关闭

Hashtable 源代码

标签: Hashtablejava源代码
229人阅读 评论(0) 收藏 举报
分类:

1、Hashtable是线程安全的,实现的方式是在方法加上synchronized关键字。

2、初始容量为11,初始加载因子为0.75f

3、扩容机制

桶最大为Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8,每次扩容需要扩容为原来的2倍

        
        //最大的桶数量
        private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

        // overflow-conscious code
        //容量扩大为原来的2倍
        int newCapacity = (oldCapacity << 1) + 1;
        if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0) {
            if (oldCapacity == MAX_ARRAY_SIZE)
                // Keep running with MAX_ARRAY_SIZE buckets
                return;
            newCapacity = MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;
        }


4、底层是用单链表实现的

   private static class Entry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
        final int hash;
        final K key;
        V value;
        Entry<K,V> next;
       //...省略
   }

5、源代码

/*
 * Copyright (c) 1994, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 */

package java.util;

import java.io.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom;
import java.util.function.BiConsumer;
import java.util.function.Function;
import java.util.function.BiFunction;

/**
 * This class implements a hash table, which maps keys to values. Any
 * non-<code>null</code> object can be used as a key or as a value. <p>
 *
 * To successfully store and retrieve objects from a hashtable, the
 * objects used as keys must implement the <code>hashCode</code>
 * method and the <code>equals</code> method. <p>
 *
 * An instance of <code>Hashtable</code> has two parameters that affect its
 * performance: <i>initial capacity</i> and <i>load factor</i>.  The
 * <i>capacity</i> is the number of <i>buckets</i> in the hash table, and the
 * <i>initial capacity</i> is simply the capacity at the time the hash table
 * is created.  Note that the hash table is <i>open</i>: in the case of a "hash
 * collision", a single bucket stores multiple entries, which must be searched
 * sequentially.  The <i>load factor</i> is a measure of how full the hash
 * table is allowed to get before its capacity is automatically increased.
 * The initial capacity and load factor parameters are merely hints to
 * the implementation.  The exact details as to when and whether the rehash
 * method is invoked are implementation-dependent.<p>
 *
 * Generally, the default load factor (.75) offers a good tradeoff between
 * time and space costs.  Higher values decrease the space overhead but
 * increase the time cost to look up an entry (which is reflected in most
 * <tt>Hashtable</tt> operations, including <tt>get</tt> and <tt>put</tt>).<p>
 *
 * The initial capacity controls a tradeoff between wasted space and the
 * need for <code>rehash</code> operations, which are time-consuming.
 * No <code>rehash</code> operations will <i>ever</i> occur if the initial
 * capacity is greater than the maximum number of entries the
 * <tt>Hashtable</tt> will contain divided by its load factor.  However,
 * setting the initial capacity too high can waste space.<p>
 *
 * If many entries are to be made into a <code>Hashtable</code>,
 * creating it with a sufficiently large capacity may allow the
 * entries to be inserted more efficiently than letting it perform
 * automatic rehashing as needed to grow the table. <p>
 *
 * This example creates a hashtable of numbers. It uses the names of
 * the numbers as keys:
 * <pre>   {@code
 *   Hashtable<String, Integer> numbers
 *     = new Hashtable<String, Integer>();
 *   numbers.put("one", 1);
 *   numbers.put("two", 2);
 *   numbers.put("three", 3);}</pre>
 *
 * <p>To retrieve a number, use the following code:
 * <pre>   {@code
 *   Integer n = numbers.get("two");
 *   if (n != null) {
 *     System.out.println("two = " + n);
 *   }}</pre>
 *
 * <p>The iterators returned by the <tt>iterator</tt> method of the collections
 * returned by all of this class's "collection view methods" are
 * <em>fail-fast</em>: if the Hashtable is structurally modified at any time
 * after the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own
 * <tt>remove</tt> method, the iterator will throw a {@link
 * ConcurrentModificationException}.  Thus, in the face of concurrent
 * modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking
 * arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future.
 * The Enumerations returned by Hashtable's keys and elements methods are
 * <em>not</em> fail-fast.
 *
 * <p>Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed
 * as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the
 * presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification.  Fail-fast iterators
 * throw <tt>ConcurrentModificationException</tt> on a best-effort basis.
 * Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this
 * exception for its correctness: <i>the fail-fast behavior of iterators
 * should be used only to detect bugs.</i>
 *
 * <p>As of the Java 2 platform v1.2, this class was retrofitted to
 * implement the {@link Map} interface, making it a member of the
 * <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/collections/index.html">
 *
 * Java Collections Framework</a>.  Unlike the new collection
 * implementations, {@code Hashtable} is synchronized.  If a
 * thread-safe implementation is not needed, it is recommended to use
 * {@link HashMap} in place of {@code Hashtable}.  If a thread-safe
 * highly-concurrent implementation is desired, then it is recommended
 * to use {@link java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap} in place of
 * {@code Hashtable}.
 *
 * @author  Arthur van Hoff
 * @author  Josh Bloch
 * @author  Neal Gafter
 * @see     Object#equals(java.lang.Object)
 * @see     Object#hashCode()
 * @see     Hashtable#rehash()
 * @see     Collection
 * @see     Map
 * @see     HashMap
 * @see     TreeMap
 * @since JDK1.0
 */
/*
此类实现一个哈希表,该哈希表将键映射到相应的值。任何非 null 对象都可以用作键或值。

为了成功地在哈希表中存储和获取对象,用作键的对象必须实现 hashCode 方法和 equals 方法。

Hashtable 的实例有两个参数影响其性能:初始容量 和加载因子。容量 是哈希表中桶 的数量,
初始容量 就是哈希表创建时的容量。注意,哈希表的状态为 open:在发生“哈希冲突”的情况下,
单个桶会存储多个条目,这些条目必须按顺序搜索。
加载因子 是对哈希表在其容量自动增加之前可以达到多满的一个尺度。初始容量和加载因子这两个参数只是对该实现的提示。
关于何时以及是否调用 rehash 方法的具体细节则依赖于该实现。

通常,默认加载因子(.75)在时间和空间成本上寻求一种折衷。加载因子过高虽然减少了空间开销,
但同时也增加了查找某个条目的时间(在大多数 Hashtable 操作中,包括 get 和 put 操作,都反映了这一点)。

初始容量主要控制空间消耗与执行 rehash 操作所需要的时间损耗之间的平衡。如果初始容量大于 Hashtable 所包含的最大条目数除以加载因子,
则永远 不会发生 rehash 操作。但是,将初始容量设置太高可能会浪费空间。

如果很多条目要存储在一个 Hashtable 中,那么与根据需要执行自动 rehashing 操作来增大表的容量的做法相比,
使用足够大的初始容量创建哈希表或许可以更有效地插入条目。

下面这个示例创建了一个数字的哈希表。它将数字的名称用作键:

   Hashtable<String, Integer> numbers
     = new Hashtable<String, Integer>();
   numbers.put("one", 1);
   numbers.put("two", 2);
   numbers.put("three", 3);要获取一个数字,可以使用以下代码:

   Integer n = numbers.get("two");
     if (n != null) {
         System.out.println("two = " + n);
     }
   }由所有类的“collection 视图方法”返回的 collection 的 iterator 方法返回的迭代器都是快速失败 的:
   在创建 Iterator 之后,如果从结构上对 Hashtable 进行修改,除非通过 Iterator 自身的 remove 方法,
   否则在任何时间以任何方式对其进行修改,Iterator 都将抛出ConcurrentModificationException。因此,
   面对并发的修改,Iterator 很快就会完全失败,而不冒在将来某个不确定的时间发生任意不确定行为的风险。
   由 Hashtable 的键和元素方法返回的 Enumeration 不 是快速失败的。

注意,迭代器的快速失败行为无法得到保证,因为一般来说,不可能对是否出现不同步并发修改做出任何硬性保证。
快速失败迭代器会尽最大努力抛出 ConcurrentModificationException。因此,为提高这类迭代器的正确性而编写一个依赖于此异常的程序是错误做法:
迭代器的快速失败行为应该仅用于检测程序错误。

从Java 2 平台 v1.2起,此类就被改进以实现 Map 接口,使它成为 Java Collections Framework 中的一个成员。
不像新的 collection 实现,Hashtable 是同步的

 */
public class Hashtable<K,V>
    extends Dictionary<K,V>
    implements Map<K,V>, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable {

    /**
     * The hash table data.
     */
    //桶数组
    private transient Entry<?,?>[] table;

    /**
     * The total number of entries in the hash table.
     */
    //键值对的数量
    private transient int count;

    /**
     * The table is rehashed when its size exceeds this threshold.  (The
     * value of this field is (int)(capacity * loadFactor).)
     *
     * @serial
     */
    //需要扩展时的阀值
    private int threshold;

    /**
     * The load factor for the hashtable.
     *
     * @serial
     */
    //加载因子
    private float loadFactor;

    /**
     * The number of times this Hashtable has been structurally modified
     * Structural modifications are those that change the number of entries in
     * the Hashtable or otherwise modify its internal structure (e.g.,
     * rehash).  This field is used to make iterators on Collection-views of
     * the Hashtable fail-fast.  (See ConcurrentModificationException).
     */
    private transient int modCount = 0;

    /** use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.0.2 for interoperability */
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1421746759512286392L;

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty hashtable with the specified initial
     * capacity and the specified load factor.
     *
     * @param      initialCapacity   the initial capacity of the hashtable.
     * @param      loadFactor        the load factor of the hashtable.
     * @exception  IllegalArgumentException  if the initial capacity is less
     *             than zero, or if the load factor is nonpositive.
     */
    public Hashtable(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
        if (initialCapacity < 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+
                                               initialCapacity);
        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Load: "+loadFactor);

        if (initialCapacity==0)
            initialCapacity = 1;
        this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
        table = new Entry<?,?>[initialCapacity];
        threshold = (int)Math.min(initialCapacity * loadFactor, MAX_ARRAY_SIZE + 1);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty hashtable with the specified initial capacity
     * and default load factor (0.75).
     *
     * @param     initialCapacity   the initial capacity of the hashtable.
     * @exception IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is less
     *              than zero.
     */
    public Hashtable(int initialCapacity) {
        this(initialCapacity, 0.75f);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty hashtable with a default initial capacity (11)
     * and load factor (0.75).
     */
    public Hashtable() {
        this(11, 0.75f);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new hashtable with the same mappings as the given
     * Map.  The hashtable is created with an initial capacity sufficient to
     * hold the mappings in the given Map and a default load factor (0.75).
     *
     * @param t the map whose mappings are to be placed in this map.
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null.
     * @since   1.2
     */
    public Hashtable(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> t) {
        this(Math.max(2*t.size(), 11), 0.75f);
        putAll(t);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of keys in this hashtable.
     *
     * @return  the number of keys in this hashtable.
     */
    public synchronized int size() {
        return count;
    }

    /**
     * Tests if this hashtable maps no keys to values.
     *
     * @return  <code>true</code> if this hashtable maps no keys to values;
     *          <code>false</code> otherwise.
     */
    public synchronized boolean isEmpty() {
        return count == 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns an enumeration of the keys in this hashtable.
     *
     * @return  an enumeration of the keys in this hashtable.
     * @see     Enumeration
     * @see     #elements()
     * @see     #keySet()
     * @see     Map
     */
    //key的Enumeration
    public synchronized Enumeration<K> keys() {
        return this.<K>getEnumeration(KEYS);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an enumeration of the values in this hashtable.
     * Use the Enumeration methods on the returned object to fetch the elements
     * sequentially.
     *
     * @return  an enumeration of the values in this hashtable.
     * @see     java.util.Enumeration
     * @see     #keys()
     * @see     #values()
     * @see     Map
     */
    //value的Enumeration
    public synchronized Enumeration<V> elements() {
        return this.<V>getEnumeration(VALUES);
    }

    /**
     * Tests if some key maps into the specified value in this hashtable.
     * This operation is more expensive than the {@link #containsKey
     * containsKey} method.
     *
     * <p>Note that this method is identical in functionality to
     * {@link #containsValue containsValue}, (which is part of the
     * {@link Map} interface in the collections framework).
     *
     * @param      value   a value to search for
     * @return     <code>true</code> if and only if some key maps to the
     *             <code>value</code> argument in this hashtable as
     *             determined by the <tt>equals</tt> method;
     *             <code>false</code> otherwise.
     * @exception  NullPointerException  if the value is <code>null</code>
     */
    //判断是否包含值value
    public synchronized boolean contains(Object value) {
        if (value == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException();
        }

        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        for (int i = tab.length ; i-- > 0 ;) {
            for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
                if (e.value.equals(value)) {
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if this hashtable maps one or more keys to this value.
     *
     * <p>Note that this method is identical in functionality to {@link
     * #contains contains} (which predates the {@link Map} interface).
     *
     * @param value value whose presence in this hashtable is to be tested
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
     *         specified value
     * @throws NullPointerException  if the value is <code>null</code>
     * @since 1.2
     */
    //判断是否包含value
    public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
        return contains(value);
    }

    /**
     * Tests if the specified object is a key in this hashtable.
     *
     * @param   key   possible key
     * @return  <code>true</code> if and only if the specified object
     *          is a key in this hashtable, as determined by the
     *          <tt>equals</tt> method; <code>false</code> otherwise.
     * @throws  NullPointerException  if the key is <code>null</code>
     * @see     #contains(Object)
     */
    //判断是否包含
    public synchronized boolean containsKey(Object key) {
        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[index] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
            if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped,
     * or {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key.
     *
     * <p>More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key
     * {@code k} to a value {@code v} such that {@code (key.equals(k))},
     * then this method returns {@code v}; otherwise it returns
     * {@code null}.  (There can be at most one such mapping.)
     *
     * @param key the key whose associated value is to be returned
     * @return the value to which the specified key is mapped, or
     *         {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key is null
     * @see     #put(Object, Object)
     */
    //获取键为key的值
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public synchronized V get(Object key) {
        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[index] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
            if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
                return (V)e.value;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * The maximum size of array to allocate.
     * Some VMs reserve some header words in an array.
     * Attempts to allocate larger arrays may result in
     * OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit
     */
    //最大的桶数量
    private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

    /**
     * Increases the capacity of and internally reorganizes this
     * hashtable, in order to accommodate and access its entries more
     * efficiently.  This method is called automatically when the
     * number of keys in the hashtable exceeds this hashtable's capacity
     * and load factor.
     */
    //扩展
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    protected void rehash() {
        int oldCapacity = table.length;
        Entry<?,?>[] oldMap = table;

        // overflow-conscious code
        //容量扩大为原来的2倍
        int newCapacity = (oldCapacity << 1) + 1;
        if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0) {
            if (oldCapacity == MAX_ARRAY_SIZE)
                // Keep running with MAX_ARRAY_SIZE buckets
                return;
            newCapacity = MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;
        }
        //创建新的桶
        Entry<?,?>[] newMap = new Entry<?,?>[newCapacity];

        modCount++;
        //计算新的阀值
        threshold = (int)Math.min(newCapacity * loadFactor, MAX_ARRAY_SIZE + 1);
        table = newMap;

        //将旧的值赋到新的桶中
        for (int i = oldCapacity ; i-- > 0 ;) {
            for (Entry<K,V> old = (Entry<K,V>)oldMap[i] ; old != null ; ) {
                Entry<K,V> e = old;
                old = old.next;

                int index = (e.hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % newCapacity;
                e.next = (Entry<K,V>)newMap[index];
                newMap[index] = e;
            }
        }
    }

    //添加一个键值对
    private void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int index) {
        modCount++;

        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        if (count >= threshold) {
            // Rehash the table if the threshold is exceeded
            rehash();

            tab = table;
            hash = key.hashCode();
            index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        }

        // Creates the new entry.
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>) tab[index];
        tab[index] = new Entry<>(hash, key, value, e);
        count++;
    }

    /**
     * Maps the specified <code>key</code> to the specified
     * <code>value</code> in this hashtable. Neither the key nor the
     * value can be <code>null</code>. <p>
     *
     * The value can be retrieved by calling the <code>get</code> method
     * with a key that is equal to the original key.
     *
     * @param      key     the hashtable key
     * @param      value   the value
     * @return     the previous value of the specified key in this hashtable,
     *             or <code>null</code> if it did not have one
     * @exception  NullPointerException  if the key or value is
     *               <code>null</code>
     * @see     Object#equals(Object)
     * @see     #get(Object)
     */
    //添加一个键值对
    public synchronized V put(K key, V value) {
        // Make sure the value is not null
        if (value == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException();
        }

        // Makes sure the key is not already in the hashtable.
        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> entry = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for(; entry != null ; entry = entry.next) {
            if ((entry.hash == hash) && entry.key.equals(key)) {
                //桶中有冲突的键值对,则将新的value设进去
                V old = entry.value;
                entry.value = value;
                return old;
            }
        }

        addEntry(hash, key, value, index);
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Removes the key (and its corresponding value) from this
     * hashtable. This method does nothing if the key is not in the hashtable.
     *
     * @param   key   the key that needs to be removed
     * @return  the value to which the key had been mapped in this hashtable,
     *          or <code>null</code> if the key did not have a mapping
     * @throws  NullPointerException  if the key is <code>null</code>
     */
    //移除掉键值对
    public synchronized V remove(Object key) {
        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for(Entry<K,V> prev = null ; e != null ; prev = e, e = e.next) {
            if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
                modCount++;
                if (prev != null) {
                    //非第一个元素
                    prev.next = e.next;
                } else {
                    //桶的第一个元素
                    tab[index] = e.next;
                }
                count--;
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = null;
                return oldValue;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this hashtable.
     * These mappings will replace any mappings that this hashtable had for any
     * of the keys currently in the specified map.
     *
     * @param t mappings to be stored in this map
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null
     * @since 1.2
     */
    //将map中的键值对添加到本table
    public synchronized void putAll(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> t) {
        for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : t.entrySet())
            put(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
    }

    /**
     * Clears this hashtable so that it contains no keys.
     */
    //清除掉所有键值对
    public synchronized void clear() {
        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        modCount++;
        for (int index = tab.length; --index >= 0; )
            //将桶设为空就可以,因为其他元素就不可达了,符合垃圾回收元素
            tab[index] = null;
        count = 0;
    }

    /**
     * Creates a shallow copy of this hashtable. All the structure of the
     * hashtable itself is copied, but the keys and values are not cloned.
     * This is a relatively expensive operation.
     *
     * @return  a clone of the hashtable
     */
    //克隆
    public synchronized Object clone() {
        try {
            Hashtable<?,?> t = (Hashtable<?,?>)super.clone();
            t.table = new Entry<?,?>[table.length];
            for (int i = table.length ; i-- > 0 ; ) {
                t.table[i] = (table[i] != null)
                    ? (Entry<?,?>) table[i].clone() : null;
            }
            t.keySet = null;
            t.entrySet = null;
            t.values = null;
            t.modCount = 0;
            return t;
        } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
            // this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
            throw new InternalError(e);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a string representation of this <tt>Hashtable</tt> object
     * in the form of a set of entries, enclosed in braces and separated
     * by the ASCII characters "<tt>, </tt>" (comma and space). Each
     * entry is rendered as the key, an equals sign <tt>=</tt>, and the
     * associated element, where the <tt>toString</tt> method is used to
     * convert the key and element to strings.
     *
     * @return  a string representation of this hashtable
     */
    public synchronized String toString() {
        int max = size() - 1;
        if (max == -1)
            return "{}";

        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
        Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> it = entrySet().iterator();

        sb.append('{');
        for (int i = 0; ; i++) {
            Map.Entry<K,V> e = it.next();
            K key = e.getKey();
            V value = e.getValue();
            sb.append(key   == this ? "(this Map)" : key.toString());
            sb.append('=');
            sb.append(value == this ? "(this Map)" : value.toString());

            if (i == max)
                return sb.append('}').toString();
            sb.append(", ");
        }
    }

    //枚举数组
    private <T> Enumeration<T> getEnumeration(int type) {
        if (count == 0) {
            return Collections.emptyEnumeration();
        } else {
            return new Enumerator<>(type, false);
        }
    }

    //迭代器
    private <T> Iterator<T> getIterator(int type) {
        if (count == 0) {
            return Collections.emptyIterator();
        } else {
            return new Enumerator<>(type, true);
        }
    }

    // Views

    /**
     * Each of these fields are initialized to contain an instance of the
     * appropriate view the first time this view is requested.  The views are
     * stateless, so there's no reason to create more than one of each.
     */
    private transient volatile Set<K> keySet = null;
    private transient volatile Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet = null;
    private transient volatile Collection<V> values = null;

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Set} view of the keys contained in this map.
     * The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the set, and vice-versa.  If the map is modified
     * while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
     * the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation), the results of
     * the iteration are undefined.  The set supports element removal,
     * which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the
     * <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>, <tt>Set.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt>, and <tt>clear</tt>
     * operations.  It does not support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt>
     * operations.
     *
     * @since 1.2
     */
    public Set<K> keySet() {
        if (keySet == null)
            keySet = Collections.synchronizedSet(new KeySet(), this);
        return keySet;
    }

    private class KeySet extends AbstractSet<K> {
        public Iterator<K> iterator() {
            return getIterator(KEYS);
        }
        public int size() {
            return count;
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            return containsKey(o);
        }
        public boolean remove(Object o) {
            return Hashtable.this.remove(o) != null;
        }
        public void clear() {
            Hashtable.this.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Set} view of the mappings contained in this map.
     * The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the set, and vice-versa.  If the map is modified
     * while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
     * the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation, or through the
     * <tt>setValue</tt> operation on a map entry returned by the
     * iterator) the results of the iteration are undefined.  The set
     * supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
     * mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>Set.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt> and
     * <tt>clear</tt> operations.  It does not support the
     * <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
     *
     * @since 1.2
     */
    public Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet() {
        if (entrySet==null)
            entrySet = Collections.synchronizedSet(new EntrySet(), this);
        return entrySet;
    }

    private class EntrySet extends AbstractSet<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
        public Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> iterator() {
            return getIterator(ENTRIES);
        }

        public boolean add(Map.Entry<K,V> o) {
            return super.add(o);
        }

        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry<?,?> entry = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o;
            Object key = entry.getKey();
            Entry<?,?>[] tab = table;
            int hash = key.hashCode();
            int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;

            for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[index]; e != null; e = e.next)
                if (e.hash==hash && e.equals(entry))
                    return true;
            return false;
        }

        public boolean remove(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry<?,?> entry = (Map.Entry<?,?>) o;
            Object key = entry.getKey();
            Entry<?,?>[] tab = table;
            int hash = key.hashCode();
            int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;

            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
            Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
            for(Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
                if (e.hash==hash && e.equals(entry)) {
                    modCount++;
                    if (prev != null)
                        prev.next = e.next;
                    else
                        tab[index] = e.next;

                    count--;
                    e.value = null;
                    return true;
                }
            }
            return false;
        }

        public int size() {
            return count;
        }

        public void clear() {
            Hashtable.this.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Collection} view of the values contained in this map.
     * The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the collection, and vice-versa.  If the map is
     * modified while an iteration over the collection is in progress
     * (except through the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation),
     * the results of the iteration are undefined.  The collection
     * supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
     * mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>Collection.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>,
     * <tt>retainAll</tt> and <tt>clear</tt> operations.  It does not
     * support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
     *
     * @since 1.2
     */
    public Collection<V> values() {
        if (values==null)
            values = Collections.synchronizedCollection(new ValueCollection(),
                                                        this);
        return values;
    }

    private class ValueCollection extends AbstractCollection<V> {
        public Iterator<V> iterator() {
            return getIterator(VALUES);
        }
        public int size() {
            return count;
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            return containsValue(o);
        }
        public void clear() {
            Hashtable.this.clear();
        }
    }

    // Comparison and hashing

    /**
     * Compares the specified Object with this Map for equality,
     * as per the definition in the Map interface.
     *
     * @param  o object to be compared for equality with this hashtable
     * @return true if the specified Object is equal to this Map
     * @see Map#equals(Object)
     * @since 1.2
     */
    public synchronized boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (o == this)
            return true;

        if (!(o instanceof Map))
            return false;
        Map<?,?> t = (Map<?,?>) o;
        //键值对数量不同,则不相等
        if (t.size() != size())
            return false;

        try {
            Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> i = entrySet().iterator();
            //遍历
            while (i.hasNext()) {
                Map.Entry<K,V> e = i.next();
                K key = e.getKey();
                V value = e.getValue();
                if (value == null) {
                    if (!(t.get(key)==null && t.containsKey(key)))
                        return false;
                } else {
                    if (!value.equals(t.get(key)))
                        return false;
                }
            }
        } catch (ClassCastException unused)   {
            return false;
        } catch (NullPointerException unused) {
            return false;
        }

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the hash code value for this Map as per the definition in the
     * Map interface.
     *
     * @see Map#hashCode()
     * @since 1.2
     */
    public synchronized int hashCode() {
        /*
         * This code detects the recursion caused by computing the hash code
         * of a self-referential hash table and prevents the stack overflow
         * that would otherwise result.  This allows certain 1.1-era
         * applets with self-referential hash tables to work.  This code
         * abuses the loadFactor field to do double-duty as a hashCode
         * in progress flag, so as not to worsen the space performance.
         * A negative load factor indicates that hash code computation is
         * in progress.
         */
        int h = 0;
        if (count == 0 || loadFactor < 0)
            return h;  // Returns zero

        loadFactor = -loadFactor;  // Mark hashCode computation in progress
        Entry<?,?>[] tab = table;
        //将所有键值对的hash相加
        for (Entry<?,?> entry : tab) {
            while (entry != null) {
                h += entry.hashCode();
                entry = entry.next;
            }
        }

        loadFactor = -loadFactor;  // Mark hashCode computation complete

        return h;
    }

    //获取key的value,如果为空则返回defaultValue
    @Override
    public synchronized V getOrDefault(Object key, V defaultValue) {
        V result = get(key);
        return (null == result) ? defaultValue : result;
    }

    //将所有元素传到action中
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    @Override
    public synchronized void forEach(BiConsumer<? super K, ? super V> action) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(action);     // explicit check required in case
                                            // table is empty.
        final int expectedModCount = modCount;

        Entry<?, ?>[] tab = table;
        for (Entry<?, ?> entry : tab) {
            while (entry != null) {
                action.accept((K)entry.key, (V)entry.value);
                entry = entry.next;

                if (expectedModCount != modCount) {
                    throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                }
            }
        }
    }

    //将所有键值对通过函数function计算得到新的value
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    @Override
    public synchronized void replaceAll(BiFunction<? super K, ? super V, ? extends V> function) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(function);     // explicit check required in case
                                              // table is empty.
        final int expectedModCount = modCount;

        Entry<K, V>[] tab = (Entry<K, V>[])table;
        for (Entry<K, V> entry : tab) {
            while (entry != null) {
                entry.value = Objects.requireNonNull(
                    function.apply(entry.key, entry.value));
                entry = entry.next;

                if (expectedModCount != modCount) {
                    throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                }
            }
        }
    }

    //如果不存在<key, value>则添加,如果有key,value为null,则设置value,否则不设置
    @Override
    public synchronized V putIfAbsent(K key, V value) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(value);

        // Makes sure the key is not already in the hashtable.
        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> entry = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for (; entry != null; entry = entry.next) {
            if ((entry.hash == hash) && entry.key.equals(key)) {
                V old = entry.value;
                if (old == null) {
                    entry.value = value;
                }
                return old;
            }
        }

        addEntry(hash, key, value, index);
        return null;
    }

    //移除掉键值对<key,value>
    @Override
    public synchronized boolean remove(Object key, Object value) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(value);

        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for (Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
            if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key) && e.value.equals(value)) {
                modCount++;
                if (prev != null) {
                    prev.next = e.next;
                } else {
                    tab[index] = e.next;
                }
                count--;
                e.value = null;
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    //替换掉value
    @Override
    public synchronized boolean replace(K key, V oldValue, V newValue) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(oldValue);
        Objects.requireNonNull(newValue);
        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for (; e != null; e = e.next) {
            if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
                if (e.value.equals(oldValue)) {
                    e.value = newValue;
                    return true;
                } else {
                    return false;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    //替换
    @Override
    public synchronized V replace(K key, V value) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(value);
        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for (; e != null; e = e.next) {
            if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = value;
                return oldValue;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    //如果没有key的键值对,则添加键值对
    @Override
    public synchronized V computeIfAbsent(K key, Function<? super K, ? extends V> mappingFunction) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(mappingFunction);

        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for (; e != null; e = e.next) {
            if (e.hash == hash && e.key.equals(key)) {
                // Hashtable not accept null value
                return e.value;
            }
        }

        V newValue = mappingFunction.apply(key);
        if (newValue != null) {
            addEntry(hash, key, newValue, index);
        }

        return newValue;
    }

    //如果键值对key存在,则计算替换value
    @Override
    public synchronized V computeIfPresent(K key, BiFunction<? super K, ? super V, ? extends V> remappingFunction) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(remappingFunction);

        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for (Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
            if (e.hash == hash && e.key.equals(key)) {
                V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(key, e.value);
                if (newValue == null) {
                    modCount++;
                    if (prev != null) {
                        prev.next = e.next;
                    } else {
                        tab[index] = e.next;
                    }
                    count--;
                } else {
                    e.value = newValue;
                }
                return newValue;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    //计算,如果有重复,则替换,否则,插入新的键值对
    @Override
    public synchronized V compute(K key, BiFunction<? super K, ? super V, ? extends V> remappingFunction) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(remappingFunction);

        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for (Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
            if (e.hash == hash && Objects.equals(e.key, key)) {
                V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(key, e.value);
                if (newValue == null) {
                    modCount++;
                    if (prev != null) {
                        prev.next = e.next;
                    } else {
                        tab[index] = e.next;
                    }
                    count--;
                } else {
                    e.value = newValue;
                }
                return newValue;
            }
        }

        V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(key, null);
        if (newValue != null) {
            addEntry(hash, key, newValue, index);
        }

        return newValue;
    }

    //合并值
    @Override
    public synchronized V merge(K key, V value, BiFunction<? super V, ? super V, ? extends V> remappingFunction) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(remappingFunction);

        Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        for (Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
            if (e.hash == hash && e.key.equals(key)) {
                V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(e.value, value);
                if (newValue == null) {
                    modCount++;
                    if (prev != null) {
                        prev.next = e.next;
                    } else {
                        tab[index] = e.next;
                    }
                    count--;
                } else {
                    e.value = newValue;
                }
                return newValue;
            }
        }

        if (value != null) {
            addEntry(hash, key, value, index);
        }

        return value;
    }

    /**
     * Save the state of the Hashtable to a stream (i.e., serialize it).
     *
     * @serialData The <i>capacity</i> of the Hashtable (the length of the
     *             bucket array) is emitted (int), followed by the
     *             <i>size</i> of the Hashtable (the number of key-value
     *             mappings), followed by the key (Object) and value (Object)
     *             for each key-value mapping represented by the Hashtable
     *             The key-value mappings are emitted in no particular order.
     */
    //序列化用的
    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
            throws IOException {
        Entry<Object, Object> entryStack = null;

        synchronized (this) {
            // Write out the length, threshold, loadfactor
            s.defaultWriteObject();

            // Write out length, count of elements
            s.writeInt(table.length);
            s.writeInt(count);

            // Stack copies of the entries in the table
            for (int index = 0; index < table.length; index++) {
                Entry<?,?> entry = table[index];

                while (entry != null) {
                    entryStack =
                        new Entry<>(0, entry.key, entry.value, entryStack);
                    entry = entry.next;
                }
            }
        }

        // Write out the key/value objects from the stacked entries
        while (entryStack != null) {
            s.writeObject(entryStack.key);
            s.writeObject(entryStack.value);
            entryStack = entryStack.next;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Reconstitute the Hashtable from a stream (i.e., deserialize it).
     */
    //序列化用的
    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
         throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
    {
        // Read in the length, threshold, and loadfactor
        s.defaultReadObject();

        // Read the original length of the array and number of elements
        int origlength = s.readInt();
        int elements = s.readInt();

        // Compute new size with a bit of room 5% to grow but
        // no larger than the original size.  Make the length
        // odd if it's large enough, this helps distribute the entries.
        // Guard against the length ending up zero, that's not valid.
        int length = (int)(elements * loadFactor) + (elements / 20) + 3;
        if (length > elements && (length & 1) == 0)
            length--;
        if (origlength > 0 && length > origlength)
            length = origlength;
        table = new Entry<?,?>[length];
        threshold = (int)Math.min(length * loadFactor, MAX_ARRAY_SIZE + 1);
        count = 0;

        // Read the number of elements and then all the key/value objects
        for (; elements > 0; elements--) {
            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                K key = (K)s.readObject();
            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                V value = (V)s.readObject();
            // synch could be eliminated for performance
            reconstitutionPut(table, key, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * The put method used by readObject. This is provided because put
     * is overridable and should not be called in readObject since the
     * subclass will not yet be initialized.
     *
     * <p>This differs from the regular put method in several ways. No
     * checking for rehashing is necessary since the number of elements
     * initially in the table is known. The modCount is not incremented
     * because we are creating a new instance. Also, no return value
     * is needed.
     */
    private void reconstitutionPut(Entry<?,?>[] tab, K key, V value)
        throws StreamCorruptedException
    {
        if (value == null) {
            throw new java.io.StreamCorruptedException();
        }
        // Makes sure the key is not already in the hashtable.
        // This should not happen in deserialized version.
        int hash = key.hashCode();
        int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
        for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[index] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
            if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
                throw new java.io.StreamCorruptedException();
            }
        }
        // Creates the new entry.
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
            Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
        tab[index] = new Entry<>(hash, key, value, e);
        count++;
    }

    /**
     * Hashtable bucket collision list entry
     */
    //键值对
    private static class Entry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
        final int hash;
        final K key;
        V value;
        Entry<K,V> next;

        protected Entry(int hash, K key, V value, Entry<K,V> next) {
            this.hash = hash;
            this.key =  key;
            this.value = value;
            this.next = next;
        }

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        protected Object clone() {
            return new Entry<>(hash, key, value,
                                  (next==null ? null : (Entry<K,V>) next.clone()));
        }

        // Map.Entry Ops

        public K getKey() {
            return key;
        }

        public V getValue() {
            return value;
        }

        public V setValue(V value) {
            if (value == null)
                throw new NullPointerException();

            V oldValue = this.value;
            this.value = value;
            return oldValue;
        }

        public boolean equals(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o;

            return (key==null ? e.getKey()==null : key.equals(e.getKey())) &&
               (value==null ? e.getValue()==null : value.equals(e.getValue()));
        }

        public int hashCode() {
            return hash ^ Objects.hashCode(value);
        }

        public String toString() {
            return key.toString()+"="+value.toString();
        }
    }

    // Types of Enumerations/Iterations
    private static final int KEYS = 0;
    private static final int VALUES = 1;
    private static final int ENTRIES = 2;

    /**
     * A hashtable enumerator class.  This class implements both the
     * Enumeration and Iterator interfaces, but individual instances
     * can be created with the Iterator methods disabled.  This is necessary
     * to avoid unintentionally increasing the capabilities granted a user
     * by passing an Enumeration.
     */
    //枚举、迭代器类
    private class Enumerator<T> implements Enumeration<T>, Iterator<T> {
        Entry<?,?>[] table = Hashtable.this.table;
        int index = table.length;
        Entry<?,?> entry = null;
        Entry<?,?> lastReturned = null;
        int type;

        /**
         * Indicates whether this Enumerator is serving as an Iterator
         * or an Enumeration.  (true -> Iterator).
         */
        //true 为 Iterator
        //false 为 Enumeration
        boolean iterator;

        /**
         * The modCount value that the iterator believes that the backing
         * Hashtable should have.  If this expectation is violated, the iterator
         * has detected concurrent modification.
         */
        protected int expectedModCount = modCount;

        Enumerator(int type, boolean iterator) {
            this.type = type;
            this.iterator = iterator;
        }

        //还有键值对
        public boolean hasMoreElements() {
            Entry<?,?> e = entry;
            int i = index;
            Entry<?,?>[] t = table;
            /* Use locals for faster loop iteration */
            while (e == null && i > 0) {
                e = t[--i];
            }
            entry = e;
            index = i;
            return e != null;
        }

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        public T nextElement() {
            Entry<?,?> et = entry;
            int i = index;
            Entry<?,?>[] t = table;
            /* Use locals for faster loop iteration */
            while (et == null && i > 0) {
                et = t[--i];
            }
            entry = et;
            index = i;
            if (et != null) {
                Entry<?,?> e = lastReturned = entry;
                entry = e.next;
                return type == KEYS ? (T)e.key : (type == VALUES ? (T)e.value : (T)e);
            }
            throw new NoSuchElementException("Hashtable Enumerator");
        }

        // Iterator methods
        public boolean hasNext() {
            return hasMoreElements();
        }

        public T next() {
            if (modCount != expectedModCount)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            return nextElement();
        }

        public void remove() {
            if (!iterator)
                throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
            if (lastReturned == null)
                throw new IllegalStateException("Hashtable Enumerator");
            if (modCount != expectedModCount)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            synchronized(Hashtable.this) {
                Entry<?,?>[] tab = Hashtable.this.table;
                int index = (lastReturned.hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;

                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
                for(Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
                    if (e == lastReturned) {
                        modCount++;
                        expectedModCount++;
                        if (prev == null)
                            //桶中第一个元素
                            tab[index] = e.next;
                        else
                            //非桶中第一个元素
                            prev.next = e.next;
                        count--;
                        lastReturned = null;
                        return;
                    }
                }
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            }
        }
    }
}


0
0

查看评论
* 以上用户言论只代表其个人观点,不代表CSDN网站的观点或立场
    个人资料
    • 访问:80635次
    • 积分:2102
    • 等级:
    • 排名:第18273名
    • 原创:133篇
    • 转载:4篇
    • 译文:0篇
    • 评论:22条
    个人博客
    GitHub
    博客专栏