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ConcurrentHashMap学习笔记(Java8)

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ConcurrentHashMap是Concurrent包里提供的一个解决并发问题的HashMap,试着从源代码来认识这个类


首先我们来看一下ConcurrentHashMap中两个重要的内部类:Node(节点)和Segment(桶)


Node的源代码如下


    static class Node<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
        final int hash;
        final K key;
        volatile V val;
        volatile Node<K,V> next;

        Node(int hash, K key, V val, Node<K,V> next) {
            this.hash = hash;
            this.key = key;
            this.val = val;
            this.next = next;
        }

        public final K getKey()       { return key; }
        public final V getValue()     { return val; }
        public final int hashCode()   { return key.hashCode() ^ val.hashCode(); }
        public final String toString(){ return key + "=" + val; }
        public final V setValue(V value) {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

        public final boolean equals(Object o) {
            Object k, v, u; Map.Entry<?,?> e;
            return ((o instanceof Map.Entry) &&
                    (k = (e = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o).getKey()) != null &&
                    (v = e.getValue()) != null &&
                    (k == key || k.equals(key)) &&
                    (v == (u = val) || v.equals(u)));
        }

        /**
         * Virtualized support for map.get(); overridden in subclasses.
         */
        Node<K,V> find(int h, Object k) {
            Node<K,V> e = this;
            if (k != null) {
                do {
                    K ek;
                    if (e.hash == h &&
                        ((ek = e.key) == k || (ek != null && k.equals(ek))))
                        return e;
                } while ((e = e.next) != null);
            }
            return null;
        }
    }

其中构造函数中需要对四个成员变量进行初期化:Key,Value,hash(散列值),next(下一个节点)

需要注意的几个方法是

setValue()时直接抛出以一个异常?(UnsupportedOperationException)

hashCode()返回该节点的散列值,该散列值为key与value的散列值按位与算出

equalsIO方法需要判断key值相同且value值相同

find()方法根据散列值及key值,遍历所有节点值取得对象节点,没有取得相应节点时返回null

其中setValue()与Hashmap不同,find()为新增方法,另外,java8中HashMap引入了树结构,在ConcurrentHashMap中尚未有反映


接下来看Segment的源代码。

    static class Segment<K,V> extends ReentrantLock implements Serializable {
        private static final long serialVersionUID = 2249069246763182397L;
        final float loadFactor;
        Segment(float lf) { this.loadFactor = lf; }
    }

作为ConcurrentHashMap重要的内部类,Segment的代码只有三行,需要注意的是继承了ReentrantLock方法,可以认为Segment也是一种锁结构,构造函数中初始化了负载因子。

Segment的代码在Java8中极大地简化。相对应的是Java8版本的ConcurrentHashMap中出现了TreeNode和TreeBin结构。应该是利用红黑树进行了数据存储。仅红黑树这一节就足够写一篇很长的笔记了,我们先把它放在一边,先看核心的get/set机能

    /**
     * Maps the specified key to the specified value in this table.
     * Neither the key nor the value can be null.
     *
     * <p>The value can be retrieved by calling the {@code get} method
     * with a key that is equal to the original key.
     *
     * @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
     * @param value value to be associated with the specified key
     * @return the previous value associated with {@code key}, or
     *         {@code null} if there was no mapping for {@code key}
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key or value is null
     */
    public V put(K key, V value) {
        return putVal(key, value, false);
    }

    /** Implementation for put and putIfAbsent */
    final V putVal(K key, V value, boolean onlyIfAbsent) {
        if (key == null || value == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        int hash = spread(key.hashCode());
        int binCount = 0;
        for (Node<K,V>[] tab = table;;) {
            Node<K,V> f; int n, i, fh;
            if (tab == null || (n = tab.length) == 0)
                tab = initTable();
            else if ((f = tabAt(tab, i = (n - 1) & hash)) == null) {
                if (casTabAt(tab, i, null,
                             new Node<K,V>(hash, key, value, null)))
                    break;                   // no lock when adding to empty bin
            }
            else if ((fh = f.hash) == MOVED)
                tab = helpTransfer(tab, f);
            else {
                V oldVal = null;
                synchronized (f) {
                    if (tabAt(tab, i) == f) {
                        if (fh >= 0) {
                            binCount = 1;
                            for (Node<K,V> e = f;; ++binCount) {
                                K ek;
                                if (e.hash == hash &&
                                    ((ek = e.key) == key ||
                                     (ek != null && key.equals(ek)))) {
                                    oldVal = e.val;
                                    if (!onlyIfAbsent)
                                        e.val = value;
                                    break;
                                }
                                Node<K,V> pred = e;
                                if ((e = e.next) == null) {
                                    pred.next = new Node<K,V>(hash, key,
                                                              value, null);
                                    break;
                                }
                            }
                        }
                        else if (f instanceof TreeBin) {
                            Node<K,V> p;
                            binCount = 2;
                            if ((p = ((TreeBin<K,V>)f).putTreeVal(hash, key,
                                                           value)) != null) {
                                oldVal = p.val;
                                if (!onlyIfAbsent)
                                    p.val = value;
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
                if (binCount != 0) {
                    if (binCount >= TREEIFY_THRESHOLD)
                        treeifyBin(tab, i);
                    if (oldVal != null)
                        return oldVal;
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        addCount(1L, binCount);
        return null;
    }

ConcurrentHashMap与HashMap的一个区别就是,ConcurrentHashMap不允许Key值为null,为null的时候会直接抛出一个空指针异常


未完待续



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