CreateFile函数详解

原创 2007年10月08日 16:29:00

The CreateFile function creates or opens the following objects and returns a handle that can be used to access
the object:
 files
 pipes
 mailslots
 communications resources
 disk devices(Windows NT only)
 consoles
 directories(open only)

CreateFile函数创建或打开下列对象,并返回一个可以用来访问这些对象的句柄。
 文件
 pipes
 邮槽
 通信资源
 磁盘驱动器(仅适用于windowsNT)
 控制台
 文件夹(仅用于打开)

HANDLE CreateFile(
 LPCTSTR lpFileName,    //指向文件名的指针
 DWORD dwDesiredAccess,    //访问模式(写/读)
 DWORD dwShareMode,    //共享模式
 LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpSecurityAttributes, //指向安全属性的指针
 DWORD dwCreationDisposition,   //如何创建
 DWORD dwFlagsAndAttributes,   //文件属性
 HANDLE hTemplateFile    //用于复制文件句柄
);

Parametes
参数列表

lpFileName
 Pointer to a null-terminated string that specifies the name of the object(file, pipe, mailslot,
 communications resource, disk device, console, or directory) to create or open.
 指向一个空结尾字符串。该参数指定了用于创建或打开句柄的对象。

 if *lpFileName is a path, there is a default string size limit of MAX_PATH characters, This limit is
 related to how the CreateFile function parses paths.
 如果lpFileName的对象是一个路径,则有一个最大字符数的限制。不能超过常量(MAX_PATH).这个限制指示了
 CreateFile函数如何解析路径.

dwDesiredAccess
 Specifies the type of access to the object. An application can obtain read access, write access,
 read-write access, or device query access, This parameter can be any combination of the following
 values
 指定对象的访问方式,程序可以获得读访问权,写访问权,读写访问权或者是询问设备("device query") 访问权.
 这个参数可以是下列值的任意组合
 
 Value(值)  Meaning(含义)
 0   Specifies device query access to the object. An application can query device
    attributes without accessing the device.
    指定询问访问权.程序可以在不直接访问设备的情况下查询设备的属性.

 GENERIC_READ  Specifies read access to the object, Data can be read from the file and the
    file pointer can be moved. Combine with GENERIC_WRITE for read-write access.
    指定读访问权.可以从文件中读取数据,并且移动文件指针.可以和GENERIC_WRITE组合
    成为"读写访问权".

 GENERIC_WRITE  specifies write access to the object. Data can be written to the file and the
    file pointer can be moved. Combine with GENERIC_READ fro read-write access
    指定写访问权.可以从文件中写入数据,并且移动文件指针.可以和GENERIC_READ组合
    成为"读写访问权".

dwShareMode
 Set of bit flags that specifies how the object can be shared, If dwShareMode is 0, the object cannot
 be shared. Subsequent open operations on the object will fail, until the handle is closed.
 设置位标志指明对象如休共享.如果参数是0, 对象不能够共享. 后续的打开对象的操作将会失败,直到该对象的句
 柄关闭.

 To share the object, use a combination of one or more of the following values:
 使用一个或多个下列值的组合来共享一个对象.
 Value(值)  Meaning(含义)
 FILE_SHARE_DELETE WindowsNT: Subsequent open operations on the object will succeed only if
    delete access is requested.
    WINDOWS NT:后续的仅仅请求删除访问权的打开操作将会成功.

 FILE_SHARE_READ  Subsequent open operations on the object will successd only if read access
    is requested.
    后续的仅仅请求读访问权的打开操作将会成功.

 FILE_SHARE_WRITE Subsequent open operations on the object will succeed only if write access
    is requested.
    后续的仅仅请求写访问权的打开操作将会成功.

lpSecurityAttributes
 pointer to a SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES structure that determines whether the returned handle can be
 inherited by child processes, if lpSecurityAttributes is NULL, the handle cannot be inherited.
 指向一个 SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES 结构的指针用于确定如何在子进程中继承这个句柄.如果这个参数是NULL,
 则该句柄不可继承.

dwCreationDisposition
 Specifies which action to take on files that exist, and which action to take when files do not exist.
 For more information about this parameter, see the remarks section. This parameter must be one of the
 following values
 指定当文件存在或者不存在时如何动作。关于这个参数更多的信息,参考批注部分。这个参数必须是一个或多个
 下列值。

 VALUE(值)  Neaning(含义)
 CREATE_NEW  Creates a new file. The function fails if the specified file already exists
    创建一个新文件. 如果该文件已经存在函数则会失败.
 
 CREATE_ALWAYS  Creates a new file. If the file exsts, the function overwrites the file and
    clears the existing attributes.
    创建一个新文件.如果该文件已经存在,函数将覆盖已存在的文件并清除已存在的文件属性

 OPEN_EXISTING  Opens the file. The function fails if the file does not exist.
    See the Remarks section for a discussion of why you should use the
    OPEN_EXISTING flag if you are using the CreateFile function for devices,
    including the console.
    打开一个文件,如果文件不存在函数将会失败.
    如查你使用CreateFile函数为设备装载控制台.请查看批注中的"为什么使用
    OPEN_EXISTING标志"的部分.
    
 OPEN_ALWAYS  Opens the file, if it exsts. If the file does not exist, the function creates
    the file as if dwCreationDisposition were CREATE_NEW.
    如果文件存在,打开文件. 如果文件不存在,并且参数中有CREATE_NEW标志,则创建文件.

 TRUNCATE_EXISTING Opens the file. Once opened, the file is truncated so that its size is zero
    bytes The calling process must open the file with at least GENERIC_WRITE access.
    The function fails if the file does not exist.
    打开一个文件,每次打开,文件将被截至0字节.调用进程必须用GENERIC_WRITE访问模式打
    开文件.如果文件不存在则函数就会失败.

dwFlagsAndatributes
 Specifies the file attributes and flags for the file.
 为文件指定属性和标志位

 Any combination of the following attributes is acceptable for the dwFlagsAndAttributes parameter,
 except all other file attributes override FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL.
 该参数可以接收下列属性的任意组合.除非其它所有的文件属性忽略FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL.
 Attribute(属性)   Meaning(标志)
 FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE  The ifle should be archived. Application use this attribute to mark
     files for backup or removal.
     文件将被存档,程序使用此属性来标志文件去备份或移除

 FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN  The file is hidden. It is not to be included in an ordinary directory
     listing.
     文件被隐藏,它不会在一般文件夹列表中被装载.

 FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL  The file has no other attributes set. This attribute is valid only if
     used alone
     文件没有被设置任何属性.

 
 FILE_ATTRIBUTE_OFFLINE  The data of the file is not immediately available. Indicates that the
     file data has been physically moved to offline storage.
     文件的数据没有被立即用到。指出正在脱机使用该文件。

 FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY  The file is read only.Applications can read the file but cannot write
     to it or delete it
     这个文件只可读取.程序可以读文件,但不可以在上面写入内容,也不可删除.

 FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM  The file is part of or is used exclusively by the operation system.
     文件是系统的一部分,或是系统专用的.

 FILE_ATTRIBUTE_TEMPORARY The file is being used for temporary storage. File systems attempt
     to keep all of the data in memory for quicker access rather than
     flushing the data back to mass storage. A temporary file should be
     deleted by the application as soon as it is no longer needed.
     文件被使用后,文件系统将努力为(文件的)所有数据的迅迅访问保持一块
     内存。临时文件应当在程序不用时及时删除。

 Any combination of the following flags is acceptable for the dwFlagsAndAttributes parameter.
 dwFlagAndAttributes可以接受下列标志的任意组合。

 FLAG(标志)   Meaning(含义)
 FILE_FLAG_WRITE_THROUGH  Instructs the system to write through any intermediate cache and go
     directly to disk. The system can still cache write operations, but
     cannot lazily flush them.
     指示系统通过快速缓存直接写入磁盘,

 FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED  Instructs the system to initialize the object, so that operations that
     take a significant amount of time to process return ERROR_IO_PENDING.
     When the operation is finished, the specified event is set to the
     signaled state.
     指示系统初始化对象, 此操作将对进程设置一个引用计数并返回ERROR_IO_PENDING.
     处理完成后, 指定对象将被设置为信号状态.

     When you specify FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED, the file read and write functions
     must specify an OVERLAPPED structure. That is, when FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED
     is specified, an application must perform overlapped parameter(pointing
     to an OVERLAPPED structure)to the file read and write functions.
     This flag also enables more than one operation to be performed
     simultaneously with the handle(a simultaneous read and write operation,
     for example).
     当你指定FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED时,读写文件的函数必须指定一个OVERLAPPED结构.
     并且. 当FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED被指定, 程序必须执行重叠参数(指向OVERLAPPED
     结构)去进行文件的读写.
     这个标志也可以有超过一个操作去执行.

 FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING  Instructs the system to open the file with no intermediate buffering or
     caching.When combined with FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED, the flag gives maximum
     asynchronous performance, because the I/O does not rely on the synchronous
     operations of the memory manager. However, some I/O operations will take
     longer, because data is not being held in the cache.
     指示系统不使用快速缓冲区或缓存,当和FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED组合,该标志给出最
     大的异步操作量, 因为I/O不依赖内存管理器的异步操作.然而,一些I/O操作将会运行
     得长一些,因为数据没有控制在缓存中.

     An application must meet certain requirements when working with files
     opened with FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING:
     当使用FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING打开文件进行工作时,程序必须达到下列要求:
     
      File access must begin at byte offsets within the file that are
      integer multiples of the volume's sector size.
      文件的存取开头的字节偏移量必须是扇区尺寸的整倍数.
      
      File access must be for numbers of bytes that are integer
      multiples of the volume's sector size. For example, if the sector
      size is 512 bytes, an application can request reads and writes of
      512, 1024, or 2048 bytes, but not of 335, 981, or 7171bytes.
      文件存取的字节数必须是扇区尺寸的整倍数.例如,如果扇区尺寸是512字节
      程序就可以读或者写512,1024或者2048字节,但不能够是335,981或者7171
      字节.

      buffer addresses for read and write operations must be sector
      aligned(aligned on addresses in memory that are integer multiples
      of the volume's sector size).
      进行读和写操作的地址必须在扇区的对齐位置,在内存中对齐的地址是扇区
      尺寸的整倍数.

     One way to align buffers on integer multiples of the volume sector size is
     to use VirtualAlloc to allocate the buffers, It allocates memory that is
     aligned on addresses that are integer multiples of the operating system's
     memory page size. Because both memory page and volume sector sizes are
     powers of 2, this memory is also aligned on addresses that are integer
     multiples of a volume's sector size.
     一个将缓冲区与扇区尺寸对齐的途径是使用VirtualAlloc函数. 它分配与操作系统
     内存页大小的整倍数对齐的内存地址.因为内存页尺寸和扇区尺寸--2都是它们的幂.
     这块内存在地址中同样与扇区尺寸大小的整倍数对齐.

     An application can determine a volume's sector size by calling the
     GetDiskFreeSpace function
     程序可以通过调用GetDiskFreeSpace来确定扇区的尺寸.

 FILE_FLAG_RANDOM_ACCESS
     Indicates that the file is accessed randomly. The system can use this as
     a hint to optimize file caching.
     指定文件是随机访问,这个标志可以使系统优化文件的缓冲.


 FILE_FLAG_SEQUENTIAL_SCAN 
     Indicates that the file is to be accessed sequentially from beginning to
     end. The system can use this as a hint to optimize file caching. If an
     application moves the file pointer for random access, optimum caching may
     not occur; however, correct operation is still guaranteed.
     指定文件将从头到尾连续地访问.这个标志可以提示系统优化文件缓冲. 如果程序在
     随机访问文件中移动文件指针,优化可能不会发生;然而,正确的操作仍然可以得到保
     证
     
     Specifying this flag can increase performance for applications that read
     large files using sequential access, performance gains can be even more
     noticeable for applications that read large files mostly sequentially,
     but occasionally skip over small ranges of bytes.
     指定这个标志可以提高程序以顺序访问模式读取大文件的性能, 性能的提高在许多
     程序读取一些大的顺序文件时是异常明显的.但是可能会有小范围的字节遗漏.


 FILE_FLAG_DELETE_ON_CLOSE Indicates that the operating system is to delete the file immediately
     after all of its handles have been closed, not just the handle for which
     you specified FILE_FLAG_DELETE_ON_CLOSE.
     指示系统在文件所有打开的句柄关闭后立即删除文件.不只有你可以指定FILE_FLAG_DELETE_ON_CLOSE
     
     Subsequent open requests for the file will fail, unless FILE_SHARE_DELETE
     is used.
     如果没有使用FILE_SHARE_DELETE,后续的打开文件的请求将会失败.

 FILE_FLAG_BACKUP_SEMANTICS  WINDOWS NT:Indicates that the file is being opened or created for a backup
     or restore operation.The system ensures that the calling process overrides
     file security checks, provided it has the necessary privileges. The
     relevant privileges are SE_BACKUP_NAME and SE_RESTORE_NAME.
     WINDOWS NT:指示系统为文件的打开或创建执行一个备份或恢复操作. 系统保证调
     用进程忽略文件的安全选项,倘若它必须有一个特权.则相关的特权则是SE_BACKUP_NAME
     和SE_RESTORE_NAME.

     You can also set this flag to obtain a handle to a directory. A directory
     handle can be passed to some Win32 functions in place of a file handle.
     你也可以使用这个标志获得一个文件夹的句柄,一个文件夹句柄能够象一个文件句柄
     一样传给某些Win32函数。

 FILE_FLAG_POSIX_SEMANTICS Indicates that the file is to be accessed according to POSIX rules. This
     includes allowing multiple files with names, differing only in case, for file
     systems that support such naming. Use care when using this option because
     files created with this flag may not be accessible by applications written
     for MS-DOS or 16-bit Windows.
     指明文件符合POSIX标准.这是在MS-DOS与16位Windows下的标准.

 FILE_FLAG_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT Specifying this flag inhibits the reparse behavior of NTFS reparse points.
     When the file is opened, a file handle is returned, whether the filter that
     controls the reparse point is operational or not. This flag cannot be used
     with the CREATE_ALWAYS flag.
     指定这个标志制约NTFS分区指针.该标志不能够和CREAT_ALWAYS一起使用.

 FILE_FLAG_OPEN_NO_RECALL Indicates that the file data is requested,but it should continue to reside in
     remote storage. It should not be transported back to local storage. This flag
     is intended for use by remote storage systems or the Hierarchical Storage
     Management system.
     指明需要文件数据,但是将继续从远程存储器中接收.它不会将数据存放在本地存储器中.
     这个标志由远程存储系统或等级存储管理器系统使用.

hTemplateFile
 Specifies a handle with GENERIC_READ access to a template file. The template file supplies file attributes and
 extended attributes for the file being created.
 为GENERIC_READ访问的模式指定一个句柄到模板文件.模板文件在文件开始创建后提供文件属性和扩展属性.

Return Values
返回值

If the function succeeds, the return value is an open handle to the specified file. If the specified file exists before
the function call and dwCreation is CREATE_ALWAYS or OPEN_ALWAYS, a call to GetLastError returns ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS
(even though the function has succeeded). If the file does not exist before the call, GetLastError returns zero.
如果函数成功,返回一个打开的指定文件的句柄.如果指定文件在函数调用前已经存在并且dwCreation参数是CREATE_ALWAYS 或者
OPEN_ALWAYS,调用GetLastError就会返回ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS(表示函数成功). 如果函数文件在调用前不存在则会返回0.

If the function fails, the return value is INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE.To get extended error information, call GetLastError.
如果函数失败,返会值会是INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE. 更多的错误信息可以调用GetLastError来获得.

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