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异常处理模板

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java异常处理非常繁琐,过多的try-catch会使代码显得杂乱,而失去可读性。如下代码

  Input       input            = null;
    IOException processException = null;
    try{
        input = new FileInputStream(fileName);

        //...process input stream...
    } catch (IOException e) {
        processException = e;
    } finally {
       if(input != null){
          try {
             input.close();
          } catch(IOException e){
             if(processException != null){
                throw new MyException(processException, e,
                  "Error message..." +
                  fileName);
             } else {
                throw new MyException(e,
                    "Error closing InputStream for file " +
                    fileName;
             }
          }
       }
       if(processException != null){
          throw new MyException(processException,
            "Error processing InputStream for file " +
                fileName;
    }

在上述代码中,我们catch住了所有的异常。这样的代码冗长可读性差,而且还极易忘掉一些异常。当处理一个流的时候,记得全部的异常处理是很难得。幸好,我们还有简单的设计模式去解决这个问题,下面的代码是一个模板去处理所有input stream的异常。

public abstract class InputStreamProcessingTemplate {

    public void process(String fileName){
        IOException processException = null;
        InputStream input = null;
        try{
            input = new FileInputStream(fileName);

            doProcess(input);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            processException = e;
        } finally {
           if(input != null){
              try {
                 input.close();
              } catch(IOException e){
                 if(processException != null){
                    throw new MyException(processException, e,
                      "Error message..." +
                      fileName);
                 } else {
                    throw new MyException(e,
                        "Error closing InputStream for file " +
                        fileName;
                 }
              }
           }
           if(processException != null){
              throw new MyException(processException,
                "Error processing InputStream for file " +
                    fileName;
        }
    }

    //override this method in a subclass, to process the stream.
    public abstract void doProcess(InputStream input) throws IOException;
}
在这个例子中,所有的流异常都被处理。我们只需继承这个类,并重写doprocess方法就可以了。比如:

    new InputStreamProcessingTemplate(){
        public void doProcess(InputStream input) throws IOException{
            int inChar = input.read();
            while(inChar !- -1){
                //do something with the chars...
            }
        }
    }.process("someFile.txt");

上面这个例子,我们创建一个 InputStreamProcessingTemplate的匿名子类实例,并调用其process方法。这是我们处理读写变得方便,我们只需关系我们的读写逻辑,而不必每次都去处理流异常。当然我们可以修改模板用于任何流处理,而不只是文件的读取。当然我们可以用接口代替抽象类实现模板。

public interface InputStreamProcessor {
    public void process(InputStream input) throws IOException;
}


public class InputStreamProcessingTemplate {

    public void process(String fileName, InputStreamProcessor processor){
        IOException processException = null;
        InputStream input = null;
        try{
            input = new FileInputStream(fileName);

            processor.process(input);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            processException = e;
        } finally {
           if(input != null){
              try {
                 input.close();
              } catch(IOException e){
                 if(processException != null){
                    throw new MyException(processException, e,
                      "Error message..." +
                      fileName;
                 } else {
                    throw new MyException(e,
                        "Error closing InputStream for file " +
                        fileName);
                 }
              }
           }
           if(processException != null){
              throw new MyException(processException,
                "Error processing InputStream for file " +
                    fileName;
        }
    }
}

注意我们在 InputStreamProcessingTemplate  的process方法中增加一个参数InputStreamProcessor。这样我们可以这样使用:

new InputStreamProcessingTemplate()
        .process("someFile.txt", new InputStreamProcessor(){
            public void process(InputStream input) throws IOException{
                int inChar = input.read();
                while(inChar !- -1){
                    //do something with the chars...
                }
            }
        });

这与抽象类相比,增加了代码的可读性。当然,我们还可以将process方法写为静态方法,这样我们调用的时候就不必每次都实例化了。

public class InputStreamProcessingTemplate {

    public static void process(String fileName,
    InputStreamProcessor processor){
        IOException processException = null;
        InputStream input = null;
        try{
            input = new FileInputStream(fileName);

            processor.process(input);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            processException = e;
        } finally {
           if(input != null){
              try {
                 input.close();
              } catch(IOException e){
                 if(processException != null){
                    throw new MyException(processException, e,
                      "Error message..." +
                      fileName);
                 } else {
                    throw new MyException(e,
                        "Error closing InputStream for file " +
                        fileName;
                 }
              }
           }
           if(processException != null){
              throw new MyException(processException,
                "Error processing InputStream for file " +
                    fileName;
        }
    }
}

调用方法如下:

 InputStreamProcessingTemplate.process("someFile.txt",
        new InputStreamProcessor(){
            public void process(InputStream input) throws IOException{
                int inChar = input.read();
                while(inChar !- -1){
                    //do something with the chars...
                }
            }
        });

总结

异常处理模板虽然简单,但是能很好的帮助我们格式化代码和减少错误发生。提高编码效率,模板方法一个让不可能 变可能的神奇模式。


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