march-bird lucian yjf taopin wl jazz韩伟 nullgate Simon[AKA](转载自cutter.com) 2003年09月15日
Values and Principles
On Saturday, 1 January 2000, the Wall Street Journal (you know, the "Monday through Friday" newspaper) published a special 58-page millennial edition. The introduction to the Industry & Economics section, titled "So Long Supply and Demand: There's a new economy out there -- and it looks nothing like the old one," was written by Tom Petzinger. "The bottom line: creativity is overtaking capital as the principal elixir of growth," Petzinger states.
在2000年一月一日周六时候，华尔街日报（周一到周五出版的）用一个58页的版面发布了一个千僖年纪念版。在篇首的有关工业及金融的介绍里标着Tom Petzinger.写的："长久的需求与召唤：经济新的增长点――显得同以往不同"。底下的一行 Petzinger 写着："创造性正代替'万金药'的资本在成为首要的因素"。
Petzinger isn't talking about a handful of creative geniuses, but the creativity of groups -- from teams to departments to companies. Once we leave the realm of the single creative genius, creativity becomes a function of the environment and how people interact and collaborate to produce results. If your company's fundamental principles point to software development as a statistically repeatable, rigorous, engineering process, then XP is probably not for you. Although XP contains certain rigorous practices, its intent is to foster creativity and communication.
Environments are driven by values and principles. XP (or the other practices mentioned in this issue) may or may not work in your organization, but, ultimately, success won't depend on using 40-hour work weeks or pair programming -- it will depend on whether or not the values and principles of XP align with those of your organization.
Beck identifies four values, five fundamental principles, and ten secondary principles -- but I'll mention five that should provide enough background.
Communication. So, what's new here? It depends on your perspective. XP focuses on building a person-to-person, mutual understanding of the problem environment through minimal formal documentation and maximum face-to-face interaction. "Problems with projects can invariably be traced back to somebody not talking to somebody else about something important," Beck says. XP's practices are designed to encourage interaction - developer to developer, developer to customer.
Simplicity. XP asks of each team member, "What is the simplest thing that could possibly work?" Make it simple today, and create an environment in which the cost of change tomorrow is low.
Feedback. "Optimism is an occupational hazard of programming," says Beck. "Feedback is the treatment." Whether it's hourly builds or frequent functionality testing with customers, XP embraces change by constant feedback. Although every approach to software development advocates feedback -- even the much-maligned waterfall model -- the difference is that XP practitioners understand that feedback is more important than feedforward. Whether it's fixing an object that failed a test case or refactoring a design that is resisting a change, high-change environments require a much different understanding of feedback.
Courage. Whether it's a CMM practice or an XP practice that defines your discipline, discipline requires courage. Many define courage as doing what's right, even when pressured to do something else. Developers often cite the pressure to ship a buggy product and the courage to resist. However, the deeper issues can involve legitimate differences of opinion over what is right. Often, people don't lack courage -- they lack conviction, which puts us right back to other values. If a team's values aren't aligned, the team won't be convinced that some practice is "right," and, without conviction, courage doesn't seem so important. It's hard to work up the energy to fight for something you don't believe in.
"Courage isn't just about having the discipline," says Jeffries. "It is also a resultant value. If you do the practices that are based on communication, simplicity, and feedback, you are given courage, the confidence to go ahead in a lightweight manner," as opposed to being weighted down by the more cumbersome, design-heavy practices.
Quality work. Okay, all of you out there, please raise your hand if you advocate poor-quality work.
Whether you are a proponent of the Rational Unified Process, CMM, or XP, the real issues are "How do you define quality?" and "What actions do you think deliver high quality?" Defining quality as "no defects" provides one perspective on the question; Jerry Weinberg's definition, "Quality is value to some person," provides another. I get weary of methodologists who use the "hacker" label to ward off the intrusion of approaches like XP and lean development. It seems unproductive to return the favor. Let's concede that all these approaches are based on the fundamental principle that individuals want to do a good, high-quality job; what "quality" means and how to achieve it -- now there's the gist of the real debate!
优质的工作：好，如果你们中有赞成劣质工作的话，那么请举手离开这儿吧。不论你是一个Rational Unified Process，CMM，或是XP的赞成者，其本质的观点"你怎样定义质量"与"什么样的活动会赢得高质量"，定义"无缺点"质量是这个问题的一个方向。Jerry Weinberg的定义是"质量是对多数人有益"
One area in which XP (at least as articulated in Beck's book) falls short is management, understandable for a practice oriented toward both small project teams and programming. As Beck puts it, "Perhaps the most important job for the coach is the acquisition of toys and food." (Coaching is one of Beck's components of management strategy.)
With many programmers, their recommended management strategy seems to be: get out of the way. The underlying assumption? Getting out of the way will create a collaborative environment. Steeped in the tradition of task-based project management, this assumption seems valid. However, in my experience, creating and maintaining highly functional collaborative environments challenges management far beyond making up task lists and checking off their completion.