# Intrinsic Functions (DirectX HLSL)

The following table lists the intrinsic functions available in HLSL. Each function has a brief description, and a link to a reference page that has more detail about the input argument and return type.

Name Syntax Description
abs abs(x) Absolute value (per component).
acos acos(x) Returns the arccosine of each component of x.
all all(x) Test if all components of x are nonzero.
any any(x) Test if any component of x is nonzero.
asfloat asfloat(x) Convert the input type to a float.
asin asin(x) Returns the arcsine of each component of x.
asint asint(x) Convert the input type to an integer.
asuint asuint(x) Convert the input type to an unsigned integer.
atan atan(x) Returns the arctangent of x.
atan2 atan2(y, x) Returns the arctangent of of two values (x,y).
ceil ceil(x) Returns the smallest integer which is greater than or equal to x.
clamp clamp(x, min, max) Clamps x to the range [min, max].
clip clip(x) Discards the current pixel, if any component of x is less than zero.
cos cos(x) Returns the cosine of x.
cosh cosh(x) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x.
cross cross(x, y) Returns the cross product of two 3D vectors.
D3DCOLORtoUBYTE4 D3DCOLORtoUBYTE4(x) Swizzles and scales components of the 4D vector x to compensate for the lack of UBYTE4 support in some hardware.
ddx ddx(x) Returns the partial derivative of x with respect to the screen-space x-coordinate.
ddy ddy(x) Returns the partial derivative of x with respect to the screen-space y-coordinate.
degrees degrees(x) Converts x from radians to degrees.
determinant determinant(m) Returns the determinant of the square matrix m.
distance distance(x, y) Returns the distance between two points.
dot dot(x, y) Returns the dot product of two vectors.
exp exp(x) Returns the base-e exponent.
exp2 exp2(x) Base 2 exponent (per component).
faceforward faceforward(n, i, ng) Returns -n * sign(•(i, ng)).
floor floor(x) Returns the greatest integer which is less than or equal to x.
fmod fmod(x, y) Returns the floating point remainder of x/y.
frac frac(x) Returns the fractional part of x.
frexp frexp(x, exp) Returns the mantissa and exponent of x.
fwidth fwidth(x) Returns abs(ddx(x)) + abs(ddy(x))
GetRenderTargetSampleCount GetRenderTargetSampleCount() Returns the number of render-target samples.
GetRenderTargetSamplePosition GetRenderTargetSamplePosition(x) Returns a sample position (x,y) for a given sample index.
isfinite isfinite(x) Returns true if x is finite, false otherwise.
isinf isinf(x) Returns true if x is +INF or -INF, false otherwise.
isnan isnan(x) Returns true if x is NAN or QNAN, false otherwise.
ldexp ldexp(x, exp) Returns x * 2exp
length length(v) Returns the length of the vector v.
lerp lerp(x, y, s) Returns x + s(y - x).
lit lit(n • l, n • h, m) Returns a lighting vector (ambient, diffuse, specular, 1)
log log(x) Returns the base-e logarithm of x.
log10 log10(x) Returns the base-10 logarithm of x.
log2 log2(x) Returns the base-2 logarithm of x.
max max(x, y) Selects the greater of x and y.
min min(x, y) Selects the lesser of x and y.
modf modf(x, out ip) Splits the value x into fractional and integer parts.
mul mul(x, y) Performs matrix multiplication using x and y.
noise noise(x) Generates a random value using the Perlin-noise algorithm.
normalize normalize(x) Returns a normalized vector.
pow pow(x, y) Returns xy.
reflect reflect(i, n) Returns a reflection vector.
refract refract(i, n, R) Returns the refraction vector.
round round(x) Rounds x to the nearest integer
rsqrt rsqrt(x) Returns 1 / sqrt(x)
saturate saturate(x) Clamps x to the range [0, 1]
sign sign(x) Computes the sign of x.
sin sin(x) Returns the sine of x
sincos sincos(x, out s, out c) Returns the sine and cosine of x.
sinh sinh(x) Returns the hyperbolic sine of x
smoothstep smoothstep(min, max, x) Returns a smooth Hermite interpolation between 0 and 1.
sqrt sqrt(x) Square root (per component)
step step(a, x) Returns (x >= a) ? 1 : 0
tan tan(x) Returns the tangent of x
tanh tanh(x) Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x
tex1D tex1D(s, t) 1D texture lookup.
tex1Dbias tex1Dbias(s, t) 1D texture lookup with bias.
tex1Dgrad tex1Dgrad(s, t, ddx, ddy) 1D texture lookup with a gradient.
tex1Dlod tex1Dlod(s, t) 1D texture lookup with LOD.
tex1Dproj tex1Dproj(s, t) 1D texture lookup with projective divide.
tex2D tex2D(s, t) 2D texture lookup.
tex2Dbias tex2Dbias(s, t) 2D texture lookup with bias.
tex2Dgrad tex2Dgrad(s, t, ddx, ddy) 2D texture lookup with a gradient.
tex2Dlod tex2Dlod(s, t) 2D texture lookup with LOD.
tex2Dproj tex2Dproj(s, t) 2D texture lookup with projective divide.
tex3D tex3D(s, t) 3D texture lookup.
tex3Dbias tex3Dbias(s, t) 3D texture lookup with bias.
tex3Dgrad tex3Dgrad(s, t, ddx, ddy) 3D texture lookup with a gradient.
tex3Dlod tex3Dlod(s, t) 3D texture lookup with LOD.
tex3Dproj tex3Dproj(s, t) 3D texture lookup with projective divide.
texCUBE texCUBE(s, t) Cube texture lookup.
texCUBEbias texCUBEbias(s, t) Cube texture lookup with bias.
texCUBEgrad texCUBEgrad(s, t, ddx, ddy) Cube texture lookup with a gradient.
texCUBElod tex3Dlod(s, t) Cube texture lookup with LOD.
texCUBEproj texCUBEproj(s, t) Cube texture lookup with projective divide.
transpose transpose(m) Returns the transpose of the matrix m.
trunc trunc(x) Truncates floating-point value(s) to integer value(s)

 函数名            用法

abs                         计算输入值的绝对值。

acos                        返回输入值反余弦值。

all                           测试非0值。

any                         测试输入值中的任何非零值。

asin                         返回输入值的反正弦值。

atan                        返回输入值的反正切值。

atan2                       返回y/x的反正切值。

ceil                         返回大于或等于输入值的最小整数。

clamp                      把输入值限制在[min, max]范围内。

clip                         如果输入向量中的任何元素小于0，则丢弃当前像素。

cos                         返回输入值的余弦。

cosh                       返回输入值的双曲余弦。

cross                      返回两个3D向量的叉积。

ddx                         返回关于屏幕坐标x轴的偏导数。

ddy                         返回关于屏幕坐标y轴的偏导数。

degrees                   弧度到角度的转换

determinant              返回输入矩阵的值。

distance                   返回两个输入点间的距离。

dot                          返回两个向量的点积。

exp                         返回以e为底数，输入值为指数的指数函数值。

exp2                       返回以2为底数，输入值为指数的指数函数值。

faceforward             检测多边形是否位于正面。

floor                       返回小于等于x的最大整数。

fmod                       返回a / b的浮点余数。

frac                        返回输入值的小数部分。

frexp                       返回输入值的尾数和指数

fwidth                     返回 abs ( ddx (x) + abs ( ddy(x))。

isfinite                     如果输入值为有限值则返回true，否则返回false。

isinf                        如何输入值为无限的则返回true。

isnan                       如果输入值为NAN或QNAN则返回true。

ldexp                       frexp的逆运算，返回 x * 2 ^ exp。

len / lenth                返回输入向量的长度。

lerp                         对输入值进行插值计算。

lit                            返回光照向量（环境光，漫反射光，镜面高光，1）。

log                          返回以e为底的对数。

log10                      返回以10为底的对数。

log2                        返回以2为底的对数。

max                        返回两个输入值中较大的一个。

min                         返回两个输入值中较小的一个。

modf                       把输入值分解为整数和小数部分。

mul                         返回输入矩阵相乘的积。

normalize                 返回规范化的向量，定义为 x / length(x)。

pow                        返回输入值的指定次幂。

reflect                     返回入射光线i对表面法线n的反射光线。

refract                     返回在入射光线i，表面法线n，折射率为eta下的折射光线v。

round                      返回最接近于输入值的整数。

rsqrt                       返回输入值平方根的倒数。

saturate                   把输入值限制到[0, 1]之间。

sign                        计算输入值的符号。

sin                          计算输入值的正弦值。

sincos                     返回输入值的正弦和余弦值。

sinh                        返回x的双曲正弦。

smoothstep              返回一个在输入值之间平稳变化的插值。

sqrt                         返回输入值的平方根。

step                        返回（x >= a）? 1 : 0。

tan                          返回输入值的正切值。

fanh                        返回输入值的双曲线切线。

transpose                 返回输入矩阵的转置。

tex1D*                    1D纹理查询。

tex2D*                    2D纹理查询。

tex3D*                    3D纹理查询。

texCUBE*                立方纹理查询。

# Intrinsic Functions (DirectX HLSL)

The following table lists the intrinsic functions available in HLSL. Each function has a brief description, and a link to a reference page that has more detail about the input argument and return type.

Name Description Minimum shader model
abs Absolute value (per component). 11
acos Returns the arccosine of each component of x. 11
all Test if all components of x are nonzero. 11
AllMemoryBarrier Blocks execution of all threads in a group until all memory accesses have been completed. 5
AllMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync Blocks execution of all threads in a group until all memory accesses have been completed and all threads in the group have reached this call. 5
any Test if any component of x is nonzero. 11
asdouble Reinterprets a cast value into a double. 5
asfloat Convert the input type to a float. 4
asin Returns the arcsine of each component of x. 11
asint Convert the input type to an integer. 4
asuint Reinterprets the bit pattern of a 64-bit type to a uint. 5
asuint Convert the input type to an unsigned integer. 4
atan Returns the arctangent of x. 11
atan2 Returns the arctangent of of two values (x,y). 11
ceil Returns the smallest integer which is greater than or equal to x. 11
clamp Clamps x to the range [min, max]. 11
clip Discards the current pixel, if any component of x is less than zero. 11
cos Returns the cosine of x. 11
cosh Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x. 11
countbits Counts the number of bits (per component) in the input integer. 5
cross Returns the cross product of two 3D vectors. 11
D3DCOLORtoUBYTE4 Swizzles and scales components of the 4D vector xto compensate for the lack of UBYTE4 support in some hardware. 11
ddx Returns the partial derivative of x with respect to the screen-space x-coordinate. 21
ddx_coarse Computes a low precision partial derivative with respect to the screen-space x-coordinate. 5
ddx_fine Computes a high precision partial derivative with respect to the screen-space x-coordinate. 5
ddy Returns the partial derivative of x with respect to the screen-space y-coordinate. 21
ddy_coarse Computes a low precision partial derivative with respect to the screen-space y-coordinate. 5
ddy_fine Computes a high precision partial derivative with respect to the screen-space y-coordinate. 5
degrees Converts x from radians to degrees. 11
determinant Returns the determinant of the square matrix m. 11
DeviceMemoryBarrier Blocks execution of all threads in a group until all device memory accesses have been completed. 5
DeviceMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync Blocks execution of all threads in a group until all device memory accesses have been completed and all threads in the group have reached this call. 5
distance Returns the distance between two points. 11
dot Returns the dot product of two vectors. 1
dst Calculates a distance vector. 5
EvaluateAttributeAtCentroid Evaluates at the pixel centroid. 5
EvaluateAttributeAtSample Evaluates at the indexed sample location. 5
EvaluateAttributeSnapped Evaluates at the pixel centroid with an offset. 5
exp Returns the base-e exponent. 11
exp2 Base 2 exponent (per component). 11
f16tof32 Converts the float16 stored in the low-half of the uint to a float. 5
f32tof16 Converts an input into a float16 type. 5
faceforward Returns -n * sign(dot(i, ng)). 11
firstbithigh Gets the location of the first set bit starting from the highest order bit and working downward, per component. 5
firstbitlow Returns the location of the first set bit starting from the lowest order bit and working upward, per component. 5
floor Returns the greatest integer which is less than or equal to x. 11
fmod Returns the floating point remainder of x/y. 11
frac Returns the fractional part of x. 11
frexp Returns the mantissa and exponent of x. 21
fwidth Returns abs(ddx(x)) + abs(ddy(x)) 21
GetRenderTargetSampleCount Returns the number of render-target samples. 4
GetRenderTargetSamplePosition Returns a sample position (x,y) for a given sample index. 4
GroupMemoryBarrier Blocks execution of all threads in a group until all group shared accesses have been completed. 5
GroupMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync Blocks execution of all threads in a group until all group shared accesses have been completed and all threads in the group have reached this call. 5
InterlockedAdd Performs a guaranteed atomic add of value to the dest resource variable. 5
InterlockedAnd Performs a guaranteed atomic and. 5
InterlockedCompareExchange Atomically compares the input to the comparison value and exchanges the result. 5
InterlockedCompareStore Atomically compares the input to the comparison value. 5
InterlockedExchange Assigns value to dest and returns the original value. 5
InterlockedMax Performs a guaranteed atomic max. 5
InterlockedMin Performs a guaranteed atomic min. 5
InterlockedOr Performs a guaranteed atomic or. 5
InterlockedXor Performs a guaranteed atomic xor. 5
isfinite Returns true if x is finite, false otherwise. 11
isinf Returns true if x is +INF or -INF, false otherwise. 11
isnan Returns true if x is NAN or QNAN, false otherwise. 11
ldexp Returns x * 2exp 11
length Returns the length of the vector v. 11
lerp Returns x + s(y - x). 11
lit Returns a lighting vector (ambient, diffuse, specular, 1) 11
log Returns the base-e logarithm of x. 11
log10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of x. 11
log2 Returns the base-2 logarithm of x. 11
mad Performs an arithmetic multiply/add operation on three values. 5
max Selects the greater of x and y. 11
min Selects the lesser of x and y. 11
modf Splits the value x into fractional and integer parts. 11
mul Performs matrix multiplication using x and y. 1
noise Generates a random value using the Perlin-noise algorithm. 11
normalize Returns a normalized vector. 11
pow Returns xy. 11
Process2DQuadTessFactorsAvg Generates the corrected tessellation factors for a quad patch. 5
Process2DQuadTessFactorsMax Generates the corrected tessellation factors for a quad patch. 5
Process2DQuadTessFactorsMin Generates the corrected tessellation factors for a quad patch. 5
ProcessIsolineTessFactors Generates the rounded tessellation factors for an isoline. 5
ProcessQuadTessFactorsAvg Generates the corrected tessellation factors for a quad patch. 5
ProcessQuadTessFactorsMax Generates the corrected tessellation factors for a quad patch. 5
ProcessQuadTessFactorsMin Generates the corrected tessellation factors for a quad patch. 5
ProcessTriTessFactorsAvg Generates the corrected tessellation factors for a tri patch. 5
ProcessTriTessFactorsMax Generates the corrected tessellation factors for a tri patch. 5
ProcessTriTessFactorsMin Generates the corrected tessellation factors for a tri patch. 5
radians Converts x from degrees to radians. 1
rcp Calculates a fast, approximate, per-component reciprocal. 5
reflect Returns a reflection vector. 1
refract Returns the refraction vector. 11
reversebits Reverses the order of the bits, per component. 5
round Rounds x to the nearest integer 11
rsqrt Returns 1 / sqrt(x) 11
saturate Clamps x to the range [0, 1] 1
sign Computes the sign of x. 11
sin Returns the sine of x 11
sincos Returns the sine and cosine of x. 11
sinh Returns the hyperbolic sine of x 11
smoothstep Returns a smooth Hermite interpolation between 0 and 1. 11
sqrt Square root (per component) 11
step Returns (x >= a) ? 1 : 0 11
tan Returns the tangent of x 11
tanh Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x 11
tex1D(s, t) 1D texture lookup. 1
tex1D(s, t, ddx, ddy) 1D texture lookup. 21
tex1Dbias 1D texture lookup with bias. 21
tex1Dgrad 1D texture lookup with a gradient. 21
tex1Dlod 1D texture lookup with LOD. 31
tex1Dproj 1D texture lookup with projective divide. 21
tex2D(s, t) 2D texture lookup. 11
tex2D(s, t, ddx, ddy) 2D texture lookup. 21
tex2Dbias 2D texture lookup with bias. 21
tex2Dgrad 2D texture lookup with a gradient. 21
tex2Dlod 2D texture lookup with LOD. 3
tex2Dproj 2D texture lookup with projective divide. 21
tex3D(s, t) 3D texture lookup. 11
tex3D(s, t, ddx, ddy) 3D texture lookup. 21
tex3Dbias 3D texture lookup with bias. 21
tex3Dgrad 3D texture lookup with a gradient. 21
tex3Dlod 3D texture lookup with LOD. 31
tex3Dproj 3D texture lookup with projective divide. 21
texCUBE(s, t) Cube texture lookup. 11
texCUBE(s, t, ddx, ddy) Cube texture lookup. 21
texCUBEbias Cube texture lookup with bias. 21
texCUBEgrad Cube texture lookup with a gradient. 21
texCUBElod Cube texture lookup with LOD. 31
texCUBEproj Cube texture lookup with projective divide. 21
transpose Returns the transpose of the matrix m. 1
trunc Truncates floating-point value(s) to integer value(s)
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