You didn’t write that awful page. You’re just trying to get some data out of it. Beautiful Soup is here to help. Since 2004, it’s been saving programmers hours or days of work on quick-turnaround screen scraping projects.
NLTK is a leading platform for building Python programs to work with human language data. It provides easy-to-use interfaces to over 50 corpora and lexical resources such as WordNet, along with a suite of text processing libraries for classification, tokenization,
stemming, tagging, parsing, and semantic reasoning, and an active discussion forum.
搞自然语言处理的同学应该没有人不知道NLTK吧，这里也就不多说了。不过推荐两本书籍给刚刚接触NLTK或者需要详细了解NLTK的同学: 一个是官方的《Natural Language Processing with Python》，以介绍NLTK里的功能用法为主，同时附带一些Python知识，同时国内陈涛同学友情翻译了一个中文版，这里可以看到：推荐《用Python进行自然语言处理》中文翻译-NLTK配套书；另外一本是《Python
Text Processing with NLTK 2.0 Cookbook》，这本书要深入一些，会涉及到NLTK的代码结构，同时会介绍如何定制自己的语料和模型等，相当不错。
Pattern is a web mining module for the Python programming language.
It has tools for data mining (Google, Twitter and Wikipedia API, a web crawler, a HTML DOM parser), natural language processing (part-of-speech taggers, n-gram search, sentiment analysis, WordNet), machine learning (vector space model, clustering, SVM), network
analysis and canvas visualization.
TextBlob is a Python (2 and 3) library for processing textual data. It provides a simple API for diving into common natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as part-of-speech tagging, noun phrase extraction, sentiment analysis, classification, translation,
TextBlob是一个很有意思的Python文本处理工具包，它其实是基于上面两个Python工具包NLKT和Pattern做了封装（TextBlob stands on the giant shoulders of NLTK and pattern, and plays nicely with both），同时提供了很多文本处理功能的接口，包括词性标注，名词短语提取，情感分析，文本分类，拼写检查等，甚至包括翻译和语言检测，不过这个是基于Google的API的，有调用次数限制。TextBlob相对比较年轻，有兴趣的同学可以关注。
MBSP is a text analysis system based on the TiMBL and MBT memory based learning applications developed at CLiPS and ILK. It provides tools for Tokenization and Sentence Splitting, Part of Speech Tagging, Chunking, Lemmatization, Relation Finding and Prepositional
NumPy is the fundamental package for scientific computing with Python. It contains among other things:
1）a powerful N-dimensional array object
2）sophisticated (broadcasting) functions
3）tools for integrating C/C++ and Fortran code
4） useful linear algebra, Fourier transform, and random number capabilities
Besides its obvious scientific uses, NumPy can also be used as an efficient multi-dimensional container of generic data. Arbitrary data-types can be defined. This allows NumPy to seamlessly and speedily integrate with a wide variety of databases.
NumPy几乎是一个无法回避的科学计算工具包，最常用的也许是它的N维数组对象，其他还包括一些成熟的函数库，用于整合C/C++和Fortran代码的工具包，线性代数、傅里叶变换和随机数生成函数等。NumPy提供了两种基本的对象：ndarray（N-dimensional array object）和 ufunc（universal function object）。ndarray是存储单一数据类型的多维数组，而ufunc则是能够对数组进行处理的函数。
SciPy refers to several related but distinct entities:
1）The SciPy Stack, a collection of open source software for scientific computing in Python, and particularly a specified set of core packages.
2）The community of people who use and develop this stack.
3）Several conferences dedicated to scientific computing in Python – SciPy, EuroSciPy and SciPy.in.
4）The SciPy library, one component of the SciPy stack, providing many numerical routines.
matplotlib is a python 2D plotting library which produces publication quality figures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms. matplotlib can be used in python scripts, the python and ipython shell (ala MATLAB®* or Mathematica®†),
web application servers, and six graphical user interface toolkits.
IPython provides a rich architecture for interactive computing with:
1）Powerful interactive shells (terminal and Qt-based).
2）A browser-based notebook with support for code, text, mathematical expressions, inline plots and other rich media.
3）Support for interactive data visualization and use of GUI toolkits.
4）Flexible, embeddable interpreters to load into your own projects.
5）Easy to use, high performance tools for parallel computing.
scikit-learn (formerly scikits.learn) is an open source machine learning library for the Python programming language. It features various classification, regression and clustering algorithms including support vector machines, logistic regression, naive Bayes,
random forests, gradient boosting, k-means and DBSCAN, and is designed to interoperate with the Python numerical and scientific libraries NumPy and SciPy.
Pandas is a software library written for the Python programming language for data manipulation and analysis. In particular, it offers data structures and operations for manipulating numerical tables and time series.
to Data Science” 的Project需要用Pandas库，所以学习了一下Pandas。Pandas也是基于NumPy和Matplotlib开发的，主要用于数据分析和数据可视化，它的数据结构DataFrame和R语言里的data.frame很像，特别是对于时间序列数据有自己的一套分析机制，非常不错。这里推荐一本书《Python
for Data Analysis》，作者是Pandas的主力开发，依次介绍了iPython, NumPy, Pandas里的相关功能，数据可视化，数据清洗和加工，时间数据处理等，案例包括金融股票数据挖掘等，相当不错。
mlpy is a Python module for Machine Learning built on top of NumPy/SciPy and the GNU Scientific Libraries.
mlpy provides a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for supervised and unsupervised problems and it is aimed at finding a reasonable compromise among modularity, maintainability, reproducibility, usability and efficiency. mlpy is multiplatform,
it works with Python 2 and 3 and it is Open Source, distributed under the GNU General Public License version 3.
Modular toolkit for Data Processing (MDP) is a Python data processing framework.
From the user’s perspective, MDP is a collection of supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms and other data processing units that can be combined into data processing sequences and more complex feed-forward network architectures.
From the scientific developer’s perspective, MDP is a modular framework, which can easily be expanded. The implementation of new algorithms is easy and intuitive. The new implemented units are then automatically integrated with the rest of the library.
The base of available algorithms is steadily increasing and includes signal processing methods (Principal Component Analysis, Independent Component Analysis, Slow Feature Analysis), manifold learning methods ([Hessian] Locally Linear Embedding), several classifiers,
probabilistic methods (Factor Analysis, RBM), data pre-processing methods, and many others.
PyBrain is a modular Machine Learning Library for Python. Its goal is to offer flexible, easy-to-use yet still powerful algorithms for Machine Learning Tasks and a variety of predefined environments to test and compare your algorithms.
PyBrain is short for Python-Based Reinforcement Learning, Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network Library. In fact, we came up with the name first and later reverse-engineered this quite descriptive “Backronym”.
“PyBrain(Python-Based Reinforcement Learning, Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network)是Python的一个机器学习模块，它的目标是为机器学习任务提供灵活、易应、强大的机器学习算法。（这名字很霸气）
Its focus is on supervised classification with several classifiers available:
SVMs (based on libsvm), k-NN, random forests, decision trees. It also performs
feature selection. These classifiers can be combined in many ways to form
different classification systems.
8. PyMVPA: MultiVariate Pattern Analysis (MVPA) in Python
PyMVPA is a Python package intended to ease statistical learning analyses of large datasets. It offers an extensible framework with a high-level interface to a broad range of algorithms for classification, regression, feature selection, data import and export.
It is designed to integrate well with related software packages, such as scikit-learn, and MDP. While it is not limited to the neuroimaging domain, it is eminently suited for such datasets. PyMVPA is free software and requires nothing but free-software to
“PyMVPA(Multivariate Pattern Analysis in Python)是为大数据集提供统计学习分析的Python工具包，它提供了一个灵活可扩展的框架。它提供的功能有分类、回归、特征选择、数据导入导出、可视化等”
Monte (python) is a Python framework for building gradient based learning machines, like neural networks, conditional random fields, logistic regression, etc. Monte contains modules (that hold parameters, a cost-function and a gradient-function) and trainers
(that can adapt a module’s parameters by minimizing its cost-function on training data).
Modules are usually composed of other modules, which can in turn contain other modules, etc. Gradients of decomposable systems like these can be computed with back-propagation.
“Monte (machine learning in pure Python)是一个纯Python机器学习库。它可以迅速构建神经网络、条件随机场、逻辑回归等模型，使用inline-C优化，极易使用和扩展。”
Theano is a Python library that allows you to define, optimize, and evaluate mathematical expressions involving multi-dimensional arrays efficiently. Theano features:
1）tight integration with NumPy – Use numpy.ndarray in Theano-compiled functions.
2）transparent use of a GPU – Perform data-intensive calculations up to 140x faster than with CPU.(float32 only)
3）efficient symbolic differentiation – Theano does your derivatives for function with one or many inputs.
4）speed and stability optimizations – Get the right answer for log(1+x) even when x is really tiny.
5）dynamic C code generation – Evaluate expressions faster.
6） extensive unit-testing and self-verification – Detect and diagnose many types of mistake.
Theano has been powering large-scale computationally intensive scientific investigations since 2007. But it is also approachable enough to be used in the classroom (IFT6266 at the University of Montreal).
Pylearn2 is a machine learning library. Most of its functionality is built on top of Theano. This means you can write Pylearn2 plugins (new models, algorithms, etc) using mathematical expressions, and theano will optimize and stabilize those expressions for
you, and compile them to a backend of your choice (CPU or GPU).