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计算机专业英语-02:Text 1 The Computer System

标签: 计算机专业英语The Computer Systemintegrated circuitsprocessor
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Text 1 The Computer System

一、词汇

1.device    装置

2.abstract    not concrete、抽象的

3.run(program)    executecarry out 运行(程序)

4.cable |ˈkeɪbl|    电缆、电缆、缆绳

5.instruction    指令(如:Instructions Cache 指令缓存)

6.terminal |ˈtɜːmɪnl|    adj 晚期的、终点的、不可救药的 n 终点站、终端/terminate |ˈtɜːmɪneɪt| v 终止、结束

7.enhance |ɪnˈhæns|    v 加强

8.process    处理、处理过程(如:Central Processing UnitCPU))

9.architecture    结构、构造(如:Industry(|ˈɪndəstri| n 工业、企业) Standard Architecture


二、Notes(注释)

1.hardware:

    The mechanical,electrical or structural components of a computer.

        mechanical |mɪˈkænɪkl| adj 机器驱动的、机械的

        electrical |ɪˈlektrɪkl| adj 电的、用电的

        structural |ˈstrʌktʃərəl| adj 结构上的、结构性的、结构的


2.software:

     Program.Contrast with hardware.

        contrast |ˈkɒntræst| n 反面、差异、反差 v 对比,形成对比


3.input: 

    The act of transferring data from an external device into a computer’s main memory.

        act n 行为、表演

        transfer |ˌtrænsˈfɜː(r)| v 调度、转让、转存、转换

        external |ɪkˈstɜːnl|


4.output: 

    The act of transferring data or information from the computer’s main memory to an external device.


5.central processing unit(CPU): 

    Processor.Also called Main Processor.


6.processor: 

    The component that processes or manipulates data.The processor contains a clock,an instruction control unit,an arithmetic and logic unit,and registers.

        CPU包括算术逻辑部件、寄存器部件和控制部件等

        manipulate |məˈnɪpjʊleɪt| v 操作、操控、控制、篡改

        arithmetic |əˈrɪθmətɪk| n 算术 |ˌærɪθˈmetɪk|adj 算术的


7.integrated circuits(IC): 

    An electronic circuit hundreds of times smaller than a wired circuit,product on a single chip of silicon in such a way that the components are completely integrated and cannot be grouped or redistributed in another way and still perform the same electronic function.

        electronic |ˌɪlekˈtrɒnɪk| adjective 电子的

        circuit |ˈsɜːkɪt| noun 电路

        wire |ˈwaɪə(r)| noun Uncountable and countable 金属丝

        chip |tʃɪp| noun 碎片

        silicon |ˈsɪlɪkən| noun Uncountable

        redistribute |ˌriːdɪˈstrɪbjuːt| v 重新分配

        distribute |dɪˈstrɪbjuːt|分发、分配、散布

        perform v 表演、表现、运行


8.printed circuit board

    A flat surface on which chips are linked by electronic paths embedded in the surface.Examples include processor boards,memory boards,and interface boards.

        embed |ɪmˈbed| v 嵌入


9.memory:

    The computer component in which instructions and data are stored.


10.application program:

     A program written to perform an end user task. A payroll program or a computer game are application programs; an operating system is not.

        payroll n 工资名单

        perform v 表演、表现、运行


11.programming language processor:计算机编程语言处理器



12.operation system:

    A collection of program modules that control the operation of the computer.A typical operation system allocates resources,schedules programs,controls access to input and output devices,and manages data.

        collection |kəˈlekʃn| n 收集、一批、一群

        module |ˈmɒdʒʊl| n 标准部件、模块、独立舱、单元

        schedule |ˈskedʒʊl| n 时刻表、计划

        typical |ˈtɪpɪkl|


13.resource:资源


14.utilities(=utility programs实用程序):

    Often referred to as service programs and they usually concern themselves with fairly mundane tasks such as moving files from one device to another;tasks which are very important but not peculiar to any particular type of application.

        fairly |ˈfeəli| adverb 公正地、合理地

        mundane |mʌnˈdeɪn| adj 平凡的、乏味的、世俗的

        peculiar |pɪˈkjuːlɪə(r)| adj 奇怪的、古怪的、不舒服的、特别的、特有的

        particular |pəˈtɪkjʊlə(r)| adj 特指的、特别的


三、Text(课文)The Computer System

    A computer system includes both hardware and software.

    Hardware consists of the physical components and all associated equipment——integrated circuits,printed circuit boards,cables,power supplies(电源s),memory,and terminals(中断s)——rather than(而不是) abstract ideas or instructions.You can see them,touch them,and feel them.

                associate |əˈsəʊʃɪeɪt,-sɪeɪt| verb 联系起来、与有关系

                equipment |ɪˈkwɪpmənt| noun 器械、设备

    The basic organization of a computer hardware system consists of an input device,an output device,memory,and a Central Processing Unit(CPU)(输入输出、内存、中央处理器四部分).

    Software,in contrast,can not be seen,touched or felt.It is a series of instructions that guide a computer through(完成) some process.Software products may be divided into four basic types:application programs(应用程序),programming language processors(程序语言处理器),operating systems(操作系统),and system utilities(系统工具).

                series |ˈsɪəriːz| noun 一系列、一套 

    Application programs allow you to perform such tasks as solving statistical(统计的) problems,keeping(维护) your company’s account books(账本) or playing s computer game.

                solve |sɒlv| v 解开、解、破解、解决

                statistical |stəˈtɪstɪkl| adj 统计的

    Programming languages processors are programs that support that use of a computer language(使用某种计算机语言) on a computer system(在一个计算机上). They are tools which are used for the development of application programs.

    Operating systems are control programs that manage hardware and software resources and enable(e nable) you to run application programs.

    System utilities are special programs that enhance the usefulness(可用性) and capabilities(性能) of a computer.

                capability |ˌkeɪpəˈbɪləti| noun 能力、才能

    It is possible to be familiar with(熟悉) various aspects of computer software without being concerned about the details of how the computer’s hardware operates.It is also possible to design various components of the system’s hardware without knowledge of the computer software that will run on it.However,if you are concerned with computer architecture,you should have a knowledge of both hardware and software,because these two parts of the system are closely related to each other.

                aspect |ˈæspekt| noun 部分、方面

                concern |kənˈsɜːn| v 有关、担忧、牵扯

                design |dɪˈzaɪn| v 设计

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