关闭

Oracle enq: TX contention 和 enq: TM contention 等待事件说明

标签: oraclematrixsessionobjecttableinsert
8659人阅读 评论(0) 收藏 举报
分类:

 

Oracle性能优化密切相关的一些知识参考如下Blog

 

       Oracle 常见的33个等待事件

       http://blog.csdn.net/tianlesoftware/archive/2010/08/12/5807800.aspx

       死锁 阻塞 Latch 等待 详解

       http://blog.csdn.net/tianlesoftware/archive/2010/08/20/5822674.aspx

       Oracle Latch 说明

       http://blog.csdn.net/tianlesoftware/archive/2010/01/27/5263238.aspx

 

 

       在网上搜到一篇介绍enq: TX enq:TM的文章。原文地址如下:

       http://aprakash.wordpress.com/2011/01/17/enq-tx-row-lock-contention-and-enqtm-contention/

 

       Enqueue 这个词其实是lock 的另一种描述语。当我们在AWR 报告中发现长时间的enqueue 等待事件时,说明数据库中出现了阻塞和等待,可以关联AWR报告中的enqueue activity部分来确定是哪一种锁定出现了长时间等待。

 

       关于Enqueue的所有类型参考《Oracle 常见的33个等待事件》中的Equeue说明。 在这里,我们看一下enq:TX enqTM

 

.  enq: TX row lock contention

       enq:Tx 会在模式64 下出现。

 

Oracle enqueue 包含以下模式:

模式代码

类型

解释

1

Null

Null mode

2

SS

Sub-Share

3

SX

Sub-Exclusive

4

S

Share

5

SSX

Share/Sub-Exclusive

6

X

Exclusive

 

1.1  enq” TX row lock contention - Mode 6 (Exclusive)

Session 1
==========

ANAND@MATRIX> select * from sa;

 

         A          B

---------- ----------

         1          1

         2          2

         3          3

         4          4

         5          5

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.03

ANAND@MATRIX> delete from sa where A=5;

1 row deleted.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

 

From session 2
=====================

ANAND@MATRIX> delete from sa where a=5;

 

Checking from sys session (session # 3)

 

Session 3
============

SYS@MATRIX> select addr,xidusn,xidslot,xidsqn,ubafil,ubablk,ubasqn,ses_addr,xid from v$transaction;

 

addr         xidusn    xidslot     xidsqn     ubafil     ubablk     ubasqn ses_addr xid

-------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------- ----------------

218B6D98         10         29        848          3       2661        339 232C8B5C 0A001D0050030000

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

SYS@MATRIX> @lock_sid

Enter value for sid: 135

old  82: where sid = &sid

new  82: where sid = 135

 

  sid lock type  id1     id2 lock held      lock request       time held status

----- ---------------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------- ----------------

  135 ????                                         65921         1 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)             5079.000 Not Blocking

  135 DML enqueue                                  75404         0 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)            49.000 Not Blocking

  135 ????                                           100         0 Share(4)       None(0)             5224.000 Not Blocking

  135 Transaction                                 655389       848 Exclusive(6)   None(0)            49.000 Blocking

 

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 135

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (135)

 

    sid state   event                                          seq# sec_in_wait                 p1         p2                 p3 p1transl

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------------------------------

    135 WAITING SQL*Net message from client                     193         131 driver id=         #bytes= 1          0

                                                                                0x0000000042455100

 

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 10

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (10)

 

sid state   event    seq# sec_in_wait     p1         p2     p3 p1transl

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------

     10 WAITING enq: TX - row lock contention                    35         146 name|mode=         usn<

 

SYS@MATRIX>@enqueue

   INST_ID SESS                                                  ID1      ID2 Lock Held Lock Requested Lock Type

---------- ------------------------------------------------ -------- -------- --------- --------------

1 Holder: 135     655389      848         6              0 TX

1 Waiter: 10      655389      848         0              6 TX

 

Back to session 1
==================

ANAND@MATRIX> commit;

Commit complete.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

 

Session 2
===============

22:22:52 ANAND@MATRIX> delete from sa where a=5;

0 rows deleted.

Elapsed: 00:05:07.70

 

1.2. enq: TX row lock contention – Mode 4

The common cause for mode 4, enq: TX row lock contention are

       1Unique Index
      
2
Foreign key
      
3Bitmap indexes

 

1.2.1 Unique Index

Session 1
============

ANAND@MATRIX> alter table sa add constraint pk_sa primary key (B);

Table altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.29

ANAND@MATRIX> desc sa

 Name    Null?    Type

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 A                   NUMBER

 B        NOT NULL  NUMBER

 

ANAND@MATRIX> select * from sa;

 

         A          B

---------- ----------

         1          1

         2          2

         3          3

         4          4

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.04

ANAND@MATRIX> insert into sa values (5,5);

1 row created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

Didn’t commit. Check session 2

 

Session 2
===============

ANAND@MATRIX> insert into sa values (5,5);

 

The session hangs.Check the session waits and enqueues.

 

Session 3
==============

SYS@MATRIX> @lock_sid

Enter value for sid: 135

old  82: where sid = &sid

new  82: where sid = 135

 

SID Lock Type   ID1  ID2 Lock Held   Lock Request   Time Held STATUS

----- ---------------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------- ----------------

  135 ????     65921  1 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)   5779.000 Not Blocking

DML enqueue 75404   0 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)   134.000 Not Blocking

????         100         0 Share(4)       None(0)   5924.000 Not Blocking

Transaction   393229      1069 Exclusive(6)   None(0)   134.000 Blocking

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.03

SYS@MATRIX> @enqueue

 

INST_ID SESS       ID1      ID2 Lock Held Lock Requested Lock Type

---------- ------------------------------------------------ -------- -------- --------- --------------

1 Holder: 135         393229     1069         6              0 TX

1 Waiter: 10           393229     1069         0              4 TX

Elapsed: 00:00:00.04

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 135

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (135)

    sid state event                                          seq# sec_in_wait                 p1         p2                 p3 p1transl

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------

    135 WAITING SQL*Net message from client                     229          45 driver id=         #bytes= 1          0

0x0000000042455100

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 10

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (10)

 

    sid state   event                                          seq# sec_in_wait                 p1         p2                 p3 p1transl

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------

     10 WAITING enq: TX - row lock contention                    44          26 name|mode=         usn<<16 | slot=    sequence= 1069     0x54580004: TX mode 4      0x0000000054580004 393229

 

After commit on session1 , the session 2 throws Unique constraint violated error

 

Session 2
============

ANAND@MATRIX> insert into sa values (5,5);

insert into sa values (5,5)

*

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-00001: unique constraint (ANAND.PK_SA) violated

Elapsed: 00:02:18.10

 

 

1.2.2 Foreign key

Session 1
===========

ANAND@MATRIX> create table sa_child (id number references sa(B) ,name varchar2(10));

Table created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.25

ANAND@MATRIX> select constraint_name,constraint_type,table_name,r_constraint_name,status from user_constraints where table_name in ('sa','sa_child');

 

CONSTRAINT_NAME    C TABLE_NAME                     R_CONSTRAINT_NAME              STATUS

------------------------------ - ------------------------------ ------------------------------ --------

PK_SA                          P SA                                                            ENABLED

SYS_C0011533                   R SA_CHILD                       PK_SA                          ENABLED

Elapsed: 00:00:00.18

ANAND@MATRIX> insert into sa values (6,6);

1 row created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.03

 

Lets insert the same value 6 in SA_CHILD from Session 2

 

Session 2
===========

ANAND@MATRIX> insert into sa_child values (6,'DANNY');

Session 2 hangs.

 

Session 3
===========

SYS@MATRIX> @enqueue

 

   INST_ID SESS                                                   ID1       ID2 Lock Held Lock Requested Lock Type

---------- ------------------------------------------------ --------- --------- --------- -------------- -----------

         1 Holder: 135                                         655360       884         6              0 TX

         1 Waiter: 10                                          655360       884         0              4 TX

 

SYS@MATRIX> @lock_sid

Enter value for sid: 135

old  82: where sid = &sid

new  82: where sid = 135

 

  SID Lock Type                                      ID1       ID2 Lock Held      Lock Request       Time Held STATUS

----- ---------------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------- ---------------- ----------- --------------------

  135  DML enqueue                                  75594         0 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)            64.000 Not Blocking

      DML enqueue                                  75404         0 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)            64.000 Not Blocking

      ????                                           100         0 Share(4)       None(0)           183421.000 Not Blocking

      Transaction                                 655360       884 Exclusive(6)   None(0)            64.000 Blocking

6 rows selected.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.09

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 10

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (10)

 

    SID STATE   EVENT                                          SEQ# SEC_IN_WAIT                 P1         P2                 P3 P1TRANSL

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ -------------------------------

     10 WAITING enq: TX - row lock contention                    58          27 name|mode=         usn<<16 | slot=    sequence= 884      0x54580004: TX mode 4 0x0000000054580004 655360

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.03

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 135

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (135)

 

    SID STATE   EVENT                                          SEQ# SEC_IN_WAIT                 P1         P2                 P3 P1TRANSL

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------

    135 WAITING SQL*Net message from client                     686          59 driver id=         #bytes= 1          0       0x0000000042455100

 

       So, the session 2 is waiting for enq: TX row lock contention as before inserting the row it needs check for the value in the parent table.If the row is not there , then it would throw erroe “ORA-02291: integrity constraint (ANAND.SYS_C0011533) violated – parent key not found”.

 

After commit on session1 ,

 

Session 2
===========

ANAND@MATRIX> insert into sa_child values (6,'DANNY');

1 row created.

Elapsed: 00:05:02.03

 

1.2.3 Bitmap Index

Session 1
==========

ANAND@MATRIX> select * from sa;

         A          B          C

---------- ---------- ----------

         1          1         99

         2          2         99

         3          3         99

         4          4         99

         6          6         99

         5          5         99

         7          7         99

 

7 rows selected.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.06

ANAND@MATRIX> create bitmap index sa_c_bit_indx on sa(C);

Index created.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.10

ANAND@MATRIX> insert into sa values (8,8,99);

1 row created.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.03

 

Lets try deleteing a row from sa table from Session 2

 

Session 2
=============

ANAND@MATRIX> delete from sa where A=1;

 

Session 2 hangs.

 

Session 3
===========

SYS@MATRIX> @lock_sid

Enter value for sid: 135

old  82: where sid = &sid

new  82: where sid = 135

 

  SID Lock Type                                      ID1       ID2 Lock Held      Lock Request       Time Held STATUS

----- ---------------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------- ---------------- ----------- ----------------------------------------

  135 DML enqueue                                  75404         0 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)            87.000 Not Blocking

       DML enqueue                                  75594         0 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)            87.000 Not Blocking

       ????                                           100         0 Share(4)       None(0)           185049.000 Not Blocking

       Transaction                                 589847      1046 Exclusive(6)   None(0)            87.000 Blocking

 

8 rows selected.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.07

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 135

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (135)

 

    SID STATE   EVENT                                          SEQ# SEC_IN_WAIT                 P1         P2                 P3 P1TRANSL

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ -------------------------------------

    135 WAITING SQL*Net message from client                     796          71 driver id=         #bytes= 1          0 0x0000000042455100

Elapsed: 00:00:00.03

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 10

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (10)

 

    SID STATE   EVENT                                          SEQ# SEC_IN_WAIT                 P1         P2                 P3 P1TRANSL

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------

     10 WAITING enq: TX - row lock contention                   101          37 name|mode=         usn<<16 | slot=    sequence= 1046     0x54580004: TX mode 4        0x0000000054580004 589847

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.03

SYS@MATRIX> @enqueue

   INST_ID SESS                                                   ID1       ID2 Lock Held Lock Requested Lock Type

---------- ------------------------------------------------ --------- 

 1 Holder: 135           589847      1046         6              0 TX

1 Waiter: 10          589847      1046         0              4 TX

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.04

 

As soon as session 1, the transaction in session2 completes.

Session 2
=============

ANAND@MATRIX> delete from sa where a=1;

1 row deleted.

Elapsed: 00:10:00.78

 

       So, those were the few common causes of enq: TX contention that i have encountered till now.

 

.  enq: TM – contention
=======================

       Coming on to enq: TM contention, its a table level lock and the locked resource is database objects like table,index, partitions..
       The most most common cause of enq:TM contention that i have seen is unindexed foreign keys.But, few days back i came to know about one more which was the main reason behind writing this blog.

 

2.1  Unindexed Foreign Keys

Session 1
==========

ANAND@MATRIX> create table parent_tab as select distinct object_type from dba_objects;

 

Table created.

Elapsed: 00:00:05.82

ANAND@MATRIX> create table child_tab

2   as

3   select object_id, object_type, object_name

4   from all_objects;

Table altered.

 

ANAND@MATRIX>alter table parent_tab add constraint pk_parent_tab primary key (object_type);

 

 

ANAND@MATRIX> alter table child_tab add constraint pk_child_tab primary key (object_id);

 

ANAND@MATRIX>  alter table child_tab add constraint fk_child_parent_tab

2   foreign key (object_type) references parent_tab on delete cascade;

 

 

Table altered.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.07

ANAND@MATRIX> select count(*), object_type  from child_tab group by object_type;

 

 

  COUNT(*) OBJECT_TYPE

---------- -------------------

         1 EDITION

        39 SEQUENCE

       454 TABLE

       491 INDEX

         5 SYNONYM

        10 CLUSTER

6 rows selected.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.04

ANAND@MATRIX> delete from parent_tab where object_type = 'SYNONYM';

 

1 row deleted.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

 

Session 2
============

ANAND@MATRIX> delete from parent_tab where object_type = 'OPERATOR';

 

 

The Session 2 hangs. Lets check the wait events

 

Session 3
==============

SYS@MATRIX> @locks

 

SESS     ID1       ID2 Lock Held    REQUEST Lock Type

------------------------------------------------ --------- --------- --------- ---------- -----------

Holder: 134           75723         0         3          0 TM

Waiter: 13           75723         0         0          5 TM

Elapsed: 00:00:00.04

 

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 13

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (13)

 

    SID STATE   EVENT                                          SEQ# SEC_IN_WAIT                 P1         P2                 P3 P1TRANSL

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------

     13 WAITING enq: TM - contention                             37          15 name|mode=         object #= 75723    table/partition= 0 0x544D0005: TM mode 5 0x00000000544D0005

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.03

 

SYS@MATRIX> select object_name,object_type from dba_objects where object_id=75723;

 

OBJECT_NAME                                                                                                              OBJECT_TYPE

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------

CHILD_TAB                                                                                                                TABLE

 

SYS@MATRIX> @lock_sid

Enter value for sid: 134

old  82: where sid = &sid

new  82: where sid = 134

 

  SID Lock Type                                      ID1       ID2 Lock Held      Lock Request       Time Held STATUS

----- ---------------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------- ---------------- ----------- ------------------------------------

  134 Transaction                                 262171       982 Exclusive(6)   None(0)            25.000 Not Blocking

      DML enqueue                                  75722         0 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)            25.000 Not Blocking

      ????                                           100         0 Share(4)       None(0)            10303.000 Not Blocking

      DML enqueue                                  75723         0 Row Exclu(3)   None(0)            25.000 Blocking

 

The simple way to resolve is, create an index on the foreign key of child table.

 

 

Tom 同学关于Unindexed Foreign Keys的说明:

From

http://tkyte.blogspot.com/2009/10/httpasktomoraclecomtkyteunindex.html

 

       Having Unindexed foreign keys can be a performance issue. There are two issues associated with unindexed foreign keys. The first is the fact that a table lock will result if you update the parent records primary key (very very unusual) or if you delete the parent record and the child's foreign key is not indexed.

       The second issue has to do with performance in general of a parent child relationship. Consider that if you have an on delete cascade and have not indexed the child table (eg: EMP is child of DEPT. Delete deptno = 10 should cascade to EMP. If deptno in emp is not indexed -- full table scan). This full scan is probably undesirable and if you delete many rows from the parent table, the child table will be scanned once for each parent row deleted.


       Also consider that for most (not all, most) parent child relationships, we query the objects from the 'master' table to the 'detail' table. The glaring exception to this is a code table (short code to long description). For master/detail relationships, if you do not index the foreign key, a full scan of the child table will result.

Tom 同学提供的一个查询没有见外键索引的表的SQL:

 

/* Formatted on 2011/6/4 15:39:24 (QP5 v5.163.1008.3004) */

SELECT table_name,

       constraint_name,

          cname1

       || NVL2 (cname2, ',' || cname2, NULL)

       || NVL2 (cname3, ',' || cname3, NULL)

       || NVL2 (cname4, ',' || cname4, NULL)

       || NVL2 (cname5, ',' || cname5, NULL)

       || NVL2 (cname6, ',' || cname6, NULL)

       || NVL2 (cname7, ',' || cname7, NULL)

       || NVL2 (cname8, ',' || cname8, NULL)

          columns

  FROM (  SELECT b.table_name,

                 b.constraint_name,

                 MAX (DECODE (position, 1, column_name, NULL)) cname1,

                 MAX (DECODE (position, 2, column_name, NULL)) cname2,

                 MAX (DECODE (position, 3, column_name, NULL)) cname3,

                 MAX (DECODE (position, 4, column_name, NULL)) cname4,

                 MAX (DECODE (position, 5, column_name, NULL)) cname5,

                 MAX (DECODE (position, 6, column_name, NULL)) cname6,

                 MAX (DECODE (position, 7, column_name, NULL)) cname7,

                 MAX (DECODE (position, 8, column_name, NULL)) cname8,

                 COUNT (*) col_cnt

            FROM (SELECT SUBSTR (table_name, 1, 30) table_name,

                         SUBSTR (constraint_name, 1, 30) constraint_name,

                         SUBSTR (column_name, 1, 30) column_name,

                         position

                    FROM user_cons_columns) a,

                 user_constraints b

           WHERE a.constraint_name = b.constraint_name

                 AND b.constraint_type = 'R'

        GROUP BY b.table_name, b.constraint_name) cons

 WHERE col_cnt >

          ALL (  SELECT COUNT (*)

                   FROM user_ind_columns i

                  WHERE i.table_name = cons.table_name

                        AND i.column_name IN

                               (cname1,

                                cname2,

                                cname3,

                                cname4,

                                cname5,

                                cname6,

                                cname7,

                                cname8)

                        AND i.column_position <= cons.col_cnt

               GROUP BY i.index_name)

/

 

 

2.2  Direct path load or insert /*+ append */

 

Session 1
===========

ANAND@MATRIX> desc sa

 Name           Null?    Type

 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 A                NUMBER

 B                NUMBER

 C                NUMBER

 

ANAND@MATRIX> select constraint_name,constraint_type from user_constraints where table_name='SA';

no rows selected

Elapsed: 00:00:00.15

ANAND@MATRIX> insert /*+ APPEND */ into sa select * from sa;

11 rows created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.06

 

Session 2
===========

ANAND@MATRIX> insert /*+ APPEND */ into sa select * from sa;

 

Session 2 hangs.

 

Session 3
===============

SYS@MATRIX> @locks

 

SESS          ID1       ID2 Lock Held    REQUEST Lock Type

------------------------------------------------ --------- --------- --------- ----------

Holder: 69           75726         0         6          0 TM

Waiter: 13          75726         0         0          6 TM

Elapsed: 00:00:0

SYS@MATRIX> @lock_sid

Enter value for sid: 69

old  82: where sid = &sid

new  82: where sid = 69

 

  SID Lock Type                                      ID1       ID2 Lock Held      Lock Request       Time Held STATUS

----- ---------------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------- ---------------- ----------- ---------------

   69 Transaction                                 458754       968 Exclusive(6)   None(0)            55.000 Not Blocking

   69 ????                                           100         0 Share(4)       None(0)              930.000 Not Blocking

   69 DML enqueue                                  75726         0 Exclusive(6)   None(0)            55.000 Blocking

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.04

 

SYS@MATRIX> @sw 13

old  38:     sid IN (&1)

new  38:     sid IN (13)

 

    SID STATE   EVENT                                          SEQ# SEC_IN_WAIT                 P1         P2                 P3 P1TRANSL

------- ------- ---------------------------------------- ---------- ----------- ------------------

     13 WAITING enq: TM - contention                             43          35 name|mode=         object #= 75726    table/partition= 0 0x544D0006: TM mode 6  0x00000000544D0006

 

Elapsed:00:00:00.03

SYS@MATRIX> select object_name,object_type from dba_objects where object_id=75726;

OBJECT_NAM OBJECT_TYPE

---------- -------------------

SA         TABLE

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

 

       So, direct mode insert, or insert /*+ append */ will take TM enqueue in exclusive mode. And if the transaction doesn’t commit, we can see lots of bunch of sessions stack up behind it and that is what happened in my case.

 

 

 

2个等待事件也算比较常见的,了解这些对DB 优化还是有帮助的。

 

 

 

 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Blog http://blog.csdn.net/tianlesoftware

Email: dvd.dba@gmail.com

DBA1 群:62697716();   DBA2 群:62697977()   DBA3 群:62697850()  

DBA 超级群:63306533();  DBA4 群: 83829929  DBA5群: 142216823   

DBA6 群:158654907  聊天 群:40132017   聊天2群:69087192

--加群需要在备注说明Oracle表空间和数据文件的关系,否则拒绝申请

0
0

查看评论
* 以上用户言论只代表其个人观点,不代表CSDN网站的观点或立场
    Dave 新博客
    CNDBA 社区交流QQ群

    • CNDBA_1: 62697850 (大量空闲)
    • CNDBA_2: 62697716(大量空闲)
    • CNDBA_3: 283816689
    • CNDBA_4: 391125754
    • CNDBA_5: 104207940(满)
    • CNDBA_6: 62697977
    • CNDBA_7: 142216823(满)
    个人资料
    • 访问:11935454次
    • 积分:115912
    • 等级:
    • 排名:第5名
    • 原创:1004篇
    • 转载:86篇
    • 译文:2篇
    • 评论:1564条
    Dave's Links
    Oracle 组织
    安徽DBA俱乐部
    • 安徽DBA俱乐部,俱乐部整合安徽地区的IT资源,现有成员已经包含安徽大部分IT公司,俱乐部除了资讯信息分享之外,也会定期举行线下活动。欢迎安徽地区的DBA 加入.

      QQ群:363076776 安徽DBA俱乐部/ahdba.com ,备注,加群必须注明籍贯,该群只对安徽地区开放。

    • 网址:www.ahdba.com
    最新评论