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虚拟语气用法归纳

标签: 英语学习虚拟语气
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英语的动词有三种语气形式,即陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。陈述语气用来说明事实或就事实提出询问,可用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句中;祈使语气用于表示请求、命令、建议或警告等。

虚拟语气是谓语动词的一种特殊形式,用来表达假设、主观愿望、猜测、建议、可能或空想等非真实情况。

eg:He is honest. 他很诚实。(陈述语气)

eg:If I have time,I will go. 假若我有时间,我就去。(陈述语气)

eg:Don’t be late next time. 下次别迟到。(祈使语气)

eg:Be careful. 小心。(祈使语气)

eg:If I were you ,I would not go. 我要是你,我就不会去。(虚拟语气)

eg:I wish I had a lot of money. 要是我有很多很多钱就好了。(虚拟语气)

一、虚拟语气在条件从句的用法

条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,即虚拟条件句。

(1) 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。

eg:If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果明天不下雨,我们就会去公园。

(2) 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。

eg:If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it.如果他昨天见到你,他会问你这件事的。(事实上他昨天没见到你,因此也未能问你这件事。)

1在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。虚拟条件从句和主句的使用形式列表如下:

时态类型

主句

虚拟条件句

例如

与过去现实相反

主语+ should/would/could/might + have + 过去分词

If + 主语 + had + 过去分词

1. If you had taken my advice, you would not have failed in the test. 2. If I had left a little earlier, I would have caught the train.

与现在现实相反

主语+ should/would/could/might + 动词原形

If + 主语 + 动词的过去式(be动词一律用were)

1. If I were you, I should study English.

2. I would certainly go if I had time.

与将来现实相反

主语+ should/would/could/might + 动词原形

① If+主语+动词过去式

② If+主语+ were to +动词原形

③ If+主语+should+动词原形

1. If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting.

2. If he should not come tomorrow, we should put off the meeting till next Monday.

规律总结:从句都往过去推一个时态,如:与现在相反的if从句就用过去式;与过去相反用过去完成时(即过去的过去)

 

注 :(1would/should/could/might主句谓语中的should主要用于第一人称后;would表示结果还表示过去经常常常做某事,might表示可能性,could表示能力、允许或可能性。比较:

eg:If you tried again ,you would succeed. 要是你再试一试,你就会成功的。 (would表结果)

eg:If you tried again, you might succeed. 要是你再试一试,你可能会成功的。 (might表可能)

eg:If you tried again ,you could succeed. 要是你再试一试,你就能成功了。(could表能力)

(2)在虚拟条件从句中,动词be在正常语序中常用were。在口语中,当主语是第一、第三人称单数时,可用was,但在if的倒装句中,必须用were。

2、 错综时间条件句:有时条件从句中的动作和主句中的动作发生的时间不一致(表示错综时间的虚拟语气),这时动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间加以调整。

eg:If you had listened to thedoctor, you would be all right now. 如果你当初听了医生的话,身体现在就好了。(从句动作指过去,主句动作指现在)

eg:If were you,I would have gone to see the doctor.我要是你,我早就去看病了。(从句与现在事实相反,主句与过去事实相反)

3、 省略连词if(省略/倒装)。在书面语中,如果虚拟条件从句中有were,had或 should,可以把if省略,把这几个词放到主语之前,构成主谓倒装

eg:Were I in school again (=If I were in school again), I would work harder.如果我能再上一次学,我会学习得更努力。

eg:Had you asked me (= Ifyou had asked me), I would have told you.如果你问我,我就会告诉你。

4、含蓄条件句:句中没有明显的虚拟条件句,而是利用某他手段或方式来暗示存在虚拟条件。其虚拟的结构形式通过主句来表现。常用来表示含蓄虚拟条件的方式有:

(1)介词或介词短语(代替状语从句):but for(要不是…),without(假若没有…),with(假若有…)

eg:With you help,I could have finished the work ahead of time. 如果有你的帮助的话,我本可以提前完成这项工作。

eg:Without air and water,there would be no living things on the earth. 如果没有空气和水,地球上就不会存在生物。

eg:But for the rain,we should have had a pleasant journey. 如果不是因为下雨,旅途会很愉快。

eg:What would you do with amillion dollars? 如果有了一百万美元,你会做什么?

(2)If虚拟条件句的否定常用两个句型:If it weren’t for…和If it hadn’t been for…,其意为“若不是(有)” “要不是”。如:

eg:If it hadn’t been for your assistance ,we wouldn’t have succeeded.

     = But for your assistance ,we wouldn’t have succeeded.

     = Without your assistance ,we wouldn’t have succeeded.

如果没有你的帮助,我们不会成功的。

(3)用or,otherwise(否则),等类似转折词

eg:He telephoned to informme of your birthday, or I would have known nothing about it.

eg:I was ill that day. Otherwise,I would have taken part in the sports meeting.

(4)根据上下文语境来表示某种假设情况

eg:Five minutes earlier and you could have met her at the station.  早来五分钟的话,你就能在车站见到他了。

eg:You could have done better,but you didn’t try you best.

5、省去条件从句或主句:表示虚拟语气的主句或从句有时可以省略,但其含义仍可以推知。

(1)省去条件从句。

eg:You could have washed your clothes yourself. 你本可以自已洗衣服的。(省去了"If you had wanted to",事实是:你自己没洗衣服,因为你不想洗。)

(2)省去主句(常用以表示愿望)。

eg:If my grandmother were with me! 如果我的祖母与我在一起多好啊! (事实是:祖母已不在世。)

eg:If only she had not left! 如果她没走就好了! (事实是:她已经走了。)

二、虚拟语气在其他从句中的用法

(一)宾语从句

1.wish后的宾语从句

wish从句后使用虚拟语气时,动词的形式根据所表示的时间概念而采用不同形式:过去完成时(与过去事实相反)、过去时(与现在相反)、过去将来时(与将来事实相反)

eg:I wish I were as young as you.我希望自己像你一样年轻。

wish与hope接宾语从句的区别在于:hope表示一般可以实现的希望,宾语从句用陈述语气。wish表示很难或不大可能实现的希望,宾语从句用虚拟语气。试比较:

eg:We hope they will come.(We don’t know if they can come.)

eg:We wish they could come.(We know they are not coming.)  我们希望他们能来。

2. if only 与 I wish一样,也用于表示与事实相反的愿望,其后所虚拟语气的时态与 wish后所接时态的情况相同。if only 通常独立使用,没有主句

eg:If only she had had more courage!  她再勇敢一些就好了。

eg:If only I had listened to my parents!  我要是当时听了父母的话就好了。

eg:If only she would go withme!  她要是愿意和我一道去就好了!

注:only if表示"只有"  

eg:I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。

3.would rather和would sooner后的宾语从句

两个词组都表示宁愿、宁可的意思,后面如果用宾语从句,动词采用过去完成时(与过去事实相反)、过去时(与现在或将来事实相反)。

eg:I’d rather I hadn’t met you.我宁愿从来就没遇见过你。

eg:I’d rather you went to morrow (now). 我宁愿你明天(现在)去。

would rather和would sooner两词组除了要掌握它们后面宾语从句中虚拟语气的用法以外,还要知道这两个词组后面都可以直接加动词原形。

eg:I’d rather be a sparrow thana snail.

4. intend,hope,want,plan,mean等表示“希望、想法、意图”,常用过去完成时态或不定式的完成式表示与过去事实相反的虚拟。

eg:I had meant to go to theparty,but I had to work extra hours to prepare aspeech.

eg:I intended to have helped you,but I was very busy at the time.

5.suggest等动词后的宾语从句

表示主观判断、推测、建议、命令和要求的动词通常引起虚拟的宾语从句,此类动词后的宾语从句中采用should +do、should可以省略的虚拟语气形式。该类动词包括:

(1)高中词汇:advise(劝告)、ask(要求)、decide(决定)、insist(坚持)、order(下令)、suggest(建议)等。

(2)四、六级常考词汇:command(命令)、demand(要求)、desire(渴望)、propose(提议)、recommend(劝告)、require(要求)等。

(3)其他词汇:consent(同意)、deserve(值得提起)、maintain(主张)、move(提议)、urge(极力主张)、 vote(提议)等。

通常我们可以用“一二三四”法巧记这其中比较常用的动词:“一、二、三、四”法,即:一个坚持(insist),两个命令(order,command),三个建议(suggest,propose,advise), 四个要求(demand,require, request ,ask)

eg:I recommend that you all be diligent if you want to pass the exam.如果你们要考及格,我劝你们勤奋学习。

eg:I demand that he (should) answer me immediately. 我要求他立即回答我问题。

eg:I move that we accept the proposal. 我提议通过这项提案。

eg:The general directed that the prisoners should be set free. 将军指示释放那些俘虏。

注:当suggest表示暗示,表明时,不用虚拟语气,用陈述语气

eg:The smile on her facesuggested that she was satisfied with our work.

当insist表示“坚持认为,坚持说”之意时, 不用虚拟语气,用陈述语气。表示“坚持要求,坚持主张”用虚拟语气。

eg:The man insisted that hehad never stolen the money.

(二)主语从句

在It is +形容词/某些动词的过去分词+主语从句的结构中,从句的谓语动词须用动词原形或 should +do的形式。这些形容词包括:

(1)高中词汇:decided(决定的)、important(重要的)、ordered(命令的)等。

(2)四、六级常考词汇:advisable(合理的)、demanded(要求的)、desired(期望的)、desirable(合乎需要的)、essential(紧要的)、insistent(坚持的)、natural(自然的)、preferable(更可取的)、proposed(建议的)、 recommended(推荐的)、required(要求的)、urgent(紧迫的)、vital(极其重要的)等。

(3)其他词汇:appropriate(适当的)、arranged(安排好的)、better(较好的)、imperative(迫切的)、possible(可能的)、probable(可能的)、resolved(决心的)、 strange(奇怪的)、suggested(建议的)等。

eg:It is highly desirable that a new mayor be appointed for this city.这座城市急需任命一位新市长。

eg:It is ordered that the army (should) get there by 4 a.m.

eg:It’s strange that he should have acted toward his parents like that.(竟然会)

eg:It’s surprising/amazing/pleasing/that she (should) win over her mother.(居然会)

eg:It’s strange that he(should) leave without telling us.  (竟然会)

eg:It’s natural that she should make such a mistake.(不以为然的语气,“会”)

(三)表语从句和同位语从句

有些名词引起的表语从句或同位语从句中,谓语动词须用动词原形或should +do的形式。这些名词包括:advice(忠告)、decision(决定)、demand(要求)、desire(渴望)、idea(想法)、motion(提议)、necessity(必要性)、order(命令)、plan(计划)、preference(偏爱)、proposal(建议)、recommendation(推荐)、requirement(要求)、suggestion(建议)等。

eg:His proposal is that we turnoff TV for half an hour every day.他建议我们每天少看半个小时的电视。

eg:Our suggestion is that you( should)be the first to go. 我们的建议是你应该第一个去。

注:从以上的各类从句中我们可以得到以下的推论,即当一个动词后面的宾语从句中要使用(should)+do的虚拟语气形式时,则可推理出用法相同的一组从句。以动词advise为例:

  • l  advise that we stay andwait here.(动词后的宾语从句)
  • It is advised that we stayhere.(It is +动词的过去分词+that引导的主语从句)
  • It is advisable that we stayhere.(It is +由该动词转换的形容词+that引导的主语从句)
  • My advice is that we stayhere.(由该动词转换的名词后的表语从句)
  • I offered the advice that westay here.(由该动词转换的名词后的同位语从句)
  • I think it advisable that westay here.(由该动词转换的形容词作宾语补足语,it为形式宾语,真正的宾语从句中使用虚拟语气)

以上六类从句中所使用的都为(should)+do的虚拟语气形式。

(四)状语从句

虚拟语气在状语从句中,除了表示条件外,还可表示比较、目的等。

1.由as if或as though引导的状语从句

as if/asthough(仿佛、好像)引起方式状语从句,从句中的虚拟语气形式与wish后的宾语从句相同:过去完成时(表示与过去事实相反)、一般过去时(表示与现在事实相反)、would +do(表示与将来事实相反)

eg:You look as if you had seen aghost.你看起来好像撞见鬼了。

eg:He acts as if he knew me.他显得认识我似的。

eg:They treat me as though Iwere a stranger. 他们待我如陌生人。

eg:He talks as if he hadbeen abroad. 他说起话来好像曾经出过国。

注:(1) 从句所表示的内容若为事实或可能为事实,也可用陈述语气:

eg:It looks as if we’ll be late. 我们似乎要迟到了。

(2)注意 It isn’t as if…的翻译:

eg:It isn’t as if he werepoor. 他不像穷的样子(或他又不穷)。

2. 在in order that和so that引导的目的状语从句中,谓语动词多用may/might或can/could后加动词原形,表示虚拟

eg:Mr Green spoke slowly sothat his students could (might) hear clearly.

3.lest/in case /for fear that引导的状语从句

lest(以防、以免)、incase(万一、以防)、for fear that(因恐、免得)引起的状语从句中,谓语动词要使用(should)+do的形式

eg:The old woman walked slowlylest she(should)slip.老太太走得很慢,以免滑倒。

3.whoever等引导的状语从句

由连接代词whoever(无论谁)、whatever(无论什么)、whichever(无论哪个)等和连接副词however(无论如何)、whenever(无论何时)、wherever(无论哪里)等及 no matter+how/what/when /where /who(无论怎样/什么/何时/哪里/谁)构成的词组引导的让步状语从句,若表示说话人对现在或将来的推测,谓语动词常用虚拟语气,形式为动词原形或may /might+do。

eg:Whichever be the case,my situation remained the same.无论是哪种情况,我的处境都一样。

(五)定语从句

It is time(是……时候了),It is about time(差不多是……时候了),It is high timethat(该……了)句式中,后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。

eg:It is time that we protected our environment.

eg:It’s time I was in bed.(不用were)

eg:It is time that the children went to bed.   

eg:It is high time that the children should go to bed.

三、虚拟语气在表示祝愿的句子中的应用

用“may + 动词原形”表示"祝愿"、"但愿”,此时may须置于句首(多用于正式文体中)。

eg:May you be happy! 祝你快乐!   

eg:May good luck be yours. 祝你顺利。

eg:May you many years of health and happiness. 祝您健康长寿美满幸福。

四、真题讲解

1.真题回放:It would be foolishto go to an interview for a job in a law firm wearing jeans and a sweater;and it would be discourteous to visit some distinguished scholarlooking as if we were going to the beach or a night club.

破解真题:这句话是由分号隔开的两个并列句。第二个并列句中包含一个as if引导的比较状语从句。是把go to an interview与go to the beach or a night club作一对比。

参考译文:穿着牛仔裤和毛衣去法律部门进行求职面试是很愚蠢的行为;而且若我们去见某位著名的学者看起来却像要去海滩或夜总会,这也是很失礼的。

2. 真题回放:However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoiningchambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return forits rock, their behaviour became markedly different.

破解真题:这是个含有一个时间状语从句、一个目的状语从句的复合句。时间状语从句由when引导;目的状语从句由so that引导,该目的的状语从句中谓语动词由could后加动词原形observe构成。

参考译文:然而,把两只猴子放在两间毗连而又分离的观察室中,以便它们能看到对方用石块换到了什么东西,它们的行为就表现出明显的不同。

3.真题回放:They should be quickto respond to letters to the editor, lest animal right misinformation gounchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth.

破解真题:这是个含有一个目的状语从句的复合句。目的状语从句由lest引导,其中的主语是animal right misinformation;谓语动词有两个,分别是go和acquire, go是系动词,与后面的unchallenged构成系表结构go和acquire都是动词原形,其实前面的should被省略了;acquire后面的a deceptive appearance of truth是它的宾语。

参考译文:他们应该对报刊的读者来信及时做出反应,以防止动物权利的误导言论在毫无质疑的情况下横行,从而获得一幅真理的面容。

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