# ACM-数据结构-并查集

ACM竞赛中，并查集（DisjointSets）这个数据结构经常使用。顾名思义，并查集即表示集合，并且支持快速查找、合并操作。

# How Many Tables

Time Limit: 2000/1000 MS (Java/Others)    Memory Limit: 65536/32768 K (Java/Others)
Total Submission(s): 17478    Accepted Submission(s): 8574

Problem Description
Today is Ignatius' birthday. He invites a lot of friends. Now it's dinner time. Ignatius wants to know how many tables he needs at least. You have to notice that not all the friends know each other, and all the friends do not want to stay with strangers.

One important rule for this problem is that if I tell you A knows B, and B knows C, that means A, B, C know each other, so they can stay in one table.

For example: If I tell you A knows B, B knows C, and D knows E, so A, B, C can stay in one table, and D, E have to stay in the other one. So Ignatius needs 2 tables at least.

Input
The input starts with an integer T(1<=T<=25) which indicate the number of test cases. Then T test cases follow. Each test case starts with two integers N and M(1<=N,M<=1000). N indicates the number of friends, the friends are marked from 1 to N. Then M lines follow. Each line consists of two integers A and B(A!=B), that means friend A and friend B know each other. There will be a blank line between two cases.

Output
For each test case, just output how many tables Ignatius needs at least. Do NOT print any blanks.

Sample Input
2 5 3 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 1 2 5

Sample Output
2 4

Author
Ignatius.L

Source

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#include <cstdio>

const int NumSets = 1005;
typedef int DisjSet[NumSets + 1];
typedef int Rank[NumSets + 1];
DisjSet S;
Rank R;

// Initialize the set and rank
void Initialize()
{
for(int i=0; i<NumSets; ++i)
{
S[i] = i;
R[i] = 1;
}
}

// Find father of the value, with the function of path compression
int Find(int value)
{
if(S[value] != value) S[value] = Find(S[value]);
return S[value];
}

// Union the value1 and value2 by the rank of the set which them local in
void SetUnion(int value1, int value2)
{
int fa1 = Find(value1);
int fa2 = Find(value2);
if(fa1 == fa2) return ;
if(R[fa1] >= R[fa2])
{
S[fa2] = fa1;
R[fa1] += R[fa2];
}
else
{
S[fa1] = fa2;
R[fa2] += R[fa1];
}
}

int main()
{//freopen("sample.txt", "r", stdin);
int cas;
scanf("%d", &cas);
while(cas--)
{
int n, m;
Initialize();
scanf("%d%d", &n, &m);
for(int i=0; i<m; ++i)
{
int a, b;
scanf("%d%d", &a, &b);
if(Find(a) != Find(b))
{
SetUnion(a, b);
--n;
}
}
printf("%d\n", n);
}
return 0;
}


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