线程的抽象概念)来说它会占用大量资源。 例如:这个模拟helloworld webserver的小程序,下面是没有使用任何并发的代码:

import sys
import socket
import time

def sequential(port):
    s = socket.socket()
    s.bind(('0.0.0.0', port))
    s.listen(500)

    while True:
        cli, addr = s.accept()
        handle_request(cli, time.sleep)

def handle_request(s, sleep):
    try:
        s.recv(1024)
        sleep(0.1)
        s.send('''HTTP/1.0 200 Ok 

HelloWorld''')
        s.shutdown(socket.SHUT_WR)
        print '.',
    except Exception, ex:
        print 'e', ex,
    finally:
        sys.stdout.flush()
        s.close()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    sequential(int(sys.argv[1]))

这段代码使用sleep,目的是是减慢handle_request方法使它更真实。使用Apache的性能测试工具做大并发测试,然而我们得到很糟糕的结果。运行: ab -r -n 200 -c 200 http://lcoalhost:1111/

结果:

Benchmarking localhost (be patient)
Completed 100 requests
apr_pollset_poll: The timeout specified has expired (70007)
Total of 196 requests Completed

到最后超时了。

也许用线程会更好,那么用threads函数替换sequential函数:

import threading

def thread(port):
    s = socket.socket()
    s.bind(('0.0.0.0', port))
    s.listen(500)
    while True:
        cli, addr = s.accept()
        t = threading.Thread(target=handle_request, args=(cli, time.sleep))
        t.daemon = True
        t.start()

结果:

Benchmarking localhost (be patient)
Completed 100 requests
Completed 200 requests
Finished 200 requests


Server Software:        
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            1115

Document Path:          /
Document Length:        10 bytes

Concurrency Level:      200
Time taken for tests:   0.229 seconds
Complete requests:      200
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      5600 bytes
HTML transferred:       2000 bytes
Requests per second:    874.02 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       228.827 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       1.144 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          23.90 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    5   2.9      5      11
Processing:   101  107   3.8    107     116
Waiting:      101  107   3.9    106     115
Total:        105  112   1.5    112     116

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%    112
  66%    113
  75%    113
  80%    114
  90%    114
  95%    115
  98%    115
  99%    116
 100%    116 (longest request)

运行ab -r -n 200 -c 200,总共花时是0.229秒,现在我们用gevent做类线程的模拟操作:

import gevent
def greenlet(port):
    from gevent import socket
    s = socket.socket()
    s.bind(('0.0.0.0', port))
    s.listen(500)
    while True:
        cli, addr = s.accept()
        gevent.spawn(handle_request, cli, gevent.sleep)    

结果:

Benchmarking localhost (be patient)
Completed 100 requests
Completed 200 requests
Finished 200 requests


Server Software:        
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            1115

Document Path:          /
Document Length:        0 bytes

Concurrency Level:      200
Time taken for tests:   0.012 seconds
Complete requests:      200
Failed requests:        597
   (Connect: 0, Receive: 398, Length: 0, Exceptions: 199)
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      0 bytes
HTML transferred:       0 bytes
Requests per second:    16837.85 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       11.878 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.059 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          0.00 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    0   0.0      0       0
Processing:     0    2   2.2      4       5
Waiting:        0    0   0.0      0       0
Total:          0    2   2.2      4       5

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%      4
  66%      4
  75%      4
  80%      4
  90%      5
  95%      5
  98%      5
  99%      5
 100%      5 (longest request)

我们看到总共花时不到0.012秒。

为什么不要一直使用gevent/greenlets呢?

为什么不要一直在gevent中greenlet?主要Greenlets使用协助式多任务,而线程使用抢占式多任务,意味着一个greenlet永远不会停止执行来让给另外的greenlet执行,除非它使用确切的'yielding'函数(像:gevent.socket.socket.recv或gevent.sleep),而线程完全是基于操作系统决定线程之间的切换的。

如果你使用python一段时间了,你应该听说过关于全局解释锁(GIL),它只允许在同一时刻单个线程执行python字节码。所以尽管在python中有线程和并发,但是线程所提供的好处不及C或者Java。

Gevent中还有些啥

希望在学习gevent时我能给你一些兴趣,gevent中还包括:

  • 提供monkey_patch标准库,所以你可以使用socket.socket而不需要gevent.socket 
  • 用自己的handlers处理基于socket连接的server。 
  • 在greenlet中更细粒度的控制spawn. 
  • greenlet pools 
  • greenlet-local对象 
  • 两个基于greentlet的WSGI服务器 

原文链接:,转载请注明来自foofish的博客

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