原创 2003年02月24日 09:13:00


Ernest Murphy ernie@surfree.com

Revised Dec 26 2000 for inclusion as part of MASM32

Revised July 10 2000 for the new form of coinvoke.

Sample code for this article is available at .../COM/examples/shortcut



The COM (Component Object Model) is used by the Windows operation system in increasing ways. For example, the shell.dll uses COM to access some of its API methods. The IShellLink and IPersistFile interfaces of the shell32.dll will be demonstrated to create a shortcut shell link. A basic understanding of COM is assumed. The code sample included is MASM specific.




COM may seem complicated with it's numerous details, but in use these complications disappear into simple function calls. The hardest part is understanding the data structures involved so you can define the interfaces. I apologize for all the C++ terminology used in here. While COM is implementation neutral, it borrows much terminology from C++ to define itself.


In order to use the COM methods of some object, you must first instance or create that object from its coclass, then ask it to return you a pointer to it's interface. This process is performed by the API function CoCreateInstance. When you are done with the interface you call it's Release method, and COM and the coclass will take care of deleting the object and unloading the coclass.


A COM object is referred to as the SERVER. The program that calls up a COM object so it may use it is referred to as the CLIENT.


Assessing COM Methods


To use COM methods you need to know before hand what the interface looks like. Even if you "late bind" through an IDispatch interface, you still need to know what IDispatch looks like. A COM interface is just table of pointers to functions. Let's start with the IUnknown interface. If you were to create a component that simply exports the IUnknown interface, you have a fully functional COM object (albeit on the level of "Hello World"). IUnknown has the 3 basic methods of every interface, since all interfaces inherit from IUnknown. Keep in mind all an interface consists of is a structure of function pointers. For IUnknown, it looks like this:

为了使用COM函数你需要事先知道接口(interface)的模样。即使你通过一个IDispatch接口“动态绑定”,你仍然需要知道IDispatch的模样。一个COM接口就是一个函数指针的表格。让我们从IUnknown接口开始。如果你要创建一个仅仅导出(export)IUnknown接口的组件,你将得到的是一个完善的COM对象(虽然仅是在“Hello World”的层次上)。每个接口有IUnknown的3个基本的函数,因为所有的接口都从IUnknown继承而来。始终记得所有的接口是包含函数指针的结构体(structure)。对于IUnknown来说,它就这模样:

; IUnknown methods 
IUnknown_QueryInterface  QueryInterface_Pointer ? 
IUnknown_AddRef   AddRef_Pointer ? 
IUnknown_Release   Release_Pointer ?
IUnknown ENDS

That's it, just 12 bytes long. It holds 3 DWORD pointers to the procedures that actually implement the methods. It is the infamous "vtable" you may have heard of. The pointers are defined as such so we can have MASM do some type checking for us when compiling our calls. Since the vtable holds the addresses of functions, or pointers, these pointers are typedefed in our interface definition as such:


QueryInterface_Pointer  typedef ptr QueryInterface_Proto
AddRef_Pointer   typedef ptr AddRef_Proto 
Release_Pointer   typedef ptr Release_Proto

Finally, we define the function prototypes as follows:


QueryInterface_Proto  typedef PROTO :DWORD, :DWORD, :DWORD 
AddRef_Pointer   typedef PROTO :DWORD 
Release_Pointer   typedef PROTO :DWORD 

In keeping with the MASM32 practice of "loose" type checking, function parameters are just defined as DWORDs. Lots of work to set things up, but it does keeps lots of errors confined to compile time, not run time. In practice, we will wrap up these interface definitions in include files and keep them from cluttering up the source code.


One rather big compilation on defining an interface: MASM cannot resolve forward references like this, so we have to define them backwards, by defining the function prototype typedefs first, and the interface table last. The include files for the example program later on defines the interfaces this way.

定义一个接口的大问题时:MASM不能决议(resolve)像这样的前向参考,因而我们必须在后面定义他们,先定义函数原型后定义接口表(interface table)。后面的示例程序的包含文件用这种方式定义接口。

To actually use an interface, you need a pointer to it.


The CoCreateInstance API can be used to return us this indirect pointer to an interface structure. It is one level removed from the vtable itself, and actually points to the "object" that holds the interface. The final structure looks like this: CoCreateInstance



There is a lot of indirection using this structure, it can drive you batty trying to write code to properly reference and de-reference these elements. Macros to simplify this task will be defined.


When the client makes a call to the COM library to create a COM object, it passes in the address where it wants the object pointer to be placed. This initial pointer is generically referred to as "ppv," from the C++ speak "pointer to pointer to (void)," where (void) means an unspecified type. It holds the address of another pointer ("pv"), and this pointer refers to a whole table of pointers, one table entry for each function of the interface.

当用户调用COM库来创建一个COM对象,它传递过去一个地址,在那保存对象的指针。这个最初的指针一般被称为“ppv”,从C++的观点来说就是“指向 指向void类型的指针的指针”,其中void意为未指定的类型。它保存了另外一个指针(“pv”)的地址,而那个指针指向一整个指针表格,对应一个接口中的函数有一个表格项。

For example, say we used CoCreateInstance and successfully got an interface pointer ppv, and wanted to see if it supports some other interface. We can call its QueryInterface method and request a new ppv (ppv2, pointer to an Interface) to the other interface (pIID, pointer to a Interface Identifying GUID) we are interested in. In C, QueryInterface has a prototype that would look like so:


(HRESULT) SomeObject::QueryInterface (this:pObject, IID:pGUID, ppv2:pInterface)

Such a call would look like this:


; get pointer to the object 
mov eax, ppv 
; and use it to find the interface structure
mov edx, [eax] 
; push the function parameters onto the stack
push OFFSET ppv2
push OFFSET IID_ISomeOtherInterface
push dword ppv
; and then call that method 
call dword ptr [eax + 0]

This may be accomplished using the built-in MASM 'invoke' macro as such:


; get pointer to the object 
mov eax, ppv 
; and use it to find the interface structure
mov edx, [eax] 
; and then call that method 
invoke (IUnknown PTR [edx]).IUnknown_QueryInterface, ppv,
    ADDR IID_SomeOtherInterface, ADDR ppv_new

I hope you find this as wonderfully simple as I do.


Note we must pass in the pointer we used, this lets the interface know which object (literally "this" object) we are using.


Note the register must be type cast (IUnknown PTR [edx]). This lets the compiler know what structure to use to get the correct offset in the vtable for the .QueryInterface function (in this case it means an offset of zero from [edx]). Actually, the information contained by the interface name and function name called disappear at compile time, all that is left is a numeric offset from an as of yet value unspecified pointer.

注意寄存器必须转换类型(IUnknown PTR [edx])。这个让编译器知道使用什么结构在QueryInterface函数的vtable中来获得正确的偏移位置(在这例中,它意为从[edx]开始的0偏移位置)。实际上,由接口名和函数名所包含的信息在编译的时候就消失了,所有剩下的就是从一个还没有指定值的指针开始的一个数字偏移位置。

One more semi-obscure point. Notice I changed the interface method name from simply "QueryInterface" to "IUnknown_QueryInterface". This is a bit of name decoration I've found necessary. When you get to larger COM projects with many similar interfaces you will run into a problem, that is different interfaces with identical method names. This is quite valid, in fact it's called polymorphism, but can confuse the compiler a bit.


Without this name decoration scheme things will be safe until you have two different interfaces with identical method names but different parameters to that method. This is more common then you might first think, but just consider how many interfaces might have a PRINT method.


The coinvoke Macro


We can simplify a COM invoke further with a macro. This coinvoke macro is part of the oaidl.inc file.


; coinvoke MACRO 
; invokes an arbitrary COM interface 
; revised 12/29/00 to check for edx as a param and force compilation error
;                   (thanks to Andy Car for a how-to suggestion)
; revised 7/18/00 to pass pointer in edx (not eax) to avoid confusion with
;   parmas passed with ADDR  (Jeremy Collake's excellent suggestion)
; revised 5/4/00 for member function name decoration
; see http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ernies_world/coinvoke.htm
; pInterface    pointer to a specific interface instance
; Interface     the Interface's struct typedef
; Function      which function or method of the interface to perform
; args          all required arguments 
;                   (type, kind and count determined by the function)
coinvoke MACRO pInterface:REQ, Interface:REQ, Function:REQ, args:VARARG
    LOCAL istatement, arg
    FOR arg,      ;; run thru args to see if edx is lurking in there
        IFIDNI <&arg>, 
    istatement CATSTR ,<_>,<&Function, pInterface>
    IFNB      ;; add the list of parameter arguments if any
        istatement CATSTR istatement, <, >, <&args> 
    mov edx, pInterface
    mov edx, [edx]

Thus, the same QueryInterface method as before can be invoked in a single line:


coinvoke ppv ,IUnknown, QueryInterface, ADDR IID_SomeOtherInterface, ADDR ppnew

Note that now the name decoration is done for us by the macro.


The only 'gotcha' (well, the most obvious) is that no parameters to a COM call should be passed in edx as this register is used to handle 'this' the object reference. Using edx as a parameter will generate a compile error.


Using IShellFile and IPersistFile from shell32.dll


The shell32.dll provides a simple. easy way to make shell links (shortcuts). However, it uses a COM interface to provide this service. The sample below is based on the MSDN "Shell Links" section for "Internet Tools and Technologies."

shell32.dll提供了一个简单容易的办法来创建快捷方式。然而,它使用COM接口来提供这项服务。下面的例子是基于MSDN的“Internet Tools and Technologies”的“Shell Links”部分。

This may be a strange place to find documentation, but there it is.


The "Shell Links" article may be found at: http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/psdk/shellcc/shell/Shortcut.htm

“Shell Links”的文章可以在http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/psdk/shellcc/shell/Shortcut.htm找到。

For this tutorial we will access the following members of the IShellLink and the IPersistFile interfaces. Note every interface includes a "ppi" interface parameter, this is the interface that we calling to (it is the THIS parameter). (The following interface information is a copy of information published by Microsoft)


IShellLink::QueryInterface, ppi, ADDR riid, ADDR ppv 
  * riid: The identifier of the interface requested. To get access to the 
  * ppv: The pointer to the variable that receives the interface. 
  Description: Checks if the object also supports the requested interface. If so, 
  signs the ppv pointer with the interface's pointer. 

IShellLink::Release, ppi 
Description: Decrements the reference count on the IShellLink interface. 

IShellLink:: SetPath, ppi, ADDR szFile 
  * pszFile: A pointer to a text buffer containing the new path for the shell 
  link object. 
Description: Defines where the file the shell link points to. 

IShellLink::SetIconLocation, ppi, ADDR szIconPath, iIcon 
  * pszIconPath: A pointer to a text buffer containing the new icon path. 
  * iIcon: An index to the icon. This index is zero based. 
  Description: Sets which icon the shelllink will use. 

IPersistFile::Save, ppi, ADDR szFileName, fRemember 
  * pszFileName: Points to a zero-terminated string containing the absolute path 
      of the file to which the object should be saved. 
  * fRemember: Indicates whether the pszFileName parameter is to be used as the 
     current working file. If TRUE, pszFileName becomes the current file and the 
    object should clear its dirty flag after the save. If FALSE, this save 
    operation is a "Save A Copy As ..." operation. In this case, the current file 
    is unchanged and the object should not clear its dirty flag. If pszFileName is 
    NULL, the implementation should ignore the fRemember flag. 
Description: Perform a save operation for the ShellLink object, or saves the shell link are creating. 

IPersistFile::Release, ppi 
  Description: Decrements the reference count on the IPersistFile interface. 

These interfaces contain many many more methods (see the full interface definitions in the code below), but we only need concentrate on those we will actually be using.


A shell link is the MS-speak name for a shortcut icon. The information contained in a link (.lnk) file is:

shell link是快捷方式的微软说法。包含在一个link(.lnk)文件中的信息有:

  • 1 - The file path and name of the program to shell.
  • 2 - Where to obtain the icon to display for the shortcut (usually from the executable itself), and which icon in that file to use. We will use the first icon in the file
  • 3 - A file path and name where the shortcut should be stored.
  • 1 - 指向的程序的路径和名字。
  • 2 - 快捷方式显示的图标的路径(通常是执行文件本身),以及那是文件中的哪个图标。我们将使用文件的第一个图标。
  • 3 - 快捷方式应该被存放在的文件路径和名字。

The use of these interfaces is simple and straightforward. It goes like this:


Call CoCreateInstance CLSID_ShellLink for a IID_IShellLink interface

调用CoCreateInstance CLSID_ShellLink得到一个IID_IShellLink接口

QueryInterface IShellLink for an IID_IPersistFile interface.

QueryInterface IShellLink得到IID_IPersistFile接口。

Call IShellLink.SetPath to specify where the shortcut target is

调用IShellLink.SetPath 来指定快捷方式指向的目标。

Call IShellLink.SetIconLocation to specify which icon to use


Call IPersistFile.Save to save our new shortcut .lnk file.




Call IPersistFile.Release


Call IShellLink.Release


This releases our hold on these interfaces, which will automatically lead to the dll that supplied them being unloaded. Again, the hard part in this application was finding documentation. What finally found broke the search open was using Visual Studio "Search in Files" to find "IShellLink" and " IPersistFile" in the /include area of MSVC. This lead me to various .h files, from which I hand translated the interfaces from C to MASM.

这样作释放了我们保存的接口。而这将自动卸载提供他们的dll。此外,写程序中最困那的部分是查找文档。最终打破寻找僵局的是用Visual Studio的“在文件中查找”在MSVC的include目录中查找“IShellLink”和“IPersistFile”。这把我引向了好几个.h文件,在那我手工把接口定义从C翻译为MASM。

Another handy tool I could have used is the command line app "FindGUID.exe," which looks through the registry for a specific interface name or coclass, or will output a list of every class and interface with their associated GUIDs.


Finally, the OLEView.exe application will let you browse the registry type libraries and mine them for information. However, these tools come with MSVC and are proprietary.


Take care when defining an interface. Missing vtable methods lead to strange results. Essentially COM calls, on one level, amount to "perform function (number)" calls. Leave a method out of the vtable definition and you call the wrong interface. The original IShellLink interface definition I used from a inc file I downloaded had a missing function. The calls I made generated a "SUCCEEDED" hResult, but in some cases would not properly clean the stack (since my push count did not match the invoked function's pop count), thus lead to a GPF as I exited a procedure. Keep this in mind if you ever get similar "weird" results.


本质上COM调用,从一个层面上来说,相当于“执行 function(number)”。把一个函数缺失在vtable的定义之外导致你调用了错误的接口。我使用的IShellLink接口的最初的定义是来自于一个下载的inc文件,它少了一个函数。我作出的调用产生了“SUCCEEDED”的hResult,但在某些情况下可能不能正常的清栈(因为我的push的次数和调用的函数的pop的次数不相匹配),因而在我退出一个函数的时候导致GPF。牢记这一点,当你得到类似的“奇异”结果的时候。

MakeLink.asm, a demonstration of COM


This program does very little, as a good tutorial program should. When run, it creates a shortcut to itself, in the same directory. It can be amusing to run from file explorer and watch the shortcut appear. Then you can try the shortcut and watch it's creation time change.


The shell link tutorial code is in .../COM/examples/shortcut. It begins with some "hack code" to get the full file name path of the executable, and also makes a string with the same path that changes the file to "Shortcut To ShellLink.lnk" These strings are passed to the shell link interface, and it is saved (or persisted in COM-speak).

快捷方式的示例代码位于.../COM/examples/shortcut。它由一些为了获得可执行文件的文件名的完整路径的“hack code”开始,而且用相同的路径创建了一个字符串。它把文件改变为"Shortcut To ShellLink.lnk"。这几个字符串被传递给shell link接口,而且它被保存了(用COM的语言,被持久化了)。

The CoCreateLink procedure used to actually perform the COM methods and perform this link creation has been kept as general as possible, and may have reuse possibilities in other applications.


This program is similar to earlier published tutorial, but has been edited for some additional clarity. The interfaces are defined in a separate include file to reduce clutter. It may be built in MASM32 by using the .../COM/bin/BLDDLL.BAT file supplied.


Additional note: Iczelion has quite a useful file in his tutorials named resource.h. It is quite useful when using rc.exe to compile resource files. I use it so much I have moved it to my /masm32/include/ folder. You need to either move your copy there, or change the path in the rsrc.rc file to build it properly.




"Inside COM, Microsoft's Component Object Model" Dale Rogerson Copyright 1997,

Paperback - 376 pages CD-ROM edition

Microsoft Press; ISBN: 1572313498

(THE book for understanding how COM works on a fundamental level. Uses C++ code to illustrate basic concepts as it builds simple fully functional COM object)

"Automation Programmer's Reference : Using ActiveX Technology to Create

Programmable Applications" (no author listed)

Copyright 1997,

Paperback - 450 pages

Microsoft Press; ISBN: 1572315849

(This book has been available online on MSDN in the past, but it is cheap enough for those of you who prefer real books you can hold in your hand. Defines the practical interfaces and functions that the automation libraries provide you, but is more of a reference book then a "user's guide")

Microsoft Developers Network


"Professional Visual C++ 5 ActiveX/Com Control Programming" Sing Li and Panos Economopoulos

Copyright April 1997,

Paperback - 500 pages (no CD Rom, files available online)

Wrox Press Inc; ISBN: 1861000375

(Excellent description of activeX control and control site interfaces. A recent review of this book on Amazon.com stated "These guys are the type that want to rewrite the world's entire software base in assembler." Need I say more?)

"sean's inconsequential homepage" http://ript.net/~spec/

Various hardcore articles on low-level COM and ATL techniques. Coded in C++

"Using COM in Assembly Language" Bill Tyler


Assembly Language Journal, Apr-June 99



; MakeLink.asm ActiveX simple client to demonstrate basic concepts
;               written & (c) copyright April 5, 2000 by Ernest Murphy
;               contact the author at ernie@surfree.com
;               may be reused for any educational or
;               non-commercial application without further license
.model flat, stdcall
option casemap:none

include /masm32/include/windows.inc
include /masm32/include/user32.inc
include /masm32/include/kernel32.inc
include /masm32/include/ole32.inc
include /masm32/com/include/oaidl.inc
include /masm32/com/include/shlobj.inc
includelib /masm32/lib/user32.lib
includelib /masm32/lib/kernel32.lib
includelib /masm32/lib/ole32.lib
CoCreateLink      PROTO :DWORD, :DWORD
MakeMessage MACRO Text:REQ
    ; macro to display a message box
    ; the text to display is kept local to
    ; this routine for ease of use
    LOCAL lbl
    LOCAL sztext
    jmp lbl
    db Text,0
    invoke MessageBox,NULL,sztext,ADDR szAppName,MB_OK
  ; IPersistFile Interface 
  IPersistFile            STRUCT DWORD
       IPersistFile_QueryInterface       comethod3       ?
       IPersistFile_AddRef               comethod1       ?
       IPersistFile_Release              comethod1       ?
       IPersistFile_GetClassID           comethod2       ?
       IPersistFile_IsDirty              comethod1       ?
       IPersistFile_Load                 comethod3       ?
       IPersistFile_Save                 comethod3       ?
       IPersistFile_SaveCompleted        comethod2       ?
       IPersistFile_GetCurFile           comethod2       ?
 IPersistFile            ENDS
szAppName         BYTE     "Shell Link Maker", 0
szLinkName        BYTE     "Shortcut to MakeLink.lnk", 0
szBKSlash   BYTE   "/", 0
hInstance         HINSTANCE   ?
Pos               DWORD       ?
szBuffer1   BYTE   MAX_PATH DUP(?)
szBuffer2   BYTE   MAX_PATH DUP(?)
;  this bracketed code is just a 'quick hack'
;  to replace the filename from the filepathname
;  with the 'Shortcut to' title
    invoke GetModuleHandle, NULL
    mov hInstance, eax
    invoke GetModuleFileName, NULL, ADDR szBuffer1, MAX_PATH
    invoke lstrcpy, ADDR szBuffer2, ADDR szBuffer1
    ; Find the last backslash '/' and change it to zero
    mov edx, OFFSET szBuffer2
    mov ecx, edx
        mov al, BYTE PTR [edx]
        .IF al == 92 ; "/"
            mov ecx, edx
        inc edx
    .UNTIL  al == 0
    mov BYTE PTR [ecx+1], 0   
    invoke lstrcpy, ADDR szBuffer2, ADDR szLinkName
; here is where we call the proc with the COM methods
    invoke CoInitialize, NULL
    MakeMessage "Let's try our Createlink."
    invoke CoCreateLink, ADDR szBuffer1, ADDR szBuffer2
    MakeMessage "That's all folks !!!"
    invoke CoUninitialize
invoke ExitProcess, NULL
CoCreateLink PROC pszPathObj:DWORD, pszPathLink:DWORD
 ; CreateLink - uses the shell's IShellLink and IPersistFile interfaces 
 ;   to create and store a shortcut to the specified object. 
 ; Returns the hresult of calling the member functions of the interfaces. 
 ; pszPathObj - address of a buffer containing the path of the object. 
 ; pszPathLink - address of a buffer containing the path where the 
 ;   shell link is to be stored. 
 ; addapted from MSDN article "Shell Links"
 ;  deleted useless "description" method
 ;  added set icon location method
    LOCAL   pwsz    :DWORD         
    LOCAL   psl     :DWORD         
    LOCAL   ppf     :DWORD       
    LOCAL   hResult :DWORD       
    LOCAL   hHeap   :DWORD       
CLSID_ShellLink     GUID       sCLSID_ShellLink
IID_IShellLink      GUID       sIID_IShellLink
IID_IPersistFile    GUID       {00000010bH, 00000H, 00000H, / 
                               {0C0H, 000H, 000H, 000H, 000H, 000H, 000H, 046H}}
    ; first, get some heap for a wide buffer
    invoke GetProcessHeap
    mov hHeap, eax
    invoke HeapAlloc, hHeap, NULL, MAX_PATH * 2
    mov pwsz, eax
    ; Get a pointer to the IShellLink interface. 
    invoke CoCreateInstance, ADDR CLSID_ShellLink, NULL, 
                             ADDR IID_IShellLink, ADDR psl
    mov hResult, eax
    test eax, eax
        ; Query IShellLink for the IPersistFile 
        ; interface for saving the shortcut
        coinvoke psl, IShellLink, QueryInterface, ADDR IID_IPersistFile, ADDR ppf
        mov hResult, eax
        test eax, eax
        .IF SUCCEEDED 
            ; Set the path to the shortcut target 
            coinvoke psl, IShellLink, SetPath, pszPathObj
            mov hResult, eax
            ; add the  description, use first icon found
            coinvoke psl, IShellLink, SetIconLocation, pszPathObj, 0 
            mov hResult, eax
            ; change string to Unicode. 
            ; (COM typically expects Unicode strings)
            invoke MultiByteToWideChar, CP_ACP, 0, pszPathLink, 
                                        -1, pwsz, MAX_PATH
            ; Save the link by calling IPersistFile::Save
  coinvoke ppf, IPersistFile, Save, pwsz, TRUE
            mov eax, hResult
            ; release the IPersistFile ppf pointer
            coinvoke ppf, IPersistFile, Release
            mov hResult, eax
        ; release the IShellLink psl pointer
        coinvoke psl, IShellLink, Release
        mov hResult, eax
    ; free our heap space
    invoke HeapFree, hHeap, NULL, pwsz
    mov eax, hResult    ; since we reuse this variable over and over,
                        ;  it contains the last operations result
CoCreateLink ENDP
end start 


// resource.h may be found in Iczelion's tut #10-1
// it is well worth moving to your /masm32/include/ folder
#include "/masm32/include/resource.h"
#define IDC_ICON1              1001
#define IDC_ICON2              1002


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  • 2016年03月10日 14:09
  • 21778

创建virtualboxclient com对象失败最简单有效的解决方案

右键VirtualBox的桌面快捷方式,选择属性 选到兼容性选项卡,勾选“以兼容模式运行这个程序” 下拉框选择Windows Server 2008 (Service Pack 1) 再勾选“以管理员...
  • danshenxiaobang
  • danshenxiaobang
  • 2017年06月06日 14:16
  • 880


笔者学习COM原理有一段时间了,但是在创建COM对象时一直使用的是智能指针,别的方式在网上也见过好几次,但是不明白其原理,所以也只是看看,现在想系统的学一下 COM原理,将原来大致浏览的内容重新看了...
  • dasgk
  • dasgk
  • 2013年07月05日 09:38
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