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IOS网络编程:HTTP

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HTTP定义了一种在服务器和客户端之间传递数据的途径。

URL定义了一种唯一标示资源在网络中位置的途径。

REQUESTS 和 RESPONSES:

客户端先建立一个TCP连接,然后发送一个请求。服务器受到请求处理后发送一个响应向客户端传递数据。然后客户端可以继续发送请求或者关闭这个TCP连接。

HTTPS:
在TCP连接建立后,发送请求之前,需要建立一个一个SSL会话。

request方法和它们的用途

 

注意:想server发送大量数据需要用POST,因为GET仅支持发送少量数据(8KB)。

 

iOS的NSURLRequest和它的子类NSMutableURLRequest提供了建立HTTP请求的方法。

NSURLResponse 和 它的子类NSHTTPURLResponse 处理返回的数据。

URL:

Protocol包括HTTP、FTP和file。

URL编码:

NSString *urlString = @"http://myhost.com?query=This is a question"; 
NSString *encoded = [urlString stringByAddingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];

NSURL用来管理URL。

IOS HTTP APIS:

涉及到下面一些类:

NSURLNSURLRequestNSURLConnection, 和 NSURLResponse.

1、NSURL

NSURL可以定义本地文件和网络文件

NSURL *url = [NSURL urlWithString:@"http://www.google.com"]; 
NSData *data = [NSData dataWithContentsOfURL:url];

NSURL定义了很多访问器:

if (url.port == nil) { 
  NSLog(@"Port is nil"); } else {   NSLog(@"Port is not nil"); }

2、NSURLRequest

创建了NSURL后,就可以用NSURLRequest建立请求了:

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NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString: @"https://gdata.youtube.com/feeds/api/standardfeeds/top_rated"];
if (url == nil) {
     NSLog(@"Invalid URL"); 

   return; } NSURLRequest *request = [NSURLRequest requestWithURL:url];

if (request == nil) {   NSLog(@"Invalid Request"); return; }
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NSMutableURLRequest是NSURLRequest 的子类,提供了改变请求的属性的方法:

NSURL *url = [NSURL urlWithString@"http://server.com/postme"]; 
NSMutableURLRequest *req = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:url];
[req setHTTPMethod:@"POST"]; [req setHTTPBody:[@"Post body" dataUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]];

如果你要发送一个图片或者视频,那么用需要用NSInputStream,它没有把数据全部加在到内存。

NSMutableURLRequest *request = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:url];
NSInputStream *inStream = [NSInputStream inputStreamWithFileAtPath:srcFilePath];
[request setHTTPBodyStream:inStream];
[request setHTTPMethod:@"POST"];

 

3、NSURLResponse

 

 

4、NSURLConnection

提供了初始化、开始、和取消一个连接。

发送同步请求:

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- (NSArray *) doSyncRequest:(NSString *)urlString {
    // make the NSURL object from the string
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:urlString];
    
    // Create the request object with a 30 second timeout and a cache policy to always retrieve the
    // feed regardless of cachability.
    NSURLRequest *request = 
       [NSURLRequest requestWithURL:url 
                        cachePolicy:NSURLRequestReloadIgnoringLocalAndRemoteCacheData 
                    timeoutInterval:30.0];
    
    // Send the request and wait for a response
    NSHTTPURLResponse   *response;
    NSError             *error;
    NSData *data = [NSURLConnection sendSynchronousRequest:request 
                                         returningResponse:&response 
                                                     error:&error];
    // check for an error
    if (error != nil) {
        NSLog(@"Error on load = %@", [error localizedDescription]);
        return nil;
    }
    
    // check the HTTP status
    if ([response isKindOfClass:[NSHTTPURLResponse class]]) {
        NSHTTPURLResponse *httpResponse = (NSHTTPURLResponse *)response;
        if (httpResponse.statusCode != 200) {
            return nil;
        }
        NSLog(@"Headers: %@", [httpResponse allHeaderFields]);
    }
    
    // Parse the data returned into an NSDictionary
    NSDictionary *dictionary = 
        [XMLReader dictionaryForXMLData:data 
                                  error:&error];
    // Dump the dictionary to the log file
    NSLog(@"feed = %@", dictionary);
    
    NSArray *entries =[self getEntriesArray:dictionary];
    
    // return the list if items from the feed.
    return entries;

}
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Queued Asynchronous Requests:

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- (void) doQueuedRequest:(NSString *)urlString  delegate:(id)delegate {
    // make the NSURL object
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:urlString];
    
    // create the request object with a no cache policy and a 30 second timeout.
    NSURLRequest *request = [NSURLRequest requestWithURL:url cachePolicy:NSURLRequestReloadIgnoringLocalAndRemoteCacheData timeoutInterval:30.0];
    
    // If the queue doesn't exist, create one.
    if (queue == nil) {
        queue = [[NSOperationQueue alloc] init];
    }
    
    // send the request and specify the code to execute when the request completes or fails.
    [NSURLConnection sendAsynchronousRequest:request 
                                       queue:queue 
                           completionHandler:^(NSURLResponse *response, 
                                               NSData *data, 
                                               NSError *error) {
                               
            if (error != nil) {
               NSLog(@"Error on load = %@", [error localizedDescription]);
            } else {
                
                // check the HTTP status
                if ([response isKindOfClass:[NSHTTPURLResponse class]]) {
                    NSHTTPURLResponse *httpResponse = (NSHTTPURLResponse *)response;
                    if (httpResponse.statusCode != 200) {
                        return;
                    }
                    NSLog(@"Headers: %@", [httpResponse allHeaderFields]);
                }
                               
                // parse the results and make a dictionary
                NSDictionary *dictionary = 
                   [XMLReader dictionaryForXMLData:data 
                                             error:&error];
                NSLog(@"feed = %@", dictionary);

                // get the dictionary entries.
                NSArray *entries =[self getEntriesArray:dictionary];

                // call the delegate
                if ([delegate respondsToSelector:@selector(setVideos:)]) {
                    [delegate performSelectorOnMainThread:@selector(setVideos:) 
                                               withObject:entries 
                                            waitUntilDone:YES];
                }
            }
    }];
}
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NSURLConnection start方法和Delegate:

GET:

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 NSURL  *url=[[ NSURL   alloc ] initWithString :urlString];

     NSMutableURLRequest  *request=[[NSMutableURLRequest  alloc ] init ];



     NSURLConnection  *connection = [[ NSURLConnection   alloc ]  initWithRequest :request delegate : self ];
     if (connection)
     {
             [connection start];
         }
     else
     {
             NSLog ( @"sorry" );
     }

/*
* NSURLConnectionDataDelegate
*/
- (void)connection:(NSURLConnection*)connection didReceiveResponse:(NSURLResponse *)response
{
  [activityIndicator startAnimating]; //UIActivityIndicatorView NSLog(
@"Did Receive Response %@", response); responseData = [[NSMutableData alloc]init]; } - (void)connection:(NSURLConnection*)connection didReceiveData:(NSData*)data { //NSLog(@"Did Receive Data %@", data); [responseData appendData:data]; //NSMutableData } - (void)connection:(NSURLConnection*)connection didFailWithError:(NSError*)error { NSLog(@"Did Fail"); } - (void)connectionDidFinishLoading:(NSURLConnection *)connection {

   [activityIndicator stopAnimating];

    NSLog(@"Did Finish");
    // Do something with responseData
}
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POST:

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//initialize new mutable data
    NSMutableData *data = [[NSMutableData alloc] init];
    self.receivedData = data;
    
    //initialize url that is going to be fetched.
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"http://www.snee.com/xml/crud/posttest.cgi"];
    
    //initialize a request from url
    NSMutableURLRequest *request = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:[url standardizedURL]];
    
    //set http method
    [request setHTTPMethod:@"POST"];
    //initialize a post data
    NSString *postData = [[NSString alloc] initWithString:@"fname=example&lname=example"];
    //set request content type we MUST set this value.
    
    [request setValue:@"application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8" forHTTPHeaderField:@"Content-Type"];
    
    //set post data of request
    [request setHTTPBody:[postData dataUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]];
    
    //initialize a connection from request
    NSURLConnection *connection = [[NSURLConnection alloc] initWithRequest:request delegate:self];
    self.connection = connection;
    //start the connection
    [connection start];
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 异步请求:
异步请求需要一个run loop来操作代理对象,GCD和NSOperationQueue默认并没有run loop,所以如果你想在后台发起一个HTTP请求,必须确保有run loop。

NSURLConnection connection = [[NSURLConnection alloc] initWithRequest:request
delegate:self startImmediately:NO];
[connection scheduleInRunLoop:[NSRunLoop mainRunLoop] forMode:NSDefaultRunLoopMode];
[connection start];

上面的代码是在主线程运行,如果想在其他线程运行,可以在其他线程新建一个run loop,并绑定到connection

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