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UVALive Problem 7457 Discrete Logarithm Problem——Regionals 2015 :: Asia - Taipei

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 UVALive Problem 7457 Discrete Logarithm Problem

Accept: 0    Submit: 0
Time Limit: 3.000 seconds

 Problem Description

Finite groups are used in almost all modern cryptosystems. Let p be a prime. The finite multiplicative group constructed by integers modulo p is denoted by . The elements of the group are 1, 2, . . . , p−1. Let a and b be two elements in . The value of a×b is define as a·b mod p. For example, let p = 13, a = 5, and b = 7. Then 5 × 7 = 5·7 mod 13 = 35 mod 13 = 9. 

You are going to write a program to solve the discrete logarithm problem in . That is, given p, a, and b, compute x satisfying


For very large p, solving discrete logarithm problem in may not be easy. However, in this problem the value of p will not be very large.

 Input

The first line of the input file contains a prime p, 1 < p < 2^13 . This prime will be used in the following test cases. Each test case contains two integers a and b in a line. The last test case is followed by a line containing ‘0’.

 Output

For each test case, print out the solution x to the equation in the finite group . If there are no solutions, print ‘0’.

 Sample Input

31
24 3
3 15
0

 Sample Output

7
21

 Problem Idea

解题思路:

【题意】
求满足的x值,若无解则输出'0'


【类型】
暴力

【分析】
其实此题已经把题目简化了

因为它给了你x的范围为[1,p-1],然而p的值又很小,所以暴力枚举x的每种可能取值,判断等式是否成立即可

另外,我们提一提如果不给你x的范围应该怎么做

由费马小定理可得




这样我们就可以把x缩小至范围[0,p-2],然后暴力枚举就可以了

因此,此题暴力枚举也无需枚举到p-1,到p-2就可以了,若到p-2还没有满足的解x,那就是无解的情况了

此外要提及的一点是,输入除了单行'0'结束外,还要判断是否到文件尾(EOF),不然会超时(TLE)

【时间复杂度&&优化】
O(p)

题目链接→UVALive Problem 7457 Discrete Logarithm Problem

 Source Code

/*Sherlock and Watson and Adler*/
#pragma comment(linker, "/STACK:1024000000,1024000000")
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<queue>
#include<stack>
#include<math.h>
#include<vector>
#include<map>
#include<set>
#include<bitset>
#include<cmath>
#include<complex>
#include<string>
#include<algorithm>
#include<iostream>
#define eps 1e-9
#define LL long long
#define PI acos(-1.0)
#define bitnum(a) __builtin_popcount(a)
using namespace std;
const int N = 15;
const int M = 100005;
const int inf = 1000000007;
const int mod = 7;
int main()
{
    int p,a,b,i,s;
    scanf("%d",&p);
    while(~scanf("%d",&a)&&a)//'~'不能少,否则TLE
    {
        s=a%p;
        scanf("%d",&b);
        for(i=1;i<=p-2;i++,s=a%p*s%p)
            if(s==b)
                break;
        if(i>p-2)
            puts("0");
        else
            printf("%d\n",i);
    }
    return 0;
}

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