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Python读写并且修改Excel

标签: pythonexcelExcel修改
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背景

Python中,想要打开已经存在的excel的xls文件,然后在最后新的一行的数据。

 

折腾过程

1.找到了参考资料:

writing to existing workbook using xlwt

其实是没有直接实现:

打开已有的excel文件,然后在文件最后写入,添加新数据

的函数的。

只不过,可以利用:

Working with Excel Files in Python

中的库,组合实现。

2. writing to existing workbook using xlwt

给出了示例代码:

rom xlutils.copy import copy #http://pypi.python.org/pypi/xlutils
from xlrd import open_workbook #http://pypi.python.org/pypi/xlrd
from xlwt import easyxf #http://pypi.python.org/pypi/xlwt
 
START_ROW=297# 0 based (subtract 1 from excel row number)
col_age_november=1
col_summer1=2
col_fall1=3
 
rb=open_workbook(file_path,formatting_info=True)
r_sheet=rb.sheet_by_index(0)# read only copy to introspect the file
wb=copy(rb)# a writable copy (I can't read values out of this, only write to it)
w_sheet=wb.get_sheet(0)# the sheet to write to within the writable copy
 
forrow_indexinrange(START_ROW, r_sheet.nrows):
    age_nov=r_sheet.cell(row_index, col_age_november).value
    ifage_nov==3:
        #If 3, then Combo I 3-4 year old  for both summer1 and fall1
        w_sheet.write(row_index, col_summer1, 'Combo I 3-4 year old')
        w_sheet.write(row_index, col_fall1, 'Combo I 3-4 year old')
 
wb.save(file_path+'.out'+ os.path.splitext(file_path)[-1])


3. 刚又看到,有更简洁的代码:

fromxlutils.copyimportcopy
w=copy('book1.xls')
w.get_sheet(0).write(0,0,"foo")
w.save('book2.xls')

4.现在打算去试试。

先去安装xlrd:

【记录】Python中安装xlrd模块

6.再去安装xlutils:

【记录】Python中安装可以读写excel的xls文件的xlutils模块(需依赖于xlrd和xlwt)

7.接着可以去写代码了。

8.先是:

【已解决】Python中使用xlutils.copy出错:AttributeError: ‘module’ object has no attribute ‘copy’

9.后是:

【已解决】Python中使用xlutils的copy出错:AttributeError: ‘str’ object has no attribute ‘datemode’

10.后来是用如下代码:

import xlwt;
import xlrd;
#import xlutils;
from xlutils.copy import copy;
 
#init xls file
#styleBlueBkg= xlwt.easyxf('pattern: pattern solid, fore_colour sky_blue;');
#styleBold   = xlwt.easyxf('font: bold on');
styleBoldRed  =xlwt.easyxf('font: color-index red, bold on');
headerStyle=styleBoldRed;
wb=xlwt.Workbook();
ws=wb.add_sheet(gConst['xls']['sheetName']);
ws.write(0,0,"Header",        headerStyle);
ws.write(0,1,"CatalogNumber", headerStyle);
ws.write(0,2,"PartNumber",    headerStyle);
wb.save(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
 
 
#open existed xls file
#newWb = xlutils.copy(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
#newWb = copy(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
oldWb=xlrd.open_workbook(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
printoldWb;#<xlrd.book.Book object at 0x000000000315C940>
newWb=copy(oldWb);
printnewWb;#<xlwt.Workbook.Workbook object at 0x000000000315F470>
newWs=newWb.get_sheet(0);
newWs.write(1,0,"value1");
newWs.write(1,1,"value2");
newWs.write(1,2,"value3");
print"write new values ok";
newWb.save(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
print"save with same name ok";

实现了,打开,刚刚保存的,已经存在的xls文件,

然后写入新数据的目的。

但是有个缺点,

第一次保存时的,带格式(标题内容为红色粗体)的内容:

old xls with format

重新写入新数据,再保存时,却丢失了之前的格式(标题没了红色粗体了):

rewrite one loss format

11.后来还是参考:

writing to existing workbook using xlwt

中的那个标准答案,在用xlrd.open_workbook时,添加对应的参数formatting_info=True,就可以保留原有格式了。

完整代码:

import xlwt;
import xlrd;
#import xlutils;
from xlutils.copy import copy;
 
#init xls file
#styleBlueBkg= xlwt.easyxf('pattern: pattern solid, fore_colour sky_blue;');
#styleBold   = xlwt.easyxf('font: bold on');
styleBoldRed  =xlwt.easyxf('font: color-index red, bold on');
headerStyle=styleBoldRed;
wb=xlwt.Workbook();
ws=wb.add_sheet(gConst['xls']['sheetName']);
ws.write(0,0,"Header",        headerStyle);
ws.write(0,1,"CatalogNumber", headerStyle);
ws.write(0,2,"PartNumber",    headerStyle);
wb.save(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
 
 
#open existed xls file
#newWb = xlutils.copy(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
#newWb = copy(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
oldWb=xlrd.open_workbook(gConst['xls']['fileName'], formatting_info=True);
printoldWb;#<xlrd.book.Book object at 0x000000000315C940>
newWb=copy(oldWb);
printnewWb;#<xlwt.Workbook.Workbook object at 0x000000000315F470>
newWs=newWb.get_sheet(0);
newWs.write(1,0,"value1");
newWs.write(1,1,"value2");
newWs.write(1,2,"value3");
print"write new values ok";
newWb.save(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
print"save with same name ok";


最后重新写入的数据,就可以保留之前的格式了(标题为红色粗体):

new one with format

 

总结

python中操作,本身就复杂的xls文件,还是有点小麻烦的。

想要,往已经存在的xls文件中,写入新的行,新的数据,对应的逻辑为:

  1. 用xlrd.open_workbook打开已有的xsl文件
    • 注意添加参数formatting_info=True,得以保存之前数据的格式
  2. 然后用,from xlutils.copy import copy;,之后的copy去从打开的xlrd的Book变量中,拷贝出一份,成为新的xlwt的Workbook变量
  3. 然后对于xlwt的Workbook变量,就是正常的:
    1. 通过get_sheet去获得对应的sheet
    2. 拿到sheet变量后,就可以往sheet中,写入新的数据
  4. 写完新数据后,最终save保存

 

相关完整代码为:

import xlwt;
import xlrd;
#import xlutils;
from xlutils.copy import copy;
 
styleBoldRed  =xlwt.easyxf('font: color-index red, bold on');
headerStyle=styleBoldRed;
wb=xlwt.Workbook();
ws=wb.add_sheet(gConst['xls']['sheetName']);
ws.write(0,0,"Header",        headerStyle);
ws.write(0,1,"CatalogNumber", headerStyle);
ws.write(0,2,"PartNumber",    headerStyle);
wb.save(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
 
#open existed xls file
#newWb = xlutils.copy(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
#newWb = copy(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
oldWb=xlrd.open_workbook(gConst['xls']['fileName'], formatting_info=True);
printoldWb;#<xlrd.book.Book object at 0x000000000315C940>
newWb=copy(oldWb);
printnewWb;#<xlwt.Workbook.Workbook object at 0x000000000315F470>
newWs=newWb.get_sheet(0);
newWs.write(1,0,"value1");
newWs.write(1,1,"value2");
newWs.write(1,2,"value3");
print"write new values ok";
newWb.save(gConst['xls']['fileName']);
print"save with same name ok";

其中,关于如何下载和安装对应的库,可参考:

【记录】Python中生成(写入数据到)Excel文件中

【记录】Python中安装xlrd模块

【记录】Python中安装可以读写excel的xls文件的xlutils模块(需依赖于xlrd和xlwt)

原文网址:http://www.crifan.com/python_append_new_data_into_existing_excel_xls_file/

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