MathJax 基础教程

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1. Greek letters

Formula Symbol Formula Symbol Formula Symbol Formula Symbol
\alpha α$\alpha$ \Alpha A$\mathrm{A}$ \nu ν$\nu$ \Nu N$\mathrm{N}$
\beta β$\beta$ \Beta B$\mathrm{B}$ \xi ξ$\xi$ \Xi Ξ$\Xi$
\gamma γ$\gamma$ \Gamma Γ$\Gamma$ \omicron ο$\omicron$ \Omicron O$\mathrm{O}$
\delta δ$\delta$ \Delta Δ$\Delta$ \pi π$\pi$ \Pi Π$\Pi$
\epsilon
\varepsilon
ϵ$\epsilon$
ε$\varepsilon$
\Epsilon E$\mathrm{E}$ \rho
\varrho
ρ$\rho$
ϱ$\varrho$
\Rho R$\mathrm{R}$
\zeta ζ$\zeta$ \Zeta Z$\mathrm{Z}$ \sigma
\varsigma
σ$\sigma$
ς$\varsigma$
\Sigma Σ$\Sigma$
\eta η$\eta$ \eta H$\mathrm{H}$ \tau τ$\tau$ \Tau T$\mathrm{T}$
\theta
\vartheta
θ$\theta$
ϑ$\vartheta$
\Theta Θ$\Theta$ \upsilon υ$\upsilon$ \Upsilon Υ$\Upsilon$
\iota ι$\iota$ \Iota I$\mathrm{I}$ \phi
\varphi
ϕ$\phi$
φ$\varphi$
\Phi Φ$\Phi$
\kappa κ$\kappa$ \Kappa K$\mathrm{K}$ \chi χ$\chi$ \Chi X$\mathrm{X}$
\lambda λ$\lambda$ \Lambda Λ$\Lambda$ \psi ψ$\psi$ \Psi Ψ$\Psi$
\mu μ$\mu$ \Mu M$\mathrm{M}$ \omega ω$\omega$ \Omega Ω$\Omega$

Some capital Greek letters are the same as the Roman equivalents, so they are not separated in LATEX. For a capital beta, one must use something like \mathrm{B}: B$\mathrm{B}$.

2. Superscripts & Subscripts
use ^ for superscripts and _ for subscripts.
x_i^2 is x2i$x_i^2$

3. Groups
use { and }.
10^10 is 1010$10^10$, 10^{10} is 1010$10^{10}$

4. Parentheses

Formula Symbol Formula Symbol
( ($($ ) )$)$
[ [$[$ ] ]$]$
\{ {$\{$ \{ }$\}$
| |$|$ | |$|$
\langle $\langle$ \rangle $\rangle$
\lceil $\lceil$ \rceil $\rceil$
\lfloor $\lfloor$ \rfloor $\rfloor$

These do not scale with the formula in between, so if you write (\frac12) the parentheses will be too small:(12)$(\frac12)$. Using \left(\right) will make the sizes adjust automatically to the formula they enclose: \left(\frac12\right) is (12)$\left(\frac12\right)$.
There are also invisible parentheses, denoted by.: \left.\frac12\right\rbrace is 12}$\left.\frac12\right\rbrace$.

5. Fractions
\frac ab applies to the next two groups, and produces ab$\frac ab$.And \frac{a+1}{b+1} is a+1b+1$\frac{a+1}{b+1}$.
For more complicated, use \over, {a+1\over b+1} is a+1b+1${a+1\over b+1}$.

6. Sums and integrals

Formula Symbol Formula Symbol
\int $\int$ \iint $\iint$
\prod $\prod$ \sum $\sum$
\bigcup $\bigcup$ \bigcap $\bigcap$

The subscript is the lower limit and the superscript is the upper limit, so for example \sum_1^n is n1$\sum_1^n$; \sum_{i=0}^\infty i^2 is i=0i2$\sum_{i=0}^\infty i^2$.

Use sqrt, which adjusts to the size of its argument: \sqrt{x^3} is x3$\sqrt{x^3}$;\sqrt[3]{\frac xy} is xy3$\sqrt[3]{\frac xy}$.
For complicated expressions, consider using {...}^{1/2} instead, for example {\left(\frac 13\right)}^{\frac 12} is (ab)12${\left(\frac ab\right)}^{\frac 12}$.

8. Special functions
Such as “lim”, “sin”, “max”, “ln”, and so on are normally set in roman font instead of italic font. Use \lim, \sin, etc. to make these: \sin x sinx$sinx$, not sin x sinx$sinx$. Use subscripts to attach a notation to \lim: \lim_{x\to 0}

limx0

9. Special symbols and Notations
Some of the most common include:

• \lt <$\lt$ \gt >$\gt$ \le $\le$ \ge $\ge$ \neq $\neq$. \not\lt $\not\lt$(not recommended).
• \times ×$\times$ \div ÷$\div$ \pm ±$\pm$ \mp $\mp$. \cdot is a centered dot: xy$x\cdot y$
• \cup $\cup$ \cap $\cap$ \setminus $\setminus$ \subset $\subset$ \subseteq $\subseteq$ \subsetneq $\subsetneq$ \supset $\supset$ \in $\in$ \notin $\notin$ \emptyset $\emptyset$ \varnothing $\varnothing$
• {n+1 \choose 2k} or \binom{n+1}{2k} (n+12k)${n+1 \choose 2k}$
• \to $\to$ \rightarrow $\rightarrow$ \leftarrow $\leftarrow$ \Rightarrow $\Rightarrow$ \Leftarrow $\Leftarrow$ \mapsto $\mapsto$
• \land $\land$ \lor $\lor$ \lnot ¬$\lnot$ \forall $\forall$ \exists $\exists$ \top $\top$ \bot $\bot$ \vdash $\vdash$ \vDash $\vDash$
• \star $\star$ \ast $\ast$ \oplus $\oplus$ \circ $\circ$ \bullet $\bullet$
• \approx $\approx$ \sim $\sim$ \simeq $\simeq$ \cong $\cong$ \equiv $\equiv$ \prec $\prec$
• \infty $\infty$ \aleph_0 $\aleph$ \nabla $\nabla$ \partial $\partial$ \Im I$\Im$\Re R$\Re$
• For modular equivalence, use \pmod like this: a\equiv b\pmod n ab(modn)$a\equiv b\pmod n$
• a_1, a_2, \ldots ,a_n a1,a2,,an$a_1, a_2, \ldots ,a_n$; a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n a1+a2++an$a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n$
• Script lowercase l is \ell $\ell$
10. Spaces
a␣b and a␣␣␣␣b are both ab$ab$. To add more space, use \,, for a thin space ab$a\,b$ \; for a wider space ab$a\;b$. \quad and \qquad are large spaces: ab$a\quad b$, ab$a\qquad b$.

11. Text
Use \text{…}, \{x\in s\mid x\text{ is extra large}\} is {xsx is extra large}$\{x\in s\mid x\text{ is extra large}\}$

12. Accents and diacritical marks
\hat x x^$\hat x$, \widehat{xy} xyˆ$\widehat{xy}$,
\bar x x¯$\bar x$, \overline{xyz} xyz¯¯¯¯¯$\overline{xyz}$,
\vec, x⃗ $\vec x$, \overrightarrow xy$\overrightarrow{xy}$ \overleftrightarrow xyz$\overleftrightarrow{xyz}$,
\frac d{dx}x\dot x = \dot x^2 + x\ddot x ddxxx˙=x˙2+xx¨$\frac d{dx}x\dot x = \dot x^2 + x\ddot x$

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