Oracle数据库命令速查

原创 2005年04月28日 20:30:00

第一章:日志管理

1.forcing log switches
sql> alter system switch logfile;
2.forcing checkpoints
sql> alter system checkpoint;
3.adding online redo log groups
sql> alter database add logfile [group 4]sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;
4.adding online redo log members
sql> alter database add logfile member
sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,
sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;
5.changes the name of the online redo logfile
sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'
sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';
6.drop online redo log groups
sql> alter database drop logfile group 3;
7.drop online redo log members
sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';
8.clearing online redo log files
sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';
9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles
a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '
b. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:/oracle/oradb/log');
c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log',
sql> dbms_logmnr.new);
d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo02.log',
sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile);
e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:/oracle/oradb/log/oradb.ora');
f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters
sql> v$logmnr_logs);
g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;

第二章:表空间管理
1.create tablespaces
sql> create tablespace ts_name datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/file1.dbf' size 100m ,
sql>'c:/oracle/oradata/file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)
sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]
2.locally managed tablespace
sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/user_data01.dbf'
sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;
3.temporary tablespace
sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:/oracle/oradata/temp01.dbf'
sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;
4.change the storage setting
sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;
sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);
5.taking tablespace offline or online
sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;
sql> alter tablespace app_data online;
6.read_only tablespace
sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write;
7.droping tablespace
sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents;
8.enableing automatic extension of data files
sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data01.dbf' size 200m
sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;
9.change the size fo data files manually
sql> alter database datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data.dbf' resize 200m;
10.Moving data files: alter tablespace
sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data.dbf
sql> to 'c:/oracle/app_data.dbf';
11.moving data files:alter database
sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data.dbf' to 'c:/oracle/app_data.dbf';

第三章:表
1.create a table
sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)
sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]
sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)
sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]
2.copy an existing table
sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery
3.create temporary table
sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;
on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows
4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size
pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)
5.change storage and block utilization parameter
sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k minextents 2 maxextents 100);
6.manually allocating extents
sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');
7.move tablespace
sql> alter table employee move tablespace users;
8.deallocate of unused space
sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]
9.truncate a table
sql> truncate table table_name;
10.drop a table
sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints];
11.drop a column
sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;
alter table table_name drop columns continue;
12.mark a column as unused
sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;
alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;
alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000
data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs

第四章:索引
1.creating function-based indexes
sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);
2.create a B-tree index
sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace
sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]
sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50);
3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows
4.creating reverse key indexes
sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;
5.create bitmap index
sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;
6.change storage parameter of index
sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);
7.allocating index space
sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;

第五章:约束
1.define constraints as immediate or deferred
sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;
set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;
2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints
sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints
3. define constraints while create a table
sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable
sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);
primary key/unique/references table(column)/check
4.enable constraints
sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;
5.enable constraints
sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id;

第六章:LOAD数据
1.loading data using direct_load insert
sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging
sql> select * from emp_old;
2.parallel direct-load insert
sql> alter session enable parallel dml;
sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging
sql> select * from emp_old;
3.using sql*loader
sql> sqlldr scott/tiger /
sql> control = ulcase6.ctl /
sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true

第七章:reorganizing data
1.using expoty
$exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:/emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y
2.using import
$imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y
3.transporting a tablespace
sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;
$exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts
triggers=n constraints=n
$copy datafile
$imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2
/sles02.dbf)
sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write;
4.checking transport set
sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true);
在表transport_set_violations 中查看
sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是,表示自包含

第八章: managing password security and resources
1.controlling account lock and password
sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock;
2.user_provided password function
sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),
old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean
3.create a profile : password setting
sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3
sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30
sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function
sql> password_grace_time 5;
4.altering a profile
sql> alter profile default limit
sql> failed_login_attempts 3
sql> password_life_time 60;
5.drop a profile
sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade];
6.create a profile : resource limit
sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2
sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;
7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost
dba_Users,dba_profiles
8. enable resource limits
sql> alter system set resource_limit=true;

第九章:Managing users
1.create a user: database authentication
sql> create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users temporary tablespace temp quota 10m/unlimited on data password expire [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default];
2.change user quota on tablespace
sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users;
3.drop a user
sql> drop user juncky [cascade];
4. monitor user
view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas

第十章:managing privileges
1.system privileges: view => system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs
2.grant system privilege
sql> grant create session,create table to managers;
sql> grant create session to scott with admin option;
with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role;
3.sysdba and sysoper privileges:
sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile,alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database,alter database archivelog,restricted session
sysdba:sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until4.password file members: view:=> v$pwfile_users
5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =true
  restriction access to view or tables in other schema
6.revoke system privilege
sql> revoke create table from karen;
sql> revoke create session from scott;
7.grant object privilege
sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe to public;
sql> grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option;
8.display object privilege : view => dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs
9.revoke object privilege
sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints];
10.audit record view :=> sys.aud$
11. protecting the audit trail
sql> audit delete on sys.aud$ by access;
12.statement auditing
sql> audit user;
13.privilege auditing
sql> audit select any table by summit by access;
14.schema object auditing
sql> audit lock on summit.employee by access whenever successful;
15.view audit option : view=> all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,dba_priv_audit_opts,dba_obj_audit_opts
16.view audit result: view=> dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement

第十一章: manager role
1.create roles
sql> create role sales_clerk;
sql> create role hr_clerk identified by bonus;
sql> create role hr_manager identified externally;
2.modify role
sql> alter role sales_clerk identified by commission;
sql> alter role hr_clerk identified externally;
sql>alter role hr_manager not identified;
3.assigning roles
sql> grant sales_clerk to scott;
sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager;
sql> grant hr_manager to scott with admin option;
4.establish default role
sql> alter user scott default role hr_clerk,sales_clerk;
sql> alter user scott default role all;
sql> alter user scott default role all except hr_clerk;
sql> alter user scott default role none;
5.enable and disable roles
sql> set role hr_clerk;
sql> set role sales_clerk identified by commission;
sql> set role all except sales_clerk;
sql> set role none;
6.remove role from user
sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott;
sql> revoke hr_manager from public;
7.remove role
sql> drop role hr_manager;
8.display role information
view: =>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles

第十二章: BACKUP and RECOVERY
1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat
2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size
3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback
> v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions
4.perform a closed database backup (noarchivelog)
> shutdown immediate
> cp files /backup/
> startup
5.restore to a different location
> connect system/manager as sysdba
> startup mount
> alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf' to '/disk2/../user.dbf';
> alter database open;
6.recover syntax
--recover a mounted database
>recover database;
>recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf';
>alter database recover database;
--recover an opened database
>recover tablespace user_data;
>recover datafile 2;
>alter database recover datafile 2;
7.how to apply redo log files automatically
>set autorecovery on
>recover automatic datafile 4;
8.complete recovery:
--method 1(mounted databae)
>copy c:/backup/user.dbf c:/oradata/user.dbf
>startup mount
>recover datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf;
>alter database open;
--method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile)
>copy c:/backup/user.dbf c:/oradata/user.dbf (alter tablespace offline)
>recover datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' or
>recover tablespace user_data;
>alter database datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' online or
>alter tablespace user_data online;
--method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile)
>startup mount
>alter database datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' offline;
>alter database open
>copy c:/backup/user.dbf d:/oradata/user.dbf
>alter database rename file 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' to 'd:/oradata/user.dbf'
>recover datafile 'e:/oradata/user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data;
>alter tablespace user_data online;
--method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log)
>alter tablespace user_data offline immediate;
>alter database create datafile 'd:/oradata/user.dbf' as 'c:/oradata/user.dbf''
>recover tablespace user_data;
>alter tablespace user_data online
5.perform an open database backup
> alter tablespace user_data begin backup;
> copy files /backup/
> alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup;
> alter system switch logfile;
6.backup a control file
> alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp';
> alter database backup controlfile to trace;
7.recovery (noarchivelog mode)
> shutdown abort
> cp files
> startup
8.recovery of file in backup mode
>alter database datafile 2 end backup;
9.clearing redo log file
>alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1;
>alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile;
10.redo log recovery
>alter database add logfile group 3 'c:/oradata/redo03.log' size 1000k;
>alter database drop logfile group 1;
>alter database open;
or >cp c:/oradata/redo02.log' c:/oradata/redo01.log
>alter database clear logfile 'c:/oradata/log01.log';

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