Android Crash异常处理方法

标签: Android 异常处理
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写在前面

大家都知道,Android应用不可避免的会发生Crash,无论你的程序写的多完美,总是无法完全避免Crash的发生,可能是由于Android系统底层的Bug,也可能是由于不充分的机型适配或者是糟糕的网络状况。当Crash发生时,系统会Kill掉你的程序,表现就是闪退或者程序已停止运行,这对用户来说是很不友好的,也是开发者所不愿意看到的,更糟糕的是,当用户发生了Crash,开发者却无法得知程序为何Crash,即便你想去解决这个Crash,但是由于你无法知道用户当时的Crash信息,所以你也无能为力。是否真的这样呢,其实Android中有处理这类问题的方法,请看下面Thread类中的一个方法setDefaultUncaughtExceptionHandler。

/**
     * Set the default handler invoked when a thread abruptly terminates
     * due to an uncaught exception, and no other handler has been defined
     * for that thread.
     *
     * <p>Uncaught exception handling is controlled first by the thread, then
     * by the thread's {@link ThreadGroup} object and finally by the default
     * uncaught exception handler. If the thread does not have an explicit
     * uncaught exception handler set, and the thread's thread group
     * (including parent thread groups)  does not specialize its
     * <tt>uncaughtException</tt> method, then the default handler's
     * <tt>uncaughtException</tt> method will be invoked.
     * <p>By setting the default uncaught exception handler, an application
     * can change the way in which uncaught exceptions are handled (such as
     * logging to a specific device, or file) for those threads that would
     * already accept whatever "default" behavior the system
     * provided.
     *
     * <p>Note that the default uncaught exception handler should not usually
     * defer to the thread's <tt>ThreadGroup</tt> object, as that could cause
     * infinite recursion.
     *
     * @param eh the object to use as the default uncaught exception handler.
     * If <tt>null</tt> then there is no default handler.
     *
     * @throws SecurityException if a security manager is present and it
     *         denies <tt>{@link RuntimePermission}
     *         ("setDefaultUncaughtExceptionHandler")</tt>
     *
     * @see #setUncaughtExceptionHandler
     * @see #getUncaughtExceptionHandler
     * @see ThreadGroup#uncaughtException
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public static void setDefaultUncaughtExceptionHandler(UncaughtExceptionHandler eh) {
         defaultUncaughtExceptionHandler = eh;
     }
这个方法好像是可以设置系统的默认异常处理器,其实,这个方法就可以解决应用常见的Crash问题。当Crash发生的时候,我们可以捕获到异常信息,把异常信息存储到SD卡中,然后在合适的时机通过网络将Crash信息上传到服务器上,这样开发人员就可以分析用户Crash的场景从而在后面的版本中修复此类Crash。我们还可以在Crash发生时,弹出一个通知告诉用户程序Crash了,然后再退出,这样做比闪退要好一点。

使用方法

1.新建异常处理器类

CrashHandler.java

package com.jackie.appcrashhandler;

import android.content.Context;
import android.content.pm.PackageInfo;
import android.content.pm.PackageManager;
import android.os.Build;
import android.os.Environment;
import android.os.Process;
import android.util.Log;

import java.io.BufferedWriter;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileWriter;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.Date;

/**
 * Created by Jackie on 2017/1/3.
 * 异常处理器
 */

public class CrashHandler implements Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler {
    private static final String TAG = CrashHandler.class.getSimpleName();

    private static final boolean DEBUG = true;
    private static final String FILE_PATH = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory() + "/log/";
    private static final String FILE_NAME = "crash";

    //log文件的后缀名
    private static final String FILE_SUFFIX = ".trace";

    private static CrashHandler mCrashHandler;

    //系统默认的异常处理(默认情况下,系统会终止当前的异常程序)
    private Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler mUncaughtExceptionHandler;

    private Context mContext;

    private CrashHandler() {

    }

    public static CrashHandler getInstance() {
        if (mCrashHandler == null) {
            synchronized (CrashHandler.class) {
                if (mCrashHandler == null) {
                    mCrashHandler = new CrashHandler();
                }
            }
        }

        return mCrashHandler;
    }

    public void init(Context context) {
        //获取系统默认的异常处理器
        mUncaughtExceptionHandler = Thread.getDefaultUncaughtExceptionHandler();
        //将当前实例设为系统默认的异常处理器
        Thread.setDefaultUncaughtExceptionHandler(this);
        mContext = context.getApplicationContext();
    }

    /**
     * 这个是最关键的函数,当程序中有未被捕获的异常,系统将会自动调用uncaughtException方法
     * thread为出现未捕获异常的线程,ex为未捕获的异常,有了这个ex,我们就可以得到异常信息。
     */
    @Override
    public void uncaughtException(Thread t, Throwable ex) {
        try {
            //导出异常信息到SD卡中
            dumpExceptionToSDCard(ex);
            //这里可以通过网络上传异常信息到服务器,便于开发人员分析日志解决bug
            uploadExceptionToServer();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

        //打印出当前调用栈信息
        ex.printStackTrace();

        //如果系统提供了默认的异常处理器,则交给系统去结束我们的程序,否则就由我们自己结束自己
        if (mUncaughtExceptionHandler != null) {
            mUncaughtExceptionHandler.uncaughtException(t, ex);
        } else {
            Process.killProcess(Process.myPid());
        }
    }

    private void dumpExceptionToSDCard(Throwable ex) throws IOException {
        //如果SD卡不存在或无法使用,则无法把异常信息写入SD卡
        if (!Environment.getExternalStorageState().equals(Environment.MEDIA_MOUNTED)) {
            if (DEBUG) {
                Log.d(TAG, "sdcard unmounted, skip dum exception");
                return;
            }
        }

        String time = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss").format(
                new Date(System.currentTimeMillis()));

        //以当前时间创建log文件
        File file = new File(FILE_PATH + FILE_NAME + time + FILE_SUFFIX);
        if (!file.exists()) {
            file.createNewFile();
        }

        try {
            PrintWriter printWriter = new PrintWriter(new BufferedWriter(new FileWriter(file)));

            //导出发生异常的时间
            printWriter.println(time);

            //导出手机信息
            dumpPhoneInfo(printWriter);

            printWriter.println();
            //导出异常的调用栈信息
            ex.printStackTrace(printWriter);

            printWriter.close();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.e(TAG, "dump crash info failed");
        }
    }

    private void uploadExceptionToServer() {
        //TODO Upload Exception Message To Your Web Server
    }

    private void dumpPhoneInfo(PrintWriter printWriter) throws
            PackageManager.NameNotFoundException {

        //应用的版本名称和版本号
        PackageManager packageManager = mContext.getPackageManager();
        PackageInfo packageInfo = packageManager.getPackageInfo(
                mContext.getPackageName(), PackageManager.GET_ACTIVITIES);
        
        printWriter.print("App Version: ");
        printWriter.print(packageInfo.versionName);
        printWriter.print('_');
        printWriter.println(packageInfo.versionCode);

        //Android版本号
        printWriter.print("OS Version: ");
        printWriter.print(Build.VERSION.RELEASE);
        printWriter.print("_");
        printWriter.println(Build.VERSION.SDK_INT);

        //手机制造商
        printWriter.print("Vendor: ");
        printWriter.println(Build.MANUFACTURER);

        //手机型号
        printWriter.print("Model: ");
        printWriter.println(Build.MODEL);

        //CPU架构
        printWriter.print("CPU ABI: ");
        printWriter.println(Build.CPU_ABI);
    }
}

2.为UI线程添加默认异常事件Handler

这里涉及到在哪里添加的问题,从源码中注意到,这个defaultUncaughtHandler是Thread类中一个静态的成员,所以,按道理,我们为任意一个线程设置异常处理,所有的线程都应该能共用这个异常处理器,有一个观点是大家都认可的:就是为主线程也就是UI线程添加异常程序器。为了在UI线程中添加异常处理Handler,我们推荐大家在Application中添加而不是在Activity中添加。Application标识着整个应用,在Android声明周期中是第一个启动的,早于任何的Activity、Service等。

CrashApplication.java

package com.jackie.appcrashhandler;

import android.app.Application;

/**
 * Created by Jackie on 2017/1/3.
 * 异常处理Application
 */

public class CrashApplication extends Application {

    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();

        //在这里为应用设置异常处理程序,然后我们的程序才能捕获未处理的异常
        CrashHandler crashHandler = CrashHandler.getInstance();
        crashHandler.init(this);
    }
}
验证

MainActivity.java

package com.jackie.appcrashhandler;

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity implements View.OnClickListener {
    private Button mBtnThrowException;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

        initView();
    }

    private void initView() {
        mBtnThrowException = (Button) findViewById(R.id.btn_throw_exception);
        mBtnThrowException.setOnClickListener(this);
    }

    @Override
    public void onClick(View v) {
        switch (v.getId()) {
            case R.id.btn_throw_exception:
                //在这里默认异常抛出情况,人为抛出一个运行时异常
                throw new RuntimeException("自定义异常:这是自己抛出的异常");
//                break;
        }
    }
}

最后别忘了修改AndroidManifest.xml,添加下面的内容:


这里点击按钮,强制抛出一个异常,效果如如下:








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