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C#中委托和事件

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在学习C#中的委托和事件过程中,我读了许多文章来理解他们二者究竟是怎么一回事,以及如何使用他们,现在我将整个的理解过程陈述以下,我学到的每一方面,恐怕也是你们需要掌握的 :-)。

什么是委托?

    委托和事件这两个概念是完全配合的。委托仅仅是函数指针,那就是说,它能够引用函数,通过传递地址的机制完成。委托是一个类,当你对它实例化时,要提供一个引用函数,将其作为它构造函数的参数。

  每一个委托都有自己的签名,例如:Delegate int SomeDelegate(string s, bool b);是一个委托申明,在这里,提及的签名,就是说SomeDelegate 这个委托 有 string 和 bool 类型的形参,返回一个int 类型。

上面提及的:当你对委托实例化时,要提供一个引用函数,将其作为它构造函数的参数。这里要注意了:被引用的这个函数必须和委托有相同的签名。

看下面的函数:

private int SomeFunction(string str, bool bln){...}

你可以把这个函数传给SomeDelegate的构造函数,因为他们有相似的签名(in other words,他们都有相同的形参类型和个数,并且返回相同的数据类型)。

    SomeDelegate sd = new SomeDelegate(SomeFunction);

  sd 引用了 SomeFunction,也就是说,SomeFunction已被sd所登记注册,如果你调用 sd,SomeFunction 这个函数也会被调用,记住:我所说 SomeFunction的含义,后面,我们会用到它。

  现在,你应该知道如何使用委托了,让我们继续理解事件之旅……

事件的理解

 我们知道,在C#中:

?按钮(Button)就是一个类,当我们单击它时,就触发一次click事件。

?时钟(Timer)也是一个类,每过一毫秒,就触发一次tick事件。

让我们通过一个例子来学习,假定有这样的情节:

  现在有一个Counter的类,它有一个方法 CountTo(int countTo, int reachableNum),该方法表示:在指定的时间段内(0~~countTo),当到达指定的时间点reachableNum时,就触发一次 NumberReached事件。

  它还有一个事件:NumberReached,事件是委托类型的变量。意思是:如果给事件命名,用event关键字和要使用的委托类型申明它即可,如下所示:

    public event NumberReachedEventHandler NumberReached;

 

  在上面的申明中,NumberReachedEventHandle 仅是一个委托,更确切的表示应该是:NumberReachedDelegate。但是微软从不这样认为MouseDelegate或者 PaintDelegate,,而是称谓:MouseEventHandler 或者 PaintEventHandler。所以NumberReachedEventHandler 比NumberReachedDelegate听起来更方便一些,OK?好了,让我们继续,现在你知道了,在我们声明事件之前,需要象下面这样的形式来定 义委托:

    public delegate void NumberReachedEventHandler(object sender, NumberReachedEventArgs e);

  现在声明的委托 NumberReachedEventHandle,它有一个void 返回值,和object,NumberReachedEventArgs两个形参。就像我们在第一节中强调的那样,当实例化委托时,作为实参传入的函数也 必须拥有和委托同样的签名。

  在你的代码中,你是否用过PaintEventArgs 或者 MouseEventArgs来确定鼠标的移动位置?是否在触发Paint事件的对象中用过Graphics 属性?实际上,为用户提供数据的类都是继承于System.EventArgs类,就是我们常说的事件参数类,如果事件不提供参数,就不定义该类。在我们 的例子中,我们通过下面的类提供预期的时间点。

public class NumberReachedEventArgs : EventArgs

{

    private int _reached;

    public NumberReachedEventArgs(int num)

    {

        this._reached = num;

    }

    public int ReachedNumber

    {

        get

        {

            return _reached;

        }

    }

}

好,有了前面的介绍,让我们到Counter类里面看看:

namespace Events

{

    public delegate void NumberReachedEventHandler(object sender,

        NumberReachedEventArgs e);

    /// <summary>

    /// Summary description for Counter.

    /// </summary>

    public class Counter

    {

        public event NumberReachedEventHandler NumberReached;

        public Counter()

        {

            //

            // TODO: Add constructor logic here

            //

        }

        public void CountTo(int countTo, int reachableNum)

        {

            if(countTo < reachableNum)

                throw new ArgumentException(

                    "reachableNum should be less than countTo");

            for(int ctr=0;ctr<=countTo;ctr++)

            {

                if(ctr == reachableNum)

                {

                    NumberReachedEventArgs e = new NumberReachedEventArgs(

                        reachableNum);

                    OnNumberReached(e);

                    return;//don't count any more

                }

            }

        }

 

        protected virtual void OnNumberReached(NumberReachedEventArgs e)

        {

            if(NumberReached != null)

            {

                NumberReached(this, e);//Raise the event

            }

        }

}

在Counter中,如果到达指定的时间点,就触发一次事件,有以下几个方面需要注意:

?通过调用NumberReached(它是NumberReachedEventHandler委托的实例)来完成一次触发事件。

NumberReached(this, e);  通过这种方式,可以调用所有的注册函数。

?通过 NumberReachedEventArgs e = new NumberReachedEventArgs(reachableNum); 为所有的注册函数提供事件数据。

?看了上面的代码,你可能要问了:为什么我们直接用 OnNumberReached(NumberReachedEventArgs e)方法来调用NumberReached(this,e),而不用下面的代码呢?

if(ctr == reachableNum)

{

    NumberReachedEventArgs e = new NumberReachedEventArgs(reachableNum);

    //OnNumberReached(e);

    if(NumberReached != null)

    {

        NumberReached(this, e);//Raise the event

    }

    return;//don't count any more

}

这个问题问得很好,那就让我们再看一下OnNumberReached 签名:

    protected virtual void OnNumberReached(NumberReachedEventArgs e)

    ①你也明白 关键字protected限定了 只有从该类继承的类才能调用该类中的所有方法。

    ②关键字 virtual 表明了 在继承类中可以重写该方法。

  这两点非常有用,假设你在写一个从Counter继承而来的类,通过重写OnNumberReached 方法,你可以在事件触发之前,进行一次其他的工作。

protected override void OnNumberReached(NumberReachedEventArgs e)

{

    //Do additional work

    base.OnNumberReached(e);

}

注意:如果你没有调用base.OnNumberReached(e), 那么从不会触发这个事件!在你继承该类而想剔出它的一些其他事件时,使用该方式是非常有用的。

?还要注意到:委托 NumberReachedEventHandler 是在类定义的外部,命名空间内定义的,对所有类来说是可见的。

好,该我们来实际操作使用Counter类了。


在我们简单的应用程序中,我们有两个文本框,分别是:txtCountTo和txtReachable:

 下面是btnRun的click事件:

private void btnRun_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)

{

     if(txtCountTo.Text == "" || txtReachable.Text=="")

          return;

     oCounter.CountTo(Convert.ToInt32(txtCountTo.Text), Convert.ToInt32(txtReachable.Text));

}

private void oCounter_NumberReached(object sender, NumberReachedEventArgs e)

{

           MessageBox.Show("Reached: " + e.ReachedNumber.ToString());

}

 

初始化事件处理的语法如下:

oCounter = new Counter();
oCounter.NumberReached += new NumberReachedEventHandler(oCounter_NumberReached);

  现在你明白了你刚才所做的一切,仅仅初始化 NumberReachedEventHandler 委托类型的对象(就像你实例化其他对象一样),注意到 oCounter_NumberReached 方法的签名与我前面提到的相似。

  还要注意我们用的是+= 而不是=;这是因为委托是特殊的对象,它可以引用多个对象(在这里是指它可以引用多个函数)。For example 如果有另外一个和oCounter_NumberReached一样具有相同签名的函数oCounter_NumberReached2,这两个函数都可 以被引用:

oCounter = new Counter();

oCounter.NumberReached += new NumberReachedEventHandler(oCounter_NumberReached);

oCounter.NumberReached += new NumberReachedEventHandler(oCounter_NumberReached2);

现在,触发一个事件后,上面两个函数被依次调用。

  视情况而定,如果你想让oCounter_NumberReached2在NumberReached事件发生后不再被调用,可以简单地这样写: oCounter.NumberReached -= new NumberReachedEventHandler(oCounter_NumberReached2);

 

最后

  让我们看一下完整的源代码,以供参考:


 Form1.cs


using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Collections;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Data;
 
namespace Events
{
    /**//// <summary>
    /// Summary description for Form1.
    /// </summary>
    public class Form1 : System.Windows.Forms.Form
    {
        Counter oCounter = null;
 
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button cmdRun;
        private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox txtReachable;
        private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox txtCountTo;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Label label1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Label label2;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button btnRemoveDelegate;
        /**//// <summary>
        /// Required designer variable.
        /// </summary>
        private System.ComponentModel.Container components = null;
 
        public Form1()
        {
            //
            // Required for Windows Form Designer support
            //
            InitializeComponent();
 
            //
            // TODO: Add any constructor code after InitializeComponent call
            //
            oCounter = new Counter();
            oCounter.NumberReached += new NumberReachedEventHandler(oCounter_NumberReached);
            oCounter.NumberReached += new NumberReachedEventHandler(oCounter_NumberReached2);
        }
 
        /**//// <summary>
        /// Clean up any resources being used.
        /// </summary>
        protected override void Dispose( bool disposing )
        {
            if( disposing )
            {
                if (components != null) 
                {
                    components.Dispose();
                }
            }
            base.Dispose( disposing );
        }
 
        Windows Form Designer generated code#region Windows Form Designer generated code
        /**//// <summary>
        /// Required method for Designer support - do not modify
        /// the contents of this method with the code editor.
        /// </summary>
        private void InitializeComponent()
        {
            this.cmdRun = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.txtReachable = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
            this.txtCountTo = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
            this.label1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
            this.label2 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
            this.btnRemoveDelegate = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.SuspendLayout();
            // 
            // cmdRun
            // 
            this.cmdRun.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 72);
            this.cmdRun.Name = "cmdRun";
            this.cmdRun.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(48, 23);
            this.cmdRun.TabIndex = 2;
            this.cmdRun.Text = "Run";
            this.cmdRun.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.cmdRun_Click);
            // 
            // txtReachable
            // 
            this.txtReachable.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(144, 40);
            this.txtReachable.Name = "txtReachable";
            this.txtReachable.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(56, 20);
            this.txtReachable.TabIndex = 1;
            this.txtReachable.Text = "";
            // 
            // txtCountTo
            // 
            this.txtCountTo.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(144, 16);
            this.txtCountTo.Name = "txtCountTo";
            this.txtCountTo.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(56, 20);
            this.txtCountTo.TabIndex = 0;
            this.txtCountTo.Text = "";
            // 
            // label1
            // 
            this.label1.AutoSize = true;
            this.label1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 16);
            this.label1.Name = "label1";
            this.label1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(51, 13);
            this.label1.TabIndex = 3;
            this.label1.Text = "Count To";
            // 
            // label2
            // 
            this.label2.AutoSize = true;
            this.label2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 40);
            this.label2.Name = "label2";
            this.label2.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(99, 13);
            this.label2.TabIndex = 4;
            this.label2.Text = "Reach this number";
            // 
            // btnRemoveDelegate
            // 
            this.btnRemoveDelegate.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 104);
            this.btnRemoveDelegate.Name = "btnRemoveDelegate";
            this.btnRemoveDelegate.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(168, 23);
            this.btnRemoveDelegate.TabIndex = 5;
            this.btnRemoveDelegate.Text = "Remove second handler";
            this.btnRemoveDelegate.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.btnRemoveDelegate_Click);
            // 
            // Form1
            // 
            this.AutoScaleBaseSize = new System.Drawing.Size(5, 13);
            this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(224, 134);
            this.Controls.AddRange(new System.Windows.Forms.Control[] {
                                                                          this.btnRemoveDelegate,
                                                                          this.label2,
                                                                          this.label1,
                                                                          this.txtCountTo,
                                                                          this.txtReachable,
                                                                          this.cmdRun});
            this.Name = "Form1";
            this.Text = "Events";
            this.ResumeLayout(false);
 
        }
        #endregion
 
        /**//// <summary>
        /// The main entry point for the application.
        /// </summary>
        [STAThread]
        static void Main() 
        {
            Application.Run(new Form1());
        }
 
        private void btnRun_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
        {
            if(txtCountTo.Text == "" || txtReachable.Text=="")
                return;
            oCounter.CountTo(Convert.ToInt32(txtCountTo.Text), Convert.ToInt32(txtReachable.Text));
        }
 
        private void oCounter_NumberReached(object sender, NumberReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("Reached: " + e.ReachedNumber.ToString());
        }
        private void oCounter_NumberReached2(object sender, NumberReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("Reached2: " + e.ReachedNumber.ToString());
        }
 
        private void btnRemoveDelegate_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
        {
            oCounter.NumberReached -= new NumberReachedEventHandler(oCounter_NumberReached2);
            oCounter.CountTo(Convert.ToInt32(txtCountTo.Text), Convert.ToInt32(txtReachable.Text));
        }
    }
}
 

 

 


 Counter.cs


 

using System;
 
namespace Events
{
    public delegate void NumberReachedEventHandler(object sender, NumberReachedEventArgs e);
 
    /**//// <summary>
    /// Summary description for Counter.
    /// </summary>
    public class Counter
    {
        public event NumberReachedEventHandler NumberReached;
        
        public Counter()
        {
            //
            // TODO: Add constructor logic here
            //
        }
        public void CountTo(int countTo, int reachableNum)
        {
            if(countTo < reachableNum)
                throw new ArgumentException("reachableNum should be less than countTo");
            for(int ctr=0;ctr<=countTo;ctr++)
            {
                if(ctr == reachableNum)
                {
                    NumberReachedEventArgs e = new NumberReachedEventArgs(reachableNum);
                    OnNumberReached(e);
                    return;//don't count any more
                }
            }
        }
 
        protected virtual void OnNumberReached(NumberReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            if(NumberReached!=null)
            {
                NumberReached(this, e);
            }
        }
    }
 
    public class NumberReachedEventArgs : EventArgs
    {
        private int _reached;
        public NumberReachedEventArgs(int num)
        {
            this._reached = num;
        }
        public int ReachedNumber
        {
            get
            {
                return _reached;
            }
        }
    }
}

 
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