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一步一步学Linq to sql(八):继承与关系

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 本系列课程均转自

LoveCherry

技术无极限http://www.cnblogs.com/lovecherry/archive/2007/08/14/855681.html

版权归LoveCherry所有

论坛表结构

 

       为了演示继承与关系,我们创建一个论坛数据库,在数据库中创建三个表:

1、  论坛版块分类表 dbo.Categories

字段名

字段类型

可空

备注

CategoryID

int

not null

identity/主键

CategoryName

varchar(50)

not null

 

2、  论坛版块表 dbo.Boards

字段名

字段类型

可空

备注

BoardID

int

not null

identity/主键

BoardName

varchar(50)

not null

 

BoardCategory

int

not null

对应论坛版块分类表的CategoryID

3、  论坛主题表 dbo.Topics

字段名

字段类型

可空

备注

TopicID

int

not null

identity/主键

TopicTitle

varchar(50)

not null

 

TopicContent

varchar(max)

not null

 

ParentTopic

int

null

如果帖子是主题贴这个字段为null,否则就是所属主题id

TopicType

tinyint

not null

0 – 主题贴

1 – 回复帖

 

实体继承的定义

 

       Linq to sql支持实体的单表继承,也就是基类和派生类都存储在一个表中。对于论坛来说,帖子有两种,一种是主题贴,一种是回复帖。那么,我们就先定义帖子基类:

[Table(Name = "Topics")]

public class Topic

{

    [Column(Name = "TopicID", DbType = "int identity", IsPrimaryKey = true, IsDbGenerated = true, CanBeNull = false)]

    public int TopicID { get; set; }

 

    [Column(Name = "TopicType", DbType = "tinyint", CanBeNull = false)]

    public int TopicType { get; set; }

 

    [Column(Name = "TopicTitle", DbType = "varchar(50)", CanBeNull = false)]

    public string TopicTitle { get; set; }

 

    [Column(Name = "TopicContent", DbType = "varchar(max)", CanBeNull = false)]

    public string TopicContent { get; set; }

}

       这些实体的定义大家应该很熟悉了。下面,我们再来定义两个实体继承帖子基类,分别是主题贴和回复贴:

public class NewTopic : Topic

{

    public NewTopic()

    {

        base.TopicType = 0;

    }

}

 

public class Reply : Topic

{

    public Reply()

    {

        base.TopicType = 1;

    }

 

    [Column(Name = "ParentTopic", DbType = "int", CanBeNull = false)]

    public int ParentTopic { get; set; }

}

       对于主题贴,在数据库中的TopicType就保存为0,而对于回复贴就保存为1。回复贴还有一个相关字段就是回复所属主题贴的TopicID。那么,我们怎么告知Linq to sqlTopicType0的时候识别为NewTopic,而1则识别为Reply那?只需稍微修改一下前面的Topic实体定义:

[Table(Name = "Topics")]

[InheritanceMapping(Code = 0, Type = typeof(NewTopic), IsDefault = true)]

[InheritanceMapping(Code = 1, Type = typeof(Reply))]

public class Topic

{

    [Column(Name = "TopicID", DbType = "int identity", IsPrimaryKey = true, IsDbGenerated = true, CanBeNull = false)]

    public int TopicID { get; set; }

 

    [Column(Name = "TopicType", DbType = "tinyint", CanBeNull = false, IsDiscriminator = true)]

    public int TopicType { get; set; }

 

    [Column(Name = "TopicTitle", DbType = "varchar(50)", CanBeNull = false)]

    public string TopicTitle { get; set; }

 

    [Column(Name = "TopicContent", DbType = "varchar(max)", CanBeNull = false)]

    public string TopicContent { get; set; }

}

       为类加了InheritanceMapping特性定义,0的时候类型就是NewTopic1的时候就是Reply。并且为TopicType字段上的特性中加了IsDiscriminator = true,告知Linq to sql这个字段就是用于分类的字段。

 

实体继承的使用

 

       定义好继承的实体之后,我们就可以使用了。先是自定义一个DataContext吧:

public partial class BBSContext : DataContext

{

    public Table<BoardCategory> BoardCategories;

    public Table<Board> Boards;

    public Table<Topic> Topics;

    public BBSContext(string connection) : base(connection) { }

}

       然后,我们来测试一下Linq to sql是否能根据TopicType识别派生类:

        BBSContext ctx = new BBSContext("server=xxx;database=BBS;uid=xxx;pwd=xxx");

        var query = from t in ctx.Topics select t;

        foreach (Topic topic in query)

        {

            if (topic is NewTopic)

            {

                NewTopic newtopic = topic as NewTopic;

                Response.Write("标题:" + newtopic.TopicTitle + " 类型:" + newtopic.TopicType + "<br/>");

            }

            else if (topic is Reply)

            {

                Reply reply = topic as Reply;

                Response.Write("标题:" + reply.TopicTitle + " 类型:" + reply.TopicType + " 隶属主题:" + reply.ParentTopic + "<br/>");

            }

        }

       然后我们往Topics表中加一些数据,如下图:

 

       启动程序得到如下测试结果:

 

       当然,你也可以在查询句法中直接查询派生实体:

        IEnumerable newtopiclist = (from t in ctx.Topics.OfType<NewTopic>() select t).ToList();

        newtopics.DataSource = newtopiclist;

        IEnumerable replylist = (from t in ctx.Topics.OfType<Reply>() select t).ToList();

        replies.DataSource = replylist;

        Page.DataBind();

       newtopicreplies是两个GridView控件,执行效果如下图:

 

       再来看看如何进行增删操作:

        NewTopic nt = new NewTopic() { TopicTitle = "还是新主题", TopicContent = "还是新主题" };

        Reply rpl = new Reply() { TopicTitle = "还是新回复", TopicContent = "还是新回复", ParentTopic = 4 };

        ctx.Topics.Add(nt);

        ctx.Topics.Add(rpl);

        ctx.SubmitChanges();

        rpl = ctx.Topics.OfType<Reply>().Single(reply => reply.TopicID == 8);

        ctx.Topics.Remove(rpl);

        ctx.SubmitChanges();

 

实体关系的定义

 

       比如我们的论坛分类表和论坛版块表之间就有关系,这种关系是1对多的关系。也就是说一个论坛分类可能有多个论坛版块,这是很常见的。定义实体关系的优势在于,我们无须显式作连接操作就能处理关系表的条件。

       首先来看看分类表的定义:

 

[Table(Name = "Categories")]

public class BoardCategory

{

    [Column(Name = "CategoryID", DbType = "int identity", IsPrimaryKey = true, IsDbGenerated = true, CanBeNull = false)]

    public int CategoryID { get; set; }

 

    [Column(Name = "CategoryName", DbType = "varchar(50)", CanBeNull = false)]

    public string CategoryName { get; set; }

 

    private EntitySet<Board> _Boards;

 

    [Association(OtherKey = "BoardCategory", Storage = "_Boards")]

    public EntitySet<Board> Boards

    {

        get { return this._Boards; }

        set { this._Boards.Assign(value); }

    }

 

    public BoardCategory()

    {

        this._Boards = new EntitySet<Board>();

    }

}

       CategoryIDCategoryName的映射没有什么不同,只是我们还增加了一个Boards属性,它返回的是Board实体集。通过特性,我们定义了关系外键为BoardCategoryBoard表的一个字段)。然后来看看1对多,多端版块表的实体:

 

[Table(Name = "Boards")]

public class Board

{

    [Column(Name = "BoardID", DbType = "int identity", IsPrimaryKey = true, IsDbGenerated = true, CanBeNull = false)]

    public int BoardID { get; set; }

 

    [Column(Name = "BoardName", DbType = "varchar(50)", CanBeNull = false)]

    public string BoardName { get; set; }

 

    [Column(Name = "BoardCategory", DbType = "int", CanBeNull = false)]

    public int BoardCategory { get; set; }

 

    private EntityRef<BoardCategory> _Category;

 

    [Association(ThisKey = "BoardCategory", Storage = "_Category")]

    public BoardCategory Category

    {

        get { return this._Category.Entity; }

        set

        {

            this._Category.Entity = value;

            value.Boards.Add(this);

        }

}

}

       在这里我们需要关联分类,设置了Category属性使用BoardCategory字段和分类表关联。 


实体关系的使用

   
    好了,现在我们就可以在查询句法中直接关联表了(数据库中不一定要设置表的外键关系):

        Response.Write("-------------查询分类为1的版块-------------<br/>");

        var query1 = from b in ctx.Boards where b.Category.CategoryID == 1 select b;

        foreach (Board b in query1)

            Response.Write(b.BoardID + " " + b.BoardName + "<br/>");

        Response.Write("-------------查询版块大于2个的分类-------------<br/>");

        var query2 = from c in ctx.BoardCategories where c.Boards.Count > 2 select c;

        foreach (BoardCategory c in query2)

            Response.Write(c.CategoryID + " " + c.CategoryName + " " + c.Boards.Count + "<br/>");

       在数据库中加一些测试数据,如下图:

 

       运行程序后得到下图的结果:

 

       我想定义实体关系的方便我不需要再用语言形容了吧。执行上述的程序会导致下面SQL的执行:

SELECT [t0].[BoardID], [t0].[BoardName], [t0].[BoardCategory]

FROM [Boards] AS [t0]

INNER JOIN [Categories] AS [t1] ON [t1].[CategoryID] = [t0].[BoardCategory]

WHERE [t1].[CategoryID] = @p0

-- @p0: Input Int32 (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [1]

 

SELECT [t0].[CategoryID], [t0].[CategoryName]

FROM [Categories] AS [t0]

WHERE ((

    SELECT COUNT(*)

    FROM [Boards] AS [t1]

    WHERE [t1].[BoardCategory] = [t0].[CategoryID]

    )) > @p0

-- @p0: Input Int32 (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [2]

 

SELECT [t0].[BoardID], [t0].[BoardName], [t0].[BoardCategory]

FROM [Boards] AS [t0]

WHERE [t0].[BoardCategory] = @p0

-- @p0: Input Int32 (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [1]

        可以看到,第二个查询并没有做外连接,还记得DataLoadOptions吗?我们可以要求Linq to sql在读取版块分类信息的时候也把版块信息一起加载:    今天就讲到这里。大家可以自己尝试为帖子表也定义实体的关系,因为,是不是可以直接通过帖子获取帖子下的回复,或者直接通过回复得到所属帖子那?

DataLoadOptions options = new DataLoadOptions();

        options.LoadWith<BoardCategory>(c => c.Boards);

        ctx.LoadOptions = options;

        Response.Write("-------------查询版块大于2个的分类-------------<br/>");

        var query2 = from c in ctx.BoardCategories where c.Boards.Count > 2 select c;

        foreach (BoardCategory c in query2)

            Response.Write(c.CategoryID + " " + c.CategoryName + " " + c.Boards.Count + "<br/>");

查询经过改造后会得到下面的SQL

SELECT [t0].[CategoryID], [t0].[CategoryName], [t1].[BoardID], [t1].[BoardName], [t1].[BoardCategory], (

    SELECT COUNT(*)

    FROM [Boards] AS [t3]

    WHERE [t3].[BoardCategory] = [t0].[CategoryID]

    ) AS [count]

FROM [Categories] AS [t0]

LEFT OUTER JOIN [Boards] AS [t1] ON [t1].[BoardCategory] = [t0].[CategoryID]

WHERE ((

    SELECT COUNT(*)

    FROM [Boards] AS [t2]

    WHERE [t2].[BoardCategory] = [t0].[CategoryID]

    )) > @p0

ORDER BY [t0].[CategoryID], [t1].[BoardID]

-- @p0: Input Int32 (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [2]

         在添加分类的时候,如果这个分类下还有新的版块,那么提交新增分类的时候版块也会新增:

        BoardCategory dbcat = new BoardCategory() { CategoryName = "Database" };

        Board oracle = new Board() { BoardName = "Oracle", Category = dbcat};

        ctx.BoardCategories.Add(dbcat);

        ctx.SubmitChanges();

       上述代码导致下面的SQL被执行:

INSERT INTO [Categories]([CategoryName]) VALUES (@p0)

 

SELECT [t0].[CategoryID]

FROM [Categories] AS [t0]

WHERE [t0].[CategoryID] = (SCOPE_IDENTITY())

 

-- @p0: Input AnsiString (Size = 8; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [Database]

 

INSERT INTO [Boards]([BoardName], [BoardCategory]) VALUES (@p0, @p1)

 

SELECT [t0].[BoardID]

FROM [Boards] AS [t0]

WHERE [t0].[BoardID] = (SCOPE_IDENTITY())

 

-- @p0: Input AnsiString (Size = 6; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [Oracle]

-- @p1: Input Int32 (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [23]

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