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lamp模块式和fpm式

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环境架构:windows 7宿主机   虚拟机vmvare-11.0  CentOS6.5  x86_64 

第一种:模块式

一、编译安装二进制mysql
#groupadd -r mysql
#useradd -g mysql -r -s /sbin/nologin
#tar xf mysql-5.5.42-linux2.6-x86_64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/
#cd /usr/local/
#创建链接文件,方便日后升级。
#ln -sv mysql-5.5.42-linux2.6-x86_64 mysql
#cd mysql
#验证添加用户、用户组是否成功
#id mysql
#创建数据库的存放数据目录
#mkdir /data
#这里我在虚拟机中单独添加一块硬盘进行分区创建逻辑卷,也可以在本地磁盘空间分区创建;
#fdisk /dev/sdb1
n
p
1
t
8e
w
#分别创建物理卷、卷组、逻辑卷;
#pvcreate /dev/sdb1
#vgcreate myvg /dev/sdb1
#lvcreate -n mydata -L 10G myvg
#查看创建成功与否
#lvs
#进行分区和开机挂载
#mke2fs -t ext4 /dev/myvg/mydata
#vim /etc/fstab
添加代码:
/dev/myvg/mydata        /data                   ext4    defaults,noatime 0 0
#Mount all filesystems (of the given types) mentioned in fstab.
#mount -a
#查看挂载情况
#mount
#cd /data/
#mkdir mydata
#chown -R mysql.mysql mydata/
#切换目录更改目录及子目录属主属组
#cd /usr/local/mysql
#chown -R root.mysql ./*
#初始化数据库
#scripts/mysql_install_db --datadir=/data/mydata/ --user=mysql
#复制服务启动文件
#cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
#chkconfig --add mysqld
#查看年添加是否成功
#chkconfig --list mysqld
#复制配置文件并添加mysql的数据目录;
#cp support-files/my-large.cnf /etc/my.cnf
#vim /etc/my.cnf
在thread_concurrency = 8这一行的下面,添加如下代码:
datadir = /data/mydata
#启动服务,查看成功与否。
#service mysqld start
#编辑服务脚本,并生效。
#vim /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh
添加如下代码即可:
export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH
#source /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh
#为了方便php安装可能会应用到mysql的头文件,我们添加链接;
#ln -sv /usr/local/mysql/include/ /usr/include/mysql
#编辑文件,更新库文件到缓存。
#vim /etc/ld.so.conf.d/mysql.conf
#ldconfig
#Print the lists of directories and candidate libraries stored in the current  cache.
#ldconfig -p | grep mysql
#最后,就可以登录mysql,进行root用户的密码设置等操作。需要注意的是远程主机登陆不了mysql的root用户。
#需要强调的是这里我并没有设置mysql的man的路径,因为系统的文件/etc/man.config已经包含在内,
当然,可以也可以添加一行:MANPATH /usr/local/mysql/man
输入mysql命令,然后进入mysql的命令行,执行的命令显示参考如下:
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| test               |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)


mysql> use mysql;
Database changed
mysql> select user,host,password from user;
+------+-----------+----------+
| user | host      | password |
+------+-----------+----------+
| root | localhost |          |
| root | centos    |          |
| root | 127.0.0.1 |          |
| root | ::1       |          |
|      | localhost |          |
|      | centos    |          |
+------+-----------+----------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)


mysql> drop user ''@localhost ;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)


mysql> select user,host,password from user;
+------+-----------+----------+
| user | host      | password |
+------+-----------+----------+
| root | localhost |          |
| root | centos    |          |
| root | 127.0.0.1 |          |
| root | ::1       |          |
|      | centos    |          |
+------+-----------+----------+
5 rows in set (0.03 sec)


mysql> drop user ''@centos;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)


mysql> select user,host,password from user;
+------+-----------+----------+
| user | host      | password |
+------+-----------+----------+
| root | localhost |          |
| root | centos    |          |
| root | 127.0.0.1 |          |
| root | ::1       |          |
+------+-----------+----------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)


mysql> update user set password=password('mysql') where user='root';
Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.04 sec)
Rows matched: 4  Changed: 4  Warnings: 0


mysql> select user,host,password from user;
+------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+
| user | host      | password                                  |
+------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+
| root | localhost | *E74858DB86EBA20BC33D0AECAE8A8108C56B17FA |
| root | centos    | *E74858DB86EBA20BC33D0AECAE8A8108C56B17FA |
| root | 127.0.0.1 | *E74858DB86EBA20BC33D0AECAE8A8108C56B17FA |
| root | ::1       | *E74858DB86EBA20BC33D0AECAE8A8108C56B17FA |
+------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
#重读用户表
mysql> flush privileges;




二、编译安装httpd2.4


#在配置好yum源的前提下先安装pcre-devel;因为它的安装依赖次开发库;还有额外的两个包;
#yum -y install pcre-devel
#先解压这两个包
apr-1.5.2.tar.bz2
apr-util-1.5.4.tar.bz2
tar xf apr-1.5.2.tar.bz2
tar xf apr-util-1.5.4.tar.bz2
然后,分别编译安装;
cd apr-1.5.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apr
make && make install


cd apr-util-1.5.4
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apr-util --with-apr=/usr/local/apr/
make && make install


# tar xf httpd-2.4.23.tar.bz2
# cd httpd-2.4.23
# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apache --sysconfdir=/etc/httpd2.4 --enable-so --enable-ssl --enable-cgi --enable-rewrite --with-zlib --with-pcre --with-apr=/usr/local/apr --with-apr-util=/usr/local/apr-util/ --enable-modules=most --enable-mpms-shared=all --with-mpm=event
# make && make install
如果报错如下:
checking whether to enable mod_ssl... configure: error: mod_ssl has been requested but can not be built due to prerequisite failures
需要:yum install openssl-devel后,然后再次./configure.....即可;
最后,执行make && make install。


[root@centos ~]# vim /etc/httpd2.4/httpd.conf 
#在ServerRoot "/usr/local/apache"一行下面添加如下代码:
PidFile "/var/run/httpd/httpd.pid"  //此行代码表示httpd服务启动后会生成一个进程的id文件;
#顺便改写ServerName www.centos.com,防止启动httpd服务时提示解析不了目标主机,也就是自己的主机名; 
#如果添加最新的man文档,可编辑文件:vim /etc/man.config 添加MANPATH /usr/local/apache/man,但是需要重启,
#因为之前你如果安装过旧版本的httpd,你执行的man命令查看的是旧版本的手册,如果不重启的话,可以man -M /usr/local/apache/man httpd 


此时,我们需要提供一个服务脚本,复制httpd2.2即可:
cd /etc/rc.d/init.d/
cp httpd httpd-2.4
vim httpd-2.4 
修改文件的这两行即可:
apachectl=/usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl
httpd=${HTTPD-/usr/local/apache/bin/httpd}
保存退出;


[root@centos ~]# vim /etc/profile.d/httpd.sh
#添加一行
export PATH=/usr/local/apache/bin:$PATH
[root@centos ~]# source /etc/profile.d/httpd.sh
[root@centos ~]# vim /etc/hosts
#添加一行
192.168.136.136 centos
[root@centos ~]# service httpd-2.4 start
然后我们打开网页,输入192.168.136.136(自己的主机IP地址)回车,即可看见 It Works !


到此,htppd2.4安装完成。


三、编译安装php-5.6.25


如果想让php支持mcrypt,需要两个安装的开发包:
libmcrypt-2.5.8-9.el6.x86_64.rpm
libmcrypt-devel-2.5.8-9.el6.x86_64.rpm
bzip2-devel(避免预编译的时候,提示报错。)


[root@centos ~]# rpm -ivh libmcrypt-2.5.8-9.el6.x86_64.rpm libmcrypt-devel-2.5.8-9.el6.x86_64.rpm
[root@centos ~]# yum install -y bzip2-devel


[root@centos ~]# tar xf php-5.6.25.tar.bz2 
[root@centos ~]# cd php-5.6.25
[root@centos php-5.6.25 ]#./configure --prefix=/usr/local/php --with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql --with-openssl 
--with-mysqli=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config --enable-mbstring --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir 
--with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml  --enable-sockets --with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs --with-mcrypt  
--with-config-file-path=/etc --with-config-file-scan-dir=/etc/php.d --with-bz2  --enable-maintainer-zts


#复制源码文件下的这个文件到/etc下,把此配置文件重命名;
[root@centos php-5.6.25]# cp php.ini-production /etc/php.ini
[root@centos ~]# vim /etc/httpd2.4/httpd.conf
#在<IfModule mime_module>中添加两行代码
 AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
 AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps


#在<DirectoryIndex dir_module>中添加如下一个index.php
<IfModule dir_module>
    DirectoryIndex index.php index.html
</IfModule>


[root@centos ~]# cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs/
[root@centos htdocs]# mv index.html index.php
[root@centos htdocs]# vim index.php
#删除原有代码,改成如下代码并保存退出:
<?php
        phpinfo();
?>
#重启服务,然后打开网页输入:192.168.136.136 测试是否成功;
[root@centos ~]# service httpd-2.4 restart
Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
Starting httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
     
当然,也可以重新编辑这个文件,测试是否链接mysql数据:
vim index.php 改成如下代码:   
<?php
      $link = mysql_connect('127.0.0.1','root','mysql');
      if ($link)
        echo "Success...";
      else
        echo "Failure...";


      mysql_close();    
?>
再重启httpd-2.4服务,刷新网页,会提示:Success...;此刻,然后关闭mysqld的服务,刷新页面,会提示:Failure...;




四、安装xcache,为php加速:


安装之前,我们先安装个phpMyAdmin,然后压力测试一下,这样好与xcache形成对比;
[root@centos ~]# tar xf phpMyAdmin-3.4.3.2-all-languages.tar.bz2 
[root@centos ~]# mv phpMyAdmin-3.4.3.2-all-languages /usr/local/apache/htdocs/pma


在ab命令工具压力测试前,需要注意的是,ab -c 2000 -n 5000 http://192.168.136.136/pma/index.php
默认是1000,超过1000的话我们要使用ulimit -n 数值,提高其默认值。如果你在虚拟机上运行的话,建议两个数值设置
最多都不要超过100。否则,结果会返回很慢。
[root@centos ~]# ab -c 50 -n 100 http://192.168.136.136/pma/index.php
.......
.......
Server Software:        Apache/2.4.23
Server Hostname:        192.168.136.136
Server Port:            80


Document Path:          /pma/index.php
Document Length:        7747 bytes


Concurrency Level:      50
Time taken for tests:   4.406 seconds
Complete requests:      100
Failed requests:        0
Total transferred:      859236 bytes
HTML transferred:       774700 bytes
Requests per second:    22.69 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       2203.190 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       44.064 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          190.43 [Kbytes/sec] received


Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    3   2.9      2       7
Processing:   724 1788 485.0   1817    2895
Waiting:      724 1784 485.0   1817    2892
Total:        724 1791 485.4   1817    2895


Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%   1817
  66%   2000
  75%   2156
  80%   2248
  90%   2426
  95%   2604
  98%   2745
  99%   2895
 100%   2895 (longest request)




[root@centos ~]# tar xf xcache-3.2.0.tar.bz2 
[root@centos ~]# cd /usr/local/php/
[root@centos php]# ls php/
man
[root@centos php]# man -M php/man/ phpize
#注意第一行的解释:为php扩展的准备工作做编译。
phpize - prepare a PHP extension for compiling
[root@centos ~]# cd xcache-3.2.0
[root@centos xcache-3.2.0]# /usr/local/php/bin/phpize 
Configuring for:
PHP Api Version:         20131106
Zend Module Api No:      20131226
Zend Extension Api No:   220131226


[root@centos xcache-3.2.0]# ./configure --enable-xcache --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config
[root@centos xcache-3.2.0]# make && make install
#这是编译安装后的最后一行的显示:安装的扩展共享路径,这个很有用,我们稍后会把它添加到一个文件中;
Installing shared extensions:     /usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-zts-20131226/


[root@centos xcache-3.2.0]# mkdir /etc/php.d
[root@centos xcache-3.2.0]# cp xcache.ini /etc/php.d/
[root@centos xcache-3.2.0]# vim /etc/php.d/xcache.ini
#把上面的这个路径信息:/usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-zts-20131226/添加进来;
extension =/usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-zts-20131226/xcache.so


[root@centos ~]# ab -c 50 -n 100 http://192.168.136.136/pma/index.php
.......
.......
Server Software:        Apache/2.4.23
Server Hostname:        192.168.136.136
Server Port:            80


Document Path:          /pma/index.php
Document Length:        7747 bytes


Concurrency Level:      50
Time taken for tests:   15.310 seconds
Complete requests:      100
Failed requests:        0
Total transferred:      859264 bytes
HTML transferred:       774700 bytes
Requests per second:    6.53 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       7655.132 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       153.103 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          54.81 [Kbytes/sec] received


Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0   37  45.6     13     119
Processing:   687 7083 4952.9   6243   14473
Waiting:      686 7028 4975.0   6243   14470
Total:        689 7119 4970.8   6243   14558


Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%   6243
  66%  11139
  75%  12097
  80%  12599
  90%  14044
  95%  14133
  98%  14497
  99%  14558
 100%  14558 (longest request)

第二种:fpm式

前提条件:与lamp模块安装方式一样,首先得编译安装php-5.6.25和httpd-2.4
需要注意的是php编译安装的时候需要添加和去掉几项,具体的执行命令:
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/php --with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql --with-openssl --with-mysqli=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config --enable-mbstring --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml  --enable-sockets --enable-fpm --with-mcrypt  --with-config-file-path=/etc --with-config-file-scan-dir=/etc/php.d --with-bz2 --enable-maintainer-zts


编辑文件:vim /etc/httpd-2.4/httpd.conf,(注意此文件的备份)操作如下:


1)去掉#,开启加载的这两个模块:
LoadModule proxy_module modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_fcgi_module modules/mod_proxy_fcgi.so


2)#<IfModule mime_module>在此函数里找空白添加两行代码
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps


3)#此外我们为了演示效果,开启虚拟主机,关闭中心主机,即找到这两行代码,去掉#和添加#;
# Virtual hosts
Include /etc/httpd-2.4/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf


#DocumentRoot "/usr/local/apache/htdocs"


cd /etc/httpd-2.4/extra/
#备份虚拟主机的配置文件后,再编辑;
cp httpd-vhosts.conf httpd-vhosts.conf.bak
vim httpd-vhosts.conf
#修改内容如下:
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerAdmin webadmin@a.com
    DocumentRoot "/web/a.com/htdocs"
    ServerName www.a.com
    ServerAlias a.com
    ErrorLog "logs/a.com.err"
    CustomLog "logs/a.com.access" combined
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerAdmin webadmin@b.org
    DocumentRoot "/web/b.org/htdocs"
    ServerName www.b.org
    ServerAlias b.org
    ErrorLog "logs/b.org.err"
    CustomLog "logs/b.org.access" combined
</VirtualHost>


mkdir -pv /web/{a.com,b.org}/htdocs


测试语法:httpd -t
#没问题后,简单的编辑下两个站点的测试页;
vim /web/a.com/htdocs/index.html
添加一行代码:a.com
vim /web/b.org/htdocs/index.html
添加一行代码:b.org


#编辑文件hosts添加两行代码,用来解析主机;
vim /etc/hosts
192.168.136.136 www.a.com a.com
192.168.136.136 www.b.org b.org
#安装elinks命令工具包
yum install -y elinks
#对其中的一个站点进行测试链接;
elinks -dump http://www.a.com
[root@centos extra]# elinks -dump http://www.a.com
                                   Forbidden


   You don't have permission to access / on this server.
#添加授权代码
[root@centos extra]# vim httpd-vhosts.conf


<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerAdmin webadmin@a.com
    DocumentRoot "/web/a.com/htdocs"
    ServerName www.a.com
    ServerAlias a.com
    ErrorLog "logs/a.com.err"
    CustomLog "logs/a.com.access" combined
    <Directory "/web/a.com/htdocs">
        Options None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerAdmin webadmin@b.org
    DocumentRoot "/web/b.org/htdocs"
    ServerName www.b.org
    ServerAlias b.org
    ErrorLog "logs/b.org.err"
    CustomLog "logs/b.org.access" combined
    <Directory "/web/b.org/htdocs">
        Options None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>
</VirtualHost>
#然后我们再测试就ok了
[root@centos extra]# pwd
/etc/httpd2.4/extra
[root@centos extra]# elinks -dump http://www.a.com
   a.com
[root@centos extra]# elinks -dump http://www.b.org
   b.org


[root@centos php-5.6.25]# cd sapi/fpm/
[root@centos fpm]# cp init.d.php-fpm.in /etc/rc.d/init.d/php-fpm
[root@centos fpm]# chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/php-fpm
[root@centos fpm]# chkconfig --add php-fpm


[root@centos etc]# pwd
/usr/local/php/etc
#给上述的脚本提供配置文件,只需系统自带的配置文件,在此目录下的重命名,编辑简单修改即可;
[root@centos etc]# cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf
[root@centos etc]# vim php-fpm.conf
#这里的;是注释,只加一行,这里添加php的安装路径;此外,记录错误日志和系统日志,可开启可不开启,系统是默认的;
[global]
; Pid file
; Note: the default prefix is /usr/local/php/var
; Default Value: none
;pid = run/php-fpm.pid
pid =/usr/local/php/var/run/php-fpm.pid
..........
..........
pm.max_children = 50


; The number of child processes created on startup.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Default Value: min_spare_servers + (max_spare_servers - min_spare_servers) / 2
pm.start_servers = 5


; The desired minimum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.min_spare_servers = 2


; The desired maximum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.max_spare_servers = 6
........
........


#最后,切换目录,编辑虚拟主机的文件,添加开启反向代理的两行代码;
cd /etc/httpd-2.4/extra/
vim httpd-vhosts.conf
<VirtualHost *:80> 
    ServerAdmin webadmin@a.com 
    DocumentRoot "/web/a.com/htdocs" 
    ServerName www.a.com 
    ServerAlias a.com 
    ErrorLog "logs/a.com.err" 
    CustomLog "logs/a.com.access" combined 
    <Directory "/web/a.com/htdocs"> 
        Options None 
        Require all granted 
    </Directory> 
    ProxyRequests Off 
    ProxyPassMatch ^/(.*\.php)$ fcgi://127.0.0.1:9000/web/a.com/htdocs/$1 
</VirtualHost> 
<VirtualHost *:80> 
    ServerAdmin webadmin@b.org 
    DocumentRoot "/web/b.org/htdocs" 
    ServerName www.b.org 
    ServerAlias b.org 
    ErrorLog "logs/b.org.err" 
    CustomLog "logs/b.org.access" combined 
    <Directory "/web/b.org/htdocs"> 
        Options None 
        Require all granted 
    </Directory> 
    ProxyRequests Off 
    ProxyPassMatch ^/(.*\.php)$ fcgi://127.0.0.1:9000/web/b.org/htdocs/$1 
</VirtualHost> 


保存退出后,我们可以打开浏览器输入www.a.com/pma进行测试。但是,可能会出现无法解析的情况。
一般在LINUX下修改完/etc/hosts文件都会立即生效的,即便偶尔不生效,只要重启一下network服务就可以了。但是windows却是会遇到这样的问题,而且在不同版本的系统中还略有区别。
所以我们需要修改windows的Hosts文件:
首先要知道hosts文件的位置,在xp,2000,win7等系统中找到如下位置C:\windows\system32\drivers\etc,hosts文件默认具有隐藏属性,系统默认设置情况下是看不到的,解决办法是打开
我的电脑-点击工具-文件夹选项-查看-取消勾选隐藏受保护的系统文件,确定即可。具体怎么修改,打开此文件看了就会,跟修改Linux的hosts基本一致;


当然,xcache还未安装,可参考之前lamp模块式中所叙述的操作。


尽管,这两种方式,在实际生产环境中不太可能同时使用,但是,依然需要全都掌握。


























































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