# hdu4565So Easy!+矩阵快速幂+广义斐波拉契

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Problem Description
A sequence Sn is defined as:

Where a, b, n, m are positive integers.┌x┐is the ceil of x. For example, ┌3.14┐=4. You are to calculate Sn.
You, a top coder, say: So easy!

Input
There are several test cases, each test case in one line contains four positive integers: a, b, n, m. Where 0< a, m < 215, (a-1)2< b < a2, 0 < b, n < 231.The input will finish with the end of file.

Output
For each the case, output an integer Sn.

Sample Input

2 3 1 2013
2 3 2 2013
2 2 1 2013

Sample Output

4
14
4

Source
2013 ACM-ICPC长沙赛区全国邀请赛——题目重现

(a1)2<b<a2$(a-1)^2< b < a^2$所以依然可以(a+b)n$(a+\sqrt b)^n$(ab)n$(a-\sqrt b)^n$相加。

#include<cstdio>
#include<cmath>
#include<cstring>
#include<iostream>
#include<algorithm>
#include<cstdlib>
#include<queue>
#include<vector>
#include<map>
#include<stack>
#include<set>
using namespace std;
#define pi acos(-1.0)
#define EPS 1e-6    //log(x)
#define e exp(1.0); //2.718281828
//#define mod 1000000007
#define INF 0x7fffffff
#define inf 0x3f3f3f3f
typedef long long LL;

#define debug(x) cout<<x<<endl;
#define debug2(x) cout<<x<<" ";

//#define MOD 10000007
LL MOD;
struct Mat{
int n,m;
LL mat[9][9];
};
Mat operator *(Mat a,Mat b){
Mat c;
memset(c.mat,0,sizeof(c.mat));
c.n = a.n,c.m = b.m;

for(int i=1;i<=a.n;i++){
for(int j=1;j<=b.m;j++){
for(int k=1;k<=a.m;k++){
c.mat[i][j] += (a.mat[i][k]*b.mat[k][j])%MOD;
c.mat[i][j] %= MOD;
}
}
}
return c;
}
Mat operator +(Mat a,Mat b){
Mat c;
memset(c.mat,0,sizeof(c.mat));
c.n = a.n,c.m = a.m;

for(int i=1;i<=a.n;i++){
for(int j=1;j<=a.m;j++){
c.mat[i][j] = (a.mat[i][j]+b.mat[i][j])%MOD;
}
}
return c;
}
Mat operator ^(Mat a,LL k){
Mat c;
memset(c.mat,0,sizeof(c.mat));
c.n = a.n,c.m = a.n;
for(int i=1;i<=a.n;i++)c.mat[i][i] = 1;

while(k){
if(k&1){
c = c*a;
}
a = a*a;
k>>=1;
}
return c;
}
void out(Mat a){
for(int i=1;i<=a.n;i++){
for(int j=1;j<=a.m;j++){
printf(j==a.m? "%I64d\n":"%I64d ",a.mat[i][j]);
}
}
}
LL quickPow(LL x, LL n, LL mm)
{
LL a = 1;
while (n)
{
a *= n&1 ? x : 1;
a %= mm;
n >>= 1 ;
x *= x;
x %= mm;
}
return a;
}
int main()
{
LL a,b,n;
while(scanf("%I64d %I64d %I64d %I64d",&a,&b,&n,&MOD)!=EOF){
if(n==1){
printf("%I64d\n",((LL)(a+ceil(sqrt(b*1.0)))%MOD));
continue;
}
Mat pp;
pp.n=pp.m=2;
pp.mat[1][1]=a%MOD;
pp.mat[1][2]=b%MOD;
pp.mat[2][1]=1;
pp.mat[2][2]=a%MOD;

Mat A0;
A0.n=2,A0.m=1;
A0.mat[1][1]=a%MOD;
A0.mat[2][1]=1;

Mat ans=pp^(n-1);
ans=ans*A0;
printf("%I64d\n",(2*ans.mat[1][1])%MOD);
}
return 0;
}

/*
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(| -_- |)
O\  =  /O
____/---'\____
.'  \\|     |//  .
/  \\|||  :  |||//  \
/  _||||| -:- |||||-  \
|   | \\\  -  /// |   |
| \_|  ''\---/''  |   |
\  .-\__  -  ___/-. /
___. .'  /--.--\  . . __
."" '<  .___\_<|>_/___.'  >'"".
| | :  - \.;\ _ /;./ -  : | |
\  \ -.   \_ __\ /__ _/   .- /  /
======-.____-.___\_____/___.-____.-'======
=---='
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
I have a dream!A AC deram!!
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orz orz orz orz orz orz orz orz orz orz orz
orz orz orz orz orz orz orz orz orz orz orz

*/

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