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Oracle格式化输出列COLUMN的使用

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COLUMN

Syntax

COL[UMN] [{column|expr} [option ...]]

where option represents one of the following clauses:

    ALI[AS] alias
    CLE[AR]
    ENTMAP {ON|OFF}
    FOLD_A[FTER]
    FOLD_B[EFORE]
    FOR[MAT] format
    HEA[DING] text
    JUS[TIFY] {L[EFT]|C[ENTER]|C[ENTRE]|R[IGHT]}
    LIKE {expr|alias}
    NEWL[INE]
    NEW_V[ALUE] variable
    NOPRI[NT]|PRI[NT]
    NUL[L] text
    OLD_V[ALUE] variable
    ON|OFF
    WRA[PPED]|WOR[D_WRAPPED]|TRU[NCATED]

Specifies display attributes for a given column, such as

  • text for the column heading

     

  • alignment of the column heading

     

  • format for NUMBER data

     

  • wrapping of column data

     

Also lists the current display attributes for a single column or all columns.

Terms | Usage | Examples | Top

Enter COLUMN followed by column or expr and no other clauses to list the current display attributes for only the specified column or expression. Enter COLUMN with no clauses to list all current column display attributes.

Refer to the following list for a description of each term or clause:

{column|expr}

        Identifies the data item (typically, the name of a column) in a SQL SELECT command to which the column command refers. If you use an expression in a COLUMN command, you must enter expr exactly as it appears in the SELECT command. If the expression in the SELECT command is a+b, for example, you cannot use b+a or (a+b) in a COLUMN command to refer to the expression in the SELECT command.

        If you select columns with the same name from different tables, a COLUMN command for that column name will apply to both columns. That is, a COLUMN command for the column LAST_NAME applies to all columns named LAST_NAME that you reference in this session. COLUMN ignores table name prefixes in SELECT commands. Also, spaces are ignored unless the name is placed in double quotes.

        To format the columns differently, assign a unique alias to each column within the SELECT command itself (do not use the ALIAS clause of the COLUMN command) and enter a COLUMN command for each column's alias.

ALI[AS] alias

        Assigns a specified alias to a column, which can be used to refer to the column in BREAK, COMPUTE, and other COLUMN commands.

CLE[AR]

        Resets the display attributes for the column to default values.

        To reset the attributes for all columns, use the CLEAR COLUMNS command. CLEAR COLUMNS also clears the ATTRIBUTEs for that column.

ENTMAP {ON|OFF}

        Allows entity mapping to be turned on or off for selected columns in HTML output. This feature allows you to include, for example, HTML hyperlinks in a column of data, while still mapping entities in other columns of the same report. By turning entity mapping off for a column containing HTML hyperlinks, the HTML anchor tag delimiters, <, >, " and &, are correctly interpreted in the report. Otherwise they would be replaced with their respective entities, &lt;, &gt;, &quot; and &amp;, preventing web browsers from correctly interpreting the HTML.

        Entities in the column heading and any COMPUTE labels or output appearing in the column are mapped or not mapped according to the value of ENTMAP for the column.

        The default setting for COLUMN ENTMAP is the current setting of the MARKUP HTML ENTMAP option. For more information about the MARKUP HTML ENTMAP option, see MARKUP Options in Chapter 7 and SET later this Chapter.

FOLD_A[FTER]

        Inserts a carriage return after the column heading and after each row in the column. SQL*Plus does not insert an extra carriage return after the last column in the SELECT list.

FOLD_B[EFORE]

        Inserts a carriage return before the column heading and before each row of the column. SQL*Plus does not insert an extra carriage return before the first column in the SELECT list.

FOR[MAT] format

HEA[DING] text

        Defines a column heading. If you do not use a HEADING clause, the column's heading defaults to column or expr. If text contains blanks or punctuation characters, you must enclose it with single or double quotes. Each occurrence of the HEADSEP character (by default, "|") begins a new line.

        For example,

        COLUMN LAST_NAME HEADING 'Employee |Name'
        

        would produce a two-line column heading. See the HEADSEP variable of the SET command in this chapter for information on changing the HEADSEP character.

JUS[TIFY] {L[EFT]|C[ENTER]|C[ENTRE]|R[IGHT]}

        Aligns the heading. If you do not use a JUSTIFY clause, headings for NUMBER columns default to RIGHT and headings for other column types default to LEFT.

LIKE {expr|alias}

        Copies the display attributes of another column or expression (whose attributes you have already defined with another COLUMN command). LIKE copies only attributes not defined by another clause in the current COLUMN command.

NEWL[INE]

        Starts a new line before displaying the column's value. NEWLINE has the same effect as FOLD_BEFORE.

NEW_V[ALUE] variable

        Specifies a variable to hold a column value. You can reference the variable in TTITLE commands. Use NEW_VALUE to display column values or the date in the top title. You must include the column in a BREAK command with the SKIP PAGE action. The variable name cannot contain a pound sign (#).

        NEW_VALUE is useful for master/detail reports in which there is a new master record for each page. For master/detail reporting, you must also include the column in the ORDER BY clause. See the example at the end of this command description.

        For information on displaying a column value in the bottom title, see COLUMN OLD_VALUE. For more information on referencing variables in titles, see the TTITLE command later in this chapter. For information on formatting and valid format models, see the FORMAT command.

NOPRI[NT]|PRI[NT]

        Controls the printing of the column (the column heading and all the selected values). NOPRINT turns off the screen output and printing of the column. PRINT turns the printing of the column on.

NUL[L] text

        Controls the text SQL*Plus displays for null values in the given column. The default is a white space. SET NULL controls the text displayed for all null values for all columns, unless overridden for a specific column by the NULL clause of the COLUMN command. When a NULL value is SELECTed, a variable's type will always become CHAR so the SET NULL text can be stored in it.

OLD_V[ALUE] variable

        Specifies a variable to hold a column value. You can reference the variable in BTITLE commands. Use OLD_VALUE to display column values in the bottom title. You must include the column in a BREAK command with the SKIP PAGE action.

        OLD_VALUE is useful for master/detail reports in which there is a new master record for each page. For master/detail reporting, you must also include the column in the ORDER BY clause.

        For information on displaying a column value in the top title, see COLUMN NEW_VALUE. For more information on referencing variables in titles, see the TTITLE command later in this chapter.

ON|OFF

        Controls the status of display attributes for a column. OFF disables the attributes for a column without affecting the attributes' definition. ON reinstates the attributes.

WRA[PPED]|WOR[D_WRAPPED]|TRU[NCATED]

        Specifies how SQL*Plus will treat a datatype or DATE string that is too wide for a column. WRAPPED wraps the string within the column bounds, beginning new lines when required. When WORD_WRAP is enabled, SQL*Plus left justifies each new line, skipping all leading whitespace (for example, returns, newline characters, tabs and spaces), including embedded newline characters. Embedded whitespace not on a line boundary is not skipped. TRUNCATED truncates the string at the end of the first line of display.

Usage | Terms | Examples | Top

You can enter any number of COLUMN commands for one or more columns. All column attributes set for each column remain in effect for the remainder of the session, until you turn the column OFF, or until you use the CLEAR COLUMN command. Thus, the COLUMN commands you enter can control a column's display attributes for multiple SQL SELECT commands.

When you enter multiple COLUMN commands for the same column, SQL*Plus applies their clauses collectively. If several COLUMN commands apply the same clause to the same column, the last one entered will control the output.

Examples | Terms | Usage | Top

To make the LAST_NAME column 20 characters wide and display EMPLOYEE NAME on two lines as the column heading, enter

Keyboard icon
COLUMN LAST_NAME FORMAT A20 HEADING 'EMPLOYEE|NAME'

To format the SALARY column so that it shows millions of dollars, rounds to cents, uses commas to separate thousands, and displays $0.00 when a value is zero, enter

Keyboard icon
COLUMN SALARY FORMAT $9,999,990.99

To assign the alias NET to a column containing a long expression, to display the result in a dollar format, and to display <NULL> for null values, you might enter


Keyboard icon
COLUMN SALARY+COMMISSION_PCT+BONUS-EXPENSES-INS-TAX ALIAS NET
COLUMN NET FORMAT $9,999,999.99 NULL '<NULL>'

Note that the example divides this column specification into two commands. The first defines the alias NET, and the second uses NET to define the format.

Also note that in the first command you must enter the expression exactly as you enter it in the SELECT command. Otherwise, SQL*Plus cannot match the COLUMN command to the appropriate column.

To wrap long values in a column named REMARKS, you can enter

Keyboard icon
COLUMN REMARKS FORMAT A20 WRAP

Screen icon
CUSTOMER   DATE        QUANTITY REMARKS
---------- ---------   -------- --------------------
123        25-AUG-2001      144 This order must be s
                                hipped by air freigh
                                t to ORD

If you replace WRAP with WORD_WRAP, REMARKS looks like this:

CUSTOMER   DATE        QUANTITY REMARKS
---------- ---------   -------- ---------------------
123        25-AUG-2001      144 This order must be
                                shipped by air freight
                                to ORD

If you specify TRUNCATE, REMARKS looks like this:

CUSTOMER   DATE        QUANTITY REMARKS
---------- ---------   -------- --------------------
123        25-AUG-2001      144 This order must be s

In order to print the current date and the name of each job in the top title, enter the following. Use the EMPLOYEES table of the HR schema in this case instead of EMP_DETAILS_VIEW as you have used up to now. (For details on creating a date variable, see "Displaying the Current Date in Titles" under "Defining Page and Report Titles and Dimensions" in Chapter 4.)

Keyboard icon
COLUMN JOB_ID NOPRINT NEW_VALUE JOBVAR
COLUMN TODAY  NOPRINT NEW_VALUE DATEVAR
BREAK ON JOB_ID SKIP PAGE ON TODAY
TTITLE CENTER 'Job Report' RIGHT DATEVAR  SKIP 2 -
LEFT 'Job:     ' JOBVAR SKIP 2
SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, 'MM/DD/YYYY') TODAY,
LAST_NAME, JOB_ID, MANAGER_ID, HIRE_DATE, SALARY, DEPARTMENT_ID
FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE JOB_ID IN ('MK_MAN', 'SA_MAN')
ORDER BY JOB_ID, LAST_NAME;

Your two page report would look similar to the following report, with "Job Report" centered within your current linesize:

Screen icon
                                      Job Report                           
04/19/01

Job:     MK_MAN

LAST
NAME                 MANAGER_ID HIRE_DATE         SALARY DEPARTMENT_ID
-------------------- ---------- --------- -------------- -------------
Hartstein                   100 17-FEB-96     $13,000.00            20
                                          --------------
                                              $13,000.00

                                   Job Report                           04/19/01

Job:     SA_MAN

LAST
NAME                 MANAGER_ID HIRE_DATE         SALARY DEPARTMENT_ID
-------------------- ---------- --------- -------------- -------------
Errazuriz                   100 10-MAR-97     $12,000.00            80
Zlotkey                     100 29-JAN-00     $10,500.00            80
Cambrault                   100 15-OCT-99     $11,000.00            80
Russell                     100 01-OCT-96     $14,000.00            80
Partners                    100 05-JAN-97     $13,500.00            80
                                          --------------

                                   Job Report                           04/19/01

Job:     SA_MAN

LAST
NAME                 MANAGER_ID HIRE_DATE         SALARY DEPARTMENT_ID
-------------------- ---------- --------- -------------- -------------
                                              $12,200.00

6 rows selected.

To change the default format of DATE columns to 'YYYY-MM-DD', you can enter

Keyboard icon
ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = 'YYYY-MM-DD';

Screen icon
Session altered.

To display the change, enter a SELECT statement, such as:

Keyboard icon
SELECT HIRE_DATE
FROM EMPLOYEES
WHERE EMPLOYEE_ID = 206;

Screen icon
                                   Job Report                           04/19/01

Job:     SA_MAN

HIRE_DATE
----------
1994-06-07

See the Oracle9i SQL Reference for information on the ALTER SESSION command.

Note that in a SELECT statement, some SQL calculations or functions, such as TO_CHAR, may cause a column to be very wide. In such cases, use the FORMAT option to alter the column width.  

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