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嵌入式 shell中if语句

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分类:
 if语句格式
if 条件
then
Command
else
Command
fi别忘了这个结尾
If语句忘了结尾fi
test.sh: line 14: syntax error: unexpected end of fi


if的三种条件表达式
if
command
then

if
函数
then
命令执行成功,等于返回0 (比如grep ,找到匹配)
执行失败,返回非0 (grep,没找到匹配)
if [ expression_r_r_r ]
then
表达式结果为真,则返回0,if把0值引向then
if test expression_r_r_r
then
表达式结果为假,则返回非0,if把非0值引向then


[ ] &&——快捷if
[ -f "/etc/shadow" ] && echo "This computer uses shadowpasswors"
&&可以理解为then
如果左边的表达式为真则执行右边的语句


shell的if与c语言if的功能上的区别
shell if c语言if
0为真,走then 正好相反,非0走then
不支持整数变量直接if
必须:if [ i –ne 0 ]

但支持字符串变量直接if
if [ str ] 如果字符串非0
支持变量直接if
if (i )


=================================以command作为if条件===================================

以多条command或者函数作为if 条件
echo –n “input:”
read user

if
多条指令,这些命令之间相当于“and”(与)
grep $user /etc/passwd >/tmp/null
who -u | grep $user
then上边的指令执行成功,返回值$?为0,0为真,运行then
echo "$user has logged"
else 指令执行失败,$?为1,运行else
echo "$user has not logged"
fi
# sh test.sh
input : macg
macg pts/0May 15 15:55.2075(192.168.1.100)
macg has logged

# sh test.sh
input : ddd
ddd has not logged


以函数作为if条件(函数就相当于command,函数的优点是其return值可以自定义)
if
以函数作为if条件,
getyn
then 函数reture值0为真,走then
echo " your answer is yes"
else 函数return值非0为假,走else
echo "your anser is no"
fi


if command 等价于command+if $?
$ vi testsh.sh
#!/bin/sh

if
cat 111-tmp.txt | grepting1
then
echo found
else
echo "no found"
fi
$ vi testsh.sh
#!/bin/sh

cat 111-tmp.txt | grepting1

if [ $? -eq 0 ]
then
echo $?
echo found
else
echo $?
echo "no found"
fi
$ sh testsh.sh
no found
$ sh testsh.sh
1
no found
$ vi 111-tmp.txt
that is 222file
thisting1 is 111file

$ sh testsh.sh
thisting1 is 111file
found
$ vi 111-tmp.txt
that is 222file
thisting1 is 111file

$ sh testsh.sh
thisting1 is 111file
0
found


========================================以条件表达式作为if条件=============================

传统if从句子——以条件表达式作为 if条件
if [ 条件表达式 ]
then
command
command
command
else
command
command
fi

条件表达式
  • 文件表达式
if [ -f file ]如果文件存在
if [ -d ... ]如果目录存在
if [ -s file ]如果文件存在且非空
if [ -r file ] 如果文件存在且可读
if [ -w file ] 如果文件存在且可写
if [ -x file ] 如果文件存在且可执行
  • 整数变量表达式
if [ int1 -eq int2 ]如果int1等于int2
if [ int1 -ne int2 ]如果不等于
if [ int1 -ge int2 ]如果>=
if [ int1 -gt int2 ]如果>
if [ int1 -le int2 ]如果<=
if [ int1 -lt int2 ]如果<<BR>
  • 字符串变量表达式
If [ $a = $b ]如果string1等于string2
字符串允许使用赋值号做等号
if [ $string1 != $string2 ]如果string1不等于string2
if [ -n $string ]如果string非空(非0),返回0(true)
if [ -z $string ]如果string为空
if [ $sting ]如果string非空,返回0 (和-n类似)


条件表达式引用变量要带$
if [ a = b ] ;then
echo equal
else
echo no equal
fi
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input a:
5
input b:
5
no equal(等于表达式没比较$a和$b,而是比较和a和b,自然a!=b)
改正:
if [ $a = $b ] ;then
echo equal
else
echo no equal
fi
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input a:
5
input b:
5
equal


-eq -ne-lt -nt只能用于整数,不适用于字符串,字符串等于用赋值号=
[macg@machome ~]$ vi test.sh
echo -n "input your choice:"
read var
if [ $var -eq "yes" ]
then
echo $var
fi
[macg@machome ~]$ sh -x test.sh
input your choice:
y
test.sh: line 3: test: y: integerexpression_r_r_r expected
期望整数形式,即-eq不支持字符串



=放在别的地方是赋值,放在if [ ]里就是字符串等于,shell里面没有==的,那是c语言的等于


无空格的字符串,可以加"",也可以不加
[macg@machome ~]$ vi test.sh
echo "input a:"
read a
echo "input is $a"
if [ $a = 123 ] ; then
echo equal123
fi
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input a:
123
input is 123
equal123


=作为等于时,其两边都必须加空格,否则失效
等号也是操作符,必须和其他变量,关键字,用空格格开 (等号做赋值号时正好相反,两边不能有空格)
[macg@machome ~]$ vi test.sh

echo "input your choice:"
read var
if [ $var="yes" ]
then
echo $var
echo "input is correct"
else
echo $var
echo "input error"
fi
[macg@machome ~]$ vi test.sh

echo "input your choice:"
read var
if [ $var = "yes" ]在等号两边加空格
then
echo $var
echo "input is correct"
else
echo $var
echo "input error"
fi
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
y
y
input is correct
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
n
n
input is correct
输错了也走then,都走then,为什么?
因为if把$var="yes"连读成一个变量,而此变量为空,返回1,则走else
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
y
y
input error
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
no
no
input error
一切正常


If[ $ANS ] 等价于if [ -n $ANS ]
如果字符串变量非空(then) , 空(else)
echo "input your choice:"
read ANS

if [ $ANS ]
then
echo no empty
else
echo empth
fi
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:回车

empth说明“回车”就是空串
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
34
no empty


整数条件表达式,大于,小于,shell里没有> 和<,会被当作尖括号,只有-ge,-gt,-le,lt
[macg@machome ~]$ vi test.sh

echo "input a:"
read a
if [ $a -ge 100 ] ; then
echo 3bit
else
echo 2bit
fi
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input a:
123
3bit
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input a:
20
2bit


整数操作符号-ge,-gt,-le,-lt,别忘了加-
if test $a ge 100 ; then

[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
test.sh: line 4: test: ge: binary operator expected
if test $a -ge 100 ; then

[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input a:
123
3bit


============================逻辑表达式=========================================

逻辑非 !条件表达式的相反
if [ ! 表达式 ]
if [ ! -d $num ]如果不存在目录$num


逻辑与 –a条件表达式的并列
if [ 表达式1 –a 表达式2 ]


逻辑或 -o条件表达式的或
if [ 表达式1 –o 表达式2 ]


逻辑表达式

  • 表达式与前面的= != -d –f –x -ne -eq-lt等合用
  • 逻辑符号就正常的接其他表达式,没有任何括号( ),就是并列
if [ -z "$JHHOME" -a -d $HOME/$num ]
  • 注意逻辑与-a与逻辑或-o很容易和其他字符串或文件的运算符号搞混了


最常见的赋值形式,赋值前对=两边的变量都进行评测
左边测变量是否为空,右边测目录(值)是否存在(值是否有效)
[macg@mac-home ~]$ vi test.sh
:
echo "input the num:"
read num
echo "input is $num"

if [ -z "$JHHOME" -a -d $HOME/$num] 如果变量$JHHOME为空,且$HOME/$num目录存在
then
JHHOME=$HOME/$num则赋值
fi

echo "JHHOME is $JHHOME"
-----------------------
[macg@mac-home ~]$ sh test.sh
input the num:
ppp
input is ppp
JHHOME is

目录-d $HOME/$num不存在,所以$JHHOME没被then赋值
[macg@mac-home ~]$ mkdir ppp
[macg@mac-home ~]$ sh test.sh
input the num:
ppp
input is ppp
JHHOME is /home/macg/ppp


一个-o的例子,其中却揭示了”=”必须两边留空格的问题
echo "input your choice:"
read ANS

if [ $ANS="Yes" -o$ANS="yes" -o $ANS="y" -o $ANS="Y" ]
then
ANS="y"
else
ANS="n"
fi

echo $ANS
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
n
y
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
no
y
为什么输入不是yes,结果仍是y(走then)
因为=被连读了,成了变量$ANS="Yes",而变量又为空,所以走else了

[macg@machome ~]$ vi test.sh

echo "input your choice:"
read ANS echo "input your choice:"
read ANS

if [ $ANS = "Yes" -o $ANS ="yes" -o $ANS = "y" -o $ANS = "Y" ]
then
ANS="y"
else
ANS="n"
fi

echo $ANS
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
no
n
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
yes
y
[macg@machome ~]$ sh test.sh
input your choice:
y
y


===================以 test条件表达式作为if条件===================================

if test $num-eq 0 等价于 if [$num –eq 0 ]

test表达式,没有 [ ]
if test $num -eq 0
then
echo "try again"
else
echo "good"
fi

mantest
[macg@machome ~]$ man test
[(1)UserCommands[(1)

SYNOPSIS
test EXPRESSION
[ EXPRESSION ]


[-n] STRING
thelength of STRING is nonzero-n和直接$str都是非0条件

-z STRING
thelength of STRING is zero

STRING1 = STRING2
thestrings are equal

STRING1 != STRING2
thestrings are not equal

INTEGER1 -eqINTEGER2
INTEGER1is equal to INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -geINTEGER2
INTEGER1is greater than or equal to INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -gtINTEGER2
INTEGER1is greater than INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -leINTEGER2
INTEGER1is less than or equal to INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -ltINTEGER2
INTEGER1is less than INTEGER2

INTEGER1 -neINTEGER2
INTEGER1is not equal to INTEGER2

FILE1 -nt FILE2
FILE1is newer (modification date) than FILE2

FILE1 -ot FILE2
FILE1is older than FILE2

-b FILE
FILEexists and is block special

-c FILE
FILEexists and is character special

-d FILE
FILEexists and is a directory

-e FILE
FILEexists文件存在

-f FILE
FILEexists and is a regular file文件存在且是普通文件

-h FILE
FILEexists and is a symbolic link (same as -L)

-L FILE
FILEexists and is a symbolic link (same as -h)

-G FILE
FILEexists and is owned by the effective group ID

-O FILE
FILEexists and is owned by the effective user ID

-p FILE
FILEexists and is a named pipe


-s FILE
FILEexists and has a size greater than zero

-S FILE
FILEexists and is a socket

-w FILE
FILEexists and is writable

-x FILE
FILE exists and is executable


======================if简化语句=================================

最常用的简化if语句
&&如果是“前面”,则“后面”
[ -f /var/run/dhcpd.pid ] && rm /var/run/dhcpd.pid检查 文件是否存在,如果存在就删掉
||如果不是“前面”,则后面
[ -f /usr/sbin/dhcpd ] || exit 0检验文件是否存在,如果存在就退出

用简化 if和$1,$2,$3来检测参数,不合理就调用help
[ -z "$1" ] && help如果第一个参数不存在(-z字符串长度为0 )
[ "$1" = "-h" ] && help如果第一个参数是-h,就显示help


例子
#!/bin/sh

[ -f "/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0" ] && rm -f/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
cp ifcfg-eth0.bridge/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

[ -f "/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1" ] && rm -f/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
cp ifcfg-eth1.bridge/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1

[ -f "/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:1" ] && rm-f /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:1

0
0

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