史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

转载 2016年06月01日 21:45:11

 一、SpringMVC基础入门,创建一个HelloWorld程序

  1.首先,导入SpringMVC需要的jar包。

  2.添加Web.xml配置文件中关于SpringMVC的配置

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<!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
<servlet>
    <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
    <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
    <init-param>
          <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
          <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
      </init-param>
      <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
</servlet>
 
<servlet-mapping>
    <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
    <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>

  3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
 
    <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>
 
    <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
    <mvc:default-servlet-handler />
 
    <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
    <mvc:annotation-driven />
     
    <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
    <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver"
            id="internalResourceViewResolver">
        <!-- 前缀 -->
        <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
        <!-- 后缀 -->
        <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
    </bean>
</beans>

  4.在WEB-INF文件夹下创建名为jsp的文件夹,用来存放jsp视图。创建一个hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

  5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

  6.编写Controller代码

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@Controller
@RequestMapping("/mvc")
public class mvcController {
 
    @RequestMapping("/hello")
    public String hello(){       
        return "hello";
    }
}

  7.启动服务器,键入 http://localhost:8080/项目名/mvc/hello

 二、配置解析

  1.Dispatcherservlet

  DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。拦截匹配的请求,Servlet拦截匹配规则要自已定义,把拦截下来的请求,依据相应的规则分发到目标Controller来处理,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

  2.InternalResourceViewResolver

  视图名称解析器

  3.以上出现的注解

  @Controller 负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

  @RequestMapping 注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

 三、SpringMVC常用注解

  @Controller

  负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

  @RequestMapping

  注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

  @RequestBody

  该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上

  @ResponseBody

  该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过适当的HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区

  @ModelAttribute    

  在方法定义上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在调用目标处理方法前,会先逐个调用在方法级上标注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

  在方法的入参前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以从隐含对象中获取隐含的模型数据中获取对象,再将请求参数 –绑定到对象中,再传入入参将方法入参对象添加到模型中 

  @RequestParam 

  在处理方法入参处使用 @RequestParam 可以把请求参 数传递给请求方法

  @PathVariable

  绑定 URL 占位符到入参

  @ExceptionHandler

  注解到方法上,出现异常时会执行该方法

  @ControllerAdvice

  使一个Contoller成为全局的异常处理类,类中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以处理所有Controller发生的异常

 四、自动匹配参数

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//match automatically
@RequestMapping("/person")
public String toPerson(String name,double age){
    System.out.println(name+" "+age);
    return "hello";
}

 五、自动装箱

  1.编写一个Person实体类

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package test.SpringMVC.model;
 
public class Person {
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public int getAge() {
        return age;
    }
    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;
    }
    private String name;
    private int age;
     
}

  2.在Controller里编写方法

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//boxing automatically
@RequestMapping("/person1")
public String toPerson(Person p){
    System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
    return "hello";
}

 六、使用InitBinder来处理Date类型的参数

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//the parameter was converted in initBinder
@RequestMapping("/date")
public String date(Date date){
    System.out.println(date);
    return "hello";
}
    
//At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
@InitBinder
public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
    binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
            true));
}

 七、向前台传递参数

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//pass the parameters to front-end
@RequestMapping("/show")
public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
    Person p =new Person();
    map.put("p", p);
    p.setAge(20);
    p.setName("jayjay");
    return "show";
}

  前台可在Request域中取到"p"

 八、使用Ajax调用

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//pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
@RequestMapping("/getPerson")
public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
    pw.write("hello,"+name);       
}
@RequestMapping("/name")
public String sayHello(){
    return "name";
}

  前台用下面的Jquery代码调用

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$(function(){
    $("#btn").click(function(){
       $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
            alert(data);
        });
    });
});

 九、在Controller中使用redirect方式处理请求

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//redirect
@RequestMapping("/redirect")
public String redirect(){
    return "redirect:hello";
}

 十、文件上传

  1.需要导入两个jar包

  2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

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<!-- upload settings -->
<bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
    <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
</bean>

  3.方法代码

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@RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
    MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
    MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
    String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
    SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");       
    FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
            "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
    fos.write(file.getBytes());
    fos.flush();
    fos.close();
     
    return "hello";
}

  4.前台form表单

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<form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
    <input type="file" name="file"><br>
    <input type="submit" value="submit">
</form>

 十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定参数的name

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@Controller
@RequestMapping("/test")
public class mvcController1 {
    @RequestMapping(value="/param")
    public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
            @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
        System.out.println(id+" "+name);
        return "/hello";
    }   
}

 十二、RESTFul风格的SringMVC

  1.RestController

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@Controller
@RequestMapping("/rest")
public class RestController {
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("get"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
     
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
    public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("post"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
     
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
    public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("put"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
     
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
    public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("delete"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
     
}

  2.form表单发送put和delete请求

  在web.xml中配置

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<!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
<filter>
    <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
    <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
</filter>
<filter-mapping>
    <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
    <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
</filter-mapping>

  在前台可以用以下代码产生请求

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<form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
    <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
    <input type="submit" value="put">
</form>
 
<form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
    <input type="submit" value="post">
</form>
 
<form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
    <input type="submit" value="get">
</form>
 
<form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
    <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
    <input type="submit" value="delete">
</form>

 十三、返回json格式的字符串

  1.导入以下jar包

  2.方法代码

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@Controller
@RequestMapping("/json")
public class jsonController {
     
    @ResponseBody
    @RequestMapping("/user")
    public  User get(){
        User u = new User();
        u.setId(1);
        u.setName("jayjay");
        u.setBirth(new Date());
        return u;
    }
}

 十四、异常的处理

  1.处理局部异常(Controller内)

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@ExceptionHandler
public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
    ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
    mv.addObject("exception", ex);
    System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
    return mv;
}
    
@RequestMapping("/error")
public String error(){
    int i = 5/0;
    return "hello";
}

  2.处理全局异常(所有Controller)

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@ControllerAdvice
public class testControllerAdvice {
    @ExceptionHandler
    public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
        ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
        mv.addObject("exception", ex);
        System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
        return mv;
    }
}

  3.另一种处理全局异常的方法

  在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

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<!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
<bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
    <property name="exceptionMappings">
        <props>
            <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
        </props>
    </property>
</bean>

  error是出错页面

 十五、设置一个自定义拦截器

  1.创建一个MyInterceptor类,并实现HandlerInterceptor接口

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public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
 
    @Override
    public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
            HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
            throws Exception {
        System.out.println("afterCompletion");
    }
 
    @Override
    public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("postHandle");
    }
 
    @Override
    public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("preHandle");
        return true;
    }
 
}

  2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

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<!-- interceptor setting -->
<mvc:interceptors>
    <mvc:interceptor>
        <mvc:mapping