STL(from:http://www.cnblogs.com/henryzc/articles/298882.html)

转载 2007年09月23日 14:52:00
对容器中的元素:排序,查找,替换,分段,求和 。。。。。。。swap  ratate  sort  search   merge  range copy 。。。。。。。。。太多拉,说不完啊,希望那位有所有函数的列表啊,给一个吧,找的时候好找啊!看看下面的有没有见过啊!

#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
{
    copy (istream_iterator<string>(cin),         // beginning of source
          istream_iterator<string>(),            // end of source
          ostream_iterator<string>(cout,"/n"));  // destination
}
 
#include <cstdlib>
#include "algostuff.hpp"
using namespace std;
 
class MyRandom {
  public:
    ptrdiff_t operator() (ptrdiff_t max) {
        double tmp;
        tmp = static_cast<double>(rand())
                / static_cast<double>(RAND_MAX);
        return static_cast<ptrdiff_t>(tmp * max);
    }
};
 
int main()
{
    vector<int> coll;
 
    INSERT_ELEMENTS(coll,1,20);
    PRINT_ELEMENTS(coll,"coll:     ");
 
    // shuffle all elements randomly
    random_shuffle (coll.begin(), coll.end());
 
    PRINT_ELEMENTS(coll,"shuffled: ");
 
    // sort them again
    sort (coll.begin(), coll.end());
    PRINT_ELEMENTS(coll,"sorted:   ");
 
    /* shuffle elements with self-written random number generator
     * - to pass an lvalue we have to use a temporary object
     */
    MyRandom rd;
    random_shuffle (coll.begin(), coll.end(),    // range
                    rd);                 // random number generator
 
    PRINT_ELEMENTS(coll,"shuffled: ");
}
 
#include "algostuff.hpp"
using namespace std;
 
// checks whether an element is even or odd
bool checkEven (int elem, bool even)
{
    if (even) {
        return elem % 2 == 0;
    }
    else {
        return elem % 2 == 1;
    }
}
 
int main()
{
    vector<int> coll;
 
    INSERT_ELEMENTS(coll,1,9);
    PRINT_ELEMENTS(coll,"coll: ");
 
    /* arguments for checkEven()
     * - check for: ``even odd even''
     */
    bool checkEvenArgs[3] = { true, false, true };
 
    // search first subrange in coll
    vector<int>::iterator pos;
    pos = search (coll.begin(), coll.end(),       // range
                  checkEvenArgs, checkEvenArgs+3, // subrange values
                  checkEven);                     // subrange criterion
 
    // loop while subrange found
    while (pos != coll.end()) {
        // print position of first element
        cout << "subrange found starting with element "
             << distance(coll.begin(),pos) + 1
             << endl;
 
        // search next subrange in coll
        pos = search (++pos, coll.end(),              // range
                      checkEvenArgs, checkEvenArgs+3, // subr. values
                      checkEven);                     // subr. criterion
    }
}
 
#include "algostuff.hpp"
using namespace std;
 
int main()
{
    int c1[] = { 1, 2, 2, 4, 6, 7, 7, 9 };
    int num1 = sizeof(c1) / sizeof(int);
 
    int c2[] = { 2, 2, 2, 3, 6, 6, 8, 9 };
    int num2 = sizeof(c2) / sizeof(int);
 
    // print source ranges
    cout << "c1:                         " ;
    copy (c1, c1+num1,
          ostream_iterator<int>(cout," "));
    cout << endl;
    cout << "c2:                         " ;
    copy (c2, c2+num2,
          ostream_iterator<int>(cout," "));
    cout << '/n' << endl;
 
    // sum the ranges by using merge()
    cout << "merge():                    ";
    merge (c1, c1+num1,
           c2, c2+num2,
           ostream_iterator<int>(cout," "));
    cout << endl;
 
    // unite the ranges by using set_union()
    cout << "set_union():                ";
    set_union (c1, c1+num1,
               c2, c2+num2,
               ostream_iterator<int>(cout," "));
    cout << endl;
 
    // intersect the ranges by using set_intersection()
    cout << "set_intersection():         ";
    set_intersection (c1, c1+num1,
                      c2, c2+num2,
                      ostream_iterator<int>(cout," "));
    cout << endl;
 
    // determine elements of first range without elements of second range
    // by using set_difference()
    cout << "set_difference():           ";
    set_difference (c1, c1+num1,
                    c2, c2+num2,
                    ostream_iterator<int>(cout," "));
    cout << endl;
 
    // determine difference the ranges with set_symmetric_difference()
    cout << "set_symmetric_difference(): ";
    set_symmetric_difference (c1, c1+num1,
                              c2, c2+num2,
                              ostream_iterator<int>(cout," "));
    cout << endl;
}
--------------------------------------------------------
一个简单的函数列表:希望给大家查找带来方便!来自:
http://www.csci.csusb.edu/dick/samples/stl.algorithms.html
 
Glossary for the C++ Standard Library

  1. binary_function::=A function that has two arguments f(x,y).
  2. binary_predicate::=a function or function_object that returns a bool value when given two items, used for testing to see if items match, or that they are in order.
  3. function::=Something f that can be called like this f(x) for an argument x.
  4. function_object::=any instance of a class that has defined and operator() and so can be called as if it was a function.
  5. iterator::=an object that indicates an item in a container,
  6. iterators::=plutral of iterator.
  7. predicate::=a function or function_object that returns a bool value when given an item.
  8. range::= a sequence of items in a container given by a pair of iterators indicating the beginning and the point after the last one.

    (find): looks for a value in a
    range.
    (find_if): looks for items in a range that satisfy a
    predicate.
    (find_first_of): looks for items in first
    range that is also in the second range or uses a binary_predicate to find first matching item.
    (find_end): looks backward for items in first
    range that are not also in the second range or uses a binary_predicate to find first non_matching item.
    (adjacent_find): looks for first pair in
    range that are equal, or match under a binary_predicate.

    (max): returns larger of two items, possible using a binary_predicate.
    (max_element): finds largest item in a
    range, may use a binary_predicate. [ timeSelectionSort.cpp ]
    (min): returns larger of two items, possible using a
    binary_predicate.
    (min_element): finds largest item in a
    range, may use a binary_predicate.

    (mismatch): search two parallel ranges and returns position of the first one that is unequal or doesn't satisfy a binary_predicate.

    (search): look in first range for an occurrence of the second range, possibly using a binary_predicate.
    (search_n): look in
    range for an occurrence of n items equal to a value, possibly using a binary_predicate.
     

    (count): scan
    range and count occurrence of a value.
    (count_if): scan
    range and count times a predicate is true.
    (equal): test if a
    range equals, element another parallel range, possibly using a binary_predicate.
    (for_each): Apply a function to every item in a
    range.

    (copy): Copy items in range to another place indicate by its start. There is a surprising way to read and write data to/from an input/output stream by using copy and adapters that give iterators accessing a stream. For example, suppose we have a range [begin, end) ints and want to output them separated by tabs we can write:
    copy(begin, end, ostream_iterator<int> (cout, "/t") );
    To read ints into a vector v we would write
    copy(istream_iterator<int>(cin), istream_iterator<int>(), back_inserter(v));

    (copy_backward): Copy items in range to another place indicated by its end.

    (swap): swaps values of two given variables.
    (iter_swap): swaps two items in a container indicated by iterators. Used in [
    timeSelectionSort.cpp ] [ timeQuickSort.cpp ]

    (swap_ranges): interchanges value between two ranges.
    (reverse): places the elements in the reverse order.
    (reverse_copy): creates a backwards copy of a
    range.
    (rotate): given a middle point in a
    range, reorganizes range so that middle comes first...
    (rotate_copy): creates a rotated copy.

    (partition): takes a range and reorganizes the items so that a predicate is true at first and then false... A key part of QuickSort! [ timeQuickSort.cpp ]
    (stable_partition): takes a range and reorganizes the items so that a
    predicate is true at first and then false... but in each part the items are still in the same sequence (with some gaps).

    (random_shuffle): shuffles a range, you can supply your own random number generator.

    (replace): scan a
    range and replace given old values by given new value.
    (replace_if): scan a
    range and replace given old values by given new value IF a predicate is true.
    (replace_copy): make a copy of a
    range but replace given old values by given new value.
    (replace_copy_if): make a copy of a
    range but replace given old values by given new value IF a predicate is true.
    (remove): deletes items in a
    range that equal a given value.
    (remove_if): deletes items in a
    range if a predicate is true.
    (remove_copy): makes a copy of items in a
    range but not those with a given value.
    (remove_if): makes a copy of items in a
    range but not those where a predicate is true.

    (unique): deletes duplicated items, leaves the first. Can use a binary_predicate.
    (unique_copy): copies
    range but not duplicated items, leaves the first. Can use a binary_predicate.
     

    (fill): change a
    range to all have the same given value.
    (fill_n): change n items to all have the same given value.
    (generate): change items in a
    range to be values produced by a function_object.
    (generate_n): change n items to be values produced by
    function_object.
    (transform): scans a
    range and for each use a function to generate a new object put in a second container, OR takes two intervals and applies a binary operation to items to generate a new container.

    (sort): reorganize a range to be in order, can use a
    binary_predicate. For example: [ timeVectorSort.cpp ]
    Also some containers have a sort member function: [ timeListSort.cpp ]

    (stable_sort): like sort but equivalent items are kept in the same sequence.
    (partial_sort): Sorts part of a range.
    (partial_sort_copy): makes a copy of a range but with part sorted.

    (nth_element): Sorts out just the nth element!

    (binary_search): search a sorted range for a value.
    (lower_bound): finds first place in a sorted range which is not less than a given value.
    (upper_bound): finds first place in a sorted range which is not greater than a given value.
    (equal_range): finds a range that brackets a given value.

    (merge): Combines two sorted ranges to give a new sorted range both all their items.
    (inplace_merge): Combines two sorted halves of a
    range to give a sorted range both all their items. [ timeMergeSort.cpp ]

    (next_permutation): permutes items in a range... will generate each possible order once until it returns false.
    (prev_permutation): undoes
    next_permutation

    (includes): set theoretic test.
    (set_union ): set theoretic operation.
    (set_intersection): set theoretic operation.
    (set_difference): set theoretic operation.
    (set_symmetric_difference): set theoretic operation.

    (accumulate): adds up items in range starting with given initial value, can also do any binary operation if it is given as an function of two arguments(
    binary_function).Used to code the math /Sigma and /Pi symbols.
    (inner_product): the heart of linear algebra, but can be generalized to do other things by supplying two
    binary_function s.
    (partial_sum): scans
    range and replaces items by sum so far, can use general binary_function.
    (adjacent_difference): Scans
    range and replace items by differences
    The big lumps rise to the top. Seriously! A heap is an array of vector where the first item is always the biggest tiem. Further, the next two smallest items are in the second and third places. After the second you have the fourth and fithf, and after the third the sixth and seventh. As a rule the n'th item is larger than the 2*n'th and (2*n+1)'th items. For more take CSCI330 Data Structures.

    (make_heap): rearranges a range so that it becomes a heap.
    (sort_heap): takes a heap and creates a sorted container from it (by popping items).
    Combining make_heap and sort_heap gives a pretty good [O(n log n)] sort: [ timeHeapSort.cpp ]

    (push_heap): puts a new element into a heap and rearranges it to still be a heap.
    (pop_heap): removes the top/largest element and rearranges to leave a heap behind. [
    http://www.csci.csusb.edu/dick/examples/ ]
    Examples of use
    Heaps
    Numeric algorithms
    Set Operations: union, intersection, complement,...
    Search, Merge and Permute Sorted Containers
    Sort
    Generate and Fill
    Change and Delete
    Copy, Move and swap
    Scan, compare, and count
    Search

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