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ListView 和 Adapter 的基础

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ListView 和 Adapter 的基础

工作原理:

ListView 针对List中每个item,要求 adapter “给我一个视图” (getView)。
一个新的视图被返回并显示
如果我们有上亿个项目要显示怎么办?为每个项目创建一个新视图?NO!这不可能!

实际上Android为你缓存了视图。

Android中有个叫做Recycler的构件,下图是他的工作原理:
recycler构件示意图
1.如果你有10亿个项目(item),其中只有可见的项目存在内存中,其他的在Recycler中。
2.ListView先请求一个type1视图(getView)然后请求其他可见的项目。convertView在getView中是空(null)的。
3.当item1滚出屏幕,并且一个新的项目从屏幕低端上来时,ListView再请求一个type1视图。convertView此时不是空值了,它的值是item1。你只需设定新的数据然后返回convertView,不必重新创建一个视图。
请看下面的示例代码,这里在getView中使用了System.out进行输出

import android.app.ListActivity;
import android.content.Context;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.LayoutInflater;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.ViewGroup;
import android.widget.BaseAdapter;
import android.widget.TextView;
import java.util.ArrayList;

public class MultipleItemsList extends ListActivity {

    private MyCustomAdapter mAdapter;

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        mAdapter = new MyCustomAdapter();
        for (int i = 1; i < 50; i++) {
            mAdapter.addItem("item " + i);
        }
        setListAdapter(mAdapter);
    }

    private class MyCustomAdapter extends BaseAdapter {


        private ArrayList<String> mData = new ArrayList<String>();
        private LayoutInflater mInflater;


        public MyCustomAdapter() {
            mInflater = (LayoutInflater)getSystemService(Context.LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE);
        }

        public void addItem(final String item) {
            mData.add(item);
            notifyDataSetChanged();
        }


        @Override
        public int getCount() {
            return mData.size();
        }

        @Override
        public String getItem(int position) {
            return mData.get(position);
        }

        @Override
        public long getItemId(int position) {
            return position;
        }

        @Override
        public View getView(int position, View convertView, ViewGroup parent) {
            ViewHolder holder = null;

            System.out.print("getView " + position + " " + convertView );
            if (convertView == null) {
                convertView = mInflater.inflate(R.layout.item1, null);
                holder = new ViewHolder();
                holder.textView = (TextView)convertView.findViewById(R.id.text);
                convertView.setTag(holder);
            } else {
                holder = (ViewHolder)convertView.getTag();
            }

            holder.textView.setText(mData.get(position));
            System.out.println(" "+holder+" "+holder.textView.getText());
            return convertView;
        }

    }

    public static class ViewHolder {
        public TextView textView;
    }
}

执行程序,然后在Logcat中查看日志

这里写图片描述
getView 被调用 9 次 ,convertView 对于所有的可见项目是空值(如下)


02-05 13:47:32.559: INFO/System.out(947): getView 0 null
02-05 13:47:32.570: INFO/System.out(947): getView 1 null
02-05 13:47:32.589: INFO/System.out(947): getView 2 null
02-05 13:47:32.599: INFO/System.out(947): getView 3 null
02-05 13:47:32.619: INFO/System.out(947): getView 4 null
02-05 13:47:32.629: INFO/System.out(947): getView 5 null
02-05 13:47:32.708: INFO/System.out(947): getView 6 null
02-05 13:47:32.719: INFO/System.out(947): getView 7 null
02-05 13:47:32.729: INFO/System.out(947): getView 8 null

然后稍微向下滚动List,直到item10出现

这里写图片描述

convertView仍然是空值,因为recycler中没有视图(item1的边缘仍然可见,在顶端)


02-05 13:48:25.169: INFO/System.out(947): getView 9 null

再滚动List

这里写图片描述

convertView不是空值了!item1离开屏幕到Recycler中去了,然后item11被创建


02-05 13:48:42.879: INFO/System.out(947): getView 10 android.widget.LinearLayout@437430f8

再滚动:


02-05 14:01:31.069: INFO/System.out(947): getView 11 android.widget.LinearLayout@437447d0
02-05 14:01:31.142: INFO/System.out(947): getView 12 android.widget.LinearLayout@43744ff8
02-05 14:01:31.279: INFO/System.out(947): getView 13 android.widget.LinearLayout@43743fa8
02-05 14:01:31.350: INFO/System.out(947): getView 14 android.widget.LinearLayout@43745820
02-05 14:01:31.429: INFO/System.out(947): getView 15 android.widget.LinearLayout@43746048
02-05 14:01:31.550: INFO/System.out(947): getView 16 android.widget.LinearLayout@43746870
02-05 14:01:31.669: INFO/System.out(947): getView 17 android.widget.LinearLayout@43747098
02-05 14:01:31.839: INFO/System.out(947): getView 18 android.widget.LinearLayout@437478c0
02-05 14:03:30.900: INFO/System.out(947): getView 19 android.widget.LinearLayout@43748df0
02-05 14:03:32.069: INFO/System.out(947): getView 20 android.widget.LinearLayout@437430f8

convertView 如我们所期待的非空了,在item11离开屏幕之后,它的视图(@437430f8)作为convertView容纳item21了

不同的项目布局(item layout)
我们再举一个稍微复杂的例子,在上例的list中加入一些分隔线

你需要做这些:

1.重(@Override)写 getViewTypeCount() – 返回你有多少个不同的布局
2.重写 getItemViewType(int) – 由position返回view type id
3.根据view item的类型,在getView中创建正确的convertView
以下是代码:

public class MultipleItemsList extends ListActivity {

    private MyCustomAdapter mAdapter;

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        mAdapter = new MyCustomAdapter();
        for (int i = 1; i < 50; i++) {
            mAdapter.addItem("item " + i);
            if (i % 4 == 0) {
                mAdapter.addSeparatorItem("separator " + i);
            }
        }
        setListAdapter(mAdapter);
    }

    private class MyCustomAdapter extends BaseAdapter {

        private static final int TYPE_ITEM = 0;
        private static final int TYPE_SEPARATOR = 1;
        private static final int TYPE_MAX_COUNT = TYPE_SEPARATOR + 1;

        private ArrayList mData = new ArrayList();
        private LayoutInflater mInflater;

        private TreeSet mSeparatorsSet = new TreeSet();

        public MyCustomAdapter() {
            mInflater = (LayoutInflater)getSystemService(Context.LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE);
        }

        public void addItem(final String item) {
            mData.add(item);
            notifyDataSetChanged();
        }

        public void addSeparatorItem(final String item) {
            mData.add(item);
            // save separator position
            mSeparatorsSet.add(mData.size() - 1);
            notifyDataSetChanged();
        }

        @Override
        public int getItemViewType(int position) {
            return mSeparatorsSet.contains(position) ? TYPE_SEPARATOR : TYPE_ITEM;
        }

        @Override
        public int getViewTypeCount() {
            return TYPE_MAX_COUNT;
        }

        @Override
        public int getCount() {
            return mData.size();
        }

        @Override
        public String getItem(int position) {
            return mData.get(position);
        }

        @Override
        public long getItemId(int position) {
            return position;
        }

        @Override
        public View getView(int position, View convertView, ViewGroup parent) {
            ViewHolder holder = null;
            int type = getItemViewType(position);
            System.out.println("getView " + position + " " + convertView + " type = " + type);
            if (convertView == null) {
                holder = new ViewHolder();
                switch (type) {
                    case TYPE_ITEM:
                        convertView = mInflater.inflate(R.layout.item1, null);
                        holder.textView = (TextView)convertView.findViewById(R.id.text);
                        break;
                    case TYPE_SEPARATOR:
                        convertView = mInflater.inflate(R.layout.item2, null);
                        holder.textView = (TextView)convertView.findViewById(R.id.textSeparator);
                        break;
                }
                convertView.setTag(holder);
            } else {
                holder = (ViewHolder)convertView.getTag();
            }
            holder.textView.setText(mData.get(position));
            return convertView;
        }

    }

    public static class ViewHolder {
        public TextView textView;
    }
}

运行程序,你会看到每4个item一个分割线
这里写图片描述

看看日志,无异常,所有的convertView都是空的


02-05 15:19:03.080: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 0 null type = 0
02-05 15:19:03.112: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 1 null type = 0
02-05 15:19:03.130: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 2 null type = 0
02-05 15:19:03.141: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 3 null type = 0
02-05 15:19:03.160: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 4 null type = 1
02-05 15:19:03.170: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 5 null type = 0
02-05 15:19:03.180: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 6 null type = 0
02-05 15:19:03.190: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 7 null type = 0
02-05 15:19:03.210: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 8 null type = 0
02-05 15:19:03.210: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 9 null type = 1

滚动list:


02-05 15:19:54.160: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 10 null type = 0
02-05 15:19:57.440: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 11 android.widget.LinearLayout@43744528 type = 0
02-05 15:20:01.310: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 12 android.widget.LinearLayout@43744eb0 type = 0
02-05 15:20:01.880: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 13 android.widget.LinearLayout@437456d8 type = 0
02-05 15:20:02.869: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 14 null type = 1
02-05 15:20:06.489: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 15 android.widget.LinearLayout@43745f00 type = 0
02-05 15:20:07.749: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 16 android.widget.LinearLayout@43747170 type = 0
02-05 15:20:10.250: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 17 android.widget.LinearLayout@43747998 type = 0
02-05 15:20:11.661: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 18 android.widget.LinearLayout@437481c0 type = 0
02-05 15:20:13.180: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 19 android.widget.LinearLayout@437468a0 type = 1
02-05 15:20:16.900: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 20 android.widget.LinearLayout@437489e8 type = 0
02-05 15:20:25.690: INFO/System.out(1035): getView 21 android.widget.LinearLayout@4374a8d8 type = 0

convertView对于分割线是空的,直到第一个分割线可见,当其离开屏幕,视图去到Recycler并且convertView开始起作用。

本文翻译自http://android.amberfog.com/?p=296

代码下载:MultipleItemsList.zip – source code

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