deep learning 学习笔记

原创 2015年11月26日 16:27:04


1. linear regression

use MLE to understand the loss function

2. logistic regression— binary classification

use MLE to understand the loss function

3. softmax regression —multiple classification

4. Neural Network

activation function: sigmod(0,1), tanh[-1,1], rectified linear(0,+inf)

forward propagation
用input feature x 通过activation function 来计算最后输出的prediction结果的过程

backpropagation algorithm
整个NN也是算一个loss function 再用batch gradient descent 来计算W和b就行。只是在求W(l)ijb(l)j的partial derivative的时候,要用这个backpropagation algorithm来计算。总体思想就是求出先求出最后prediction与true value的difference,然后再向后计算出每一layer的对这个difference的contribution,利用这个contribution可以求出每个partial derivative. 这样求partial derivative会更快。

这里partial derivative是每个training sample的partial derivative的和,就是说没求一次partial derivative 就要scan所有的training sample

Supervised CNN

feature extraction by convolution
当input 的sample 的维度extremely large, we can firstly apply convolution降维, 然后利用pooling降维

compared with the batch GD. just use a single training example or a small amount of examples called “minibatch”, ususally 256.

notice the the term “minibatch”, “epoch”(iteration over the whole data set), “shuffle”

One final but important point regarding SGD is the order in which we present the data to the algorithm. If the data is given in some meaningful order, this can bias the gradient and lead to poor convergence. Generally a good method to avoid this is to randomly shuffle the data prior to each epoch of training.

If the objective has the form of a long shallow ravine leading to the optimum and steep walls on the sides, standard SGD will tend to oscillate across the narrow ravine since the negative gradient will point down one of the steep sides rather than along the ravine towards the optimum. The objectives of deep architectures have this form near local optima and thus standard SGD can lead to very slow convergence particularly after the initial steep gains. Momentum is one method for pushing the objective more quickly along the shallow ravine.

这里就是说如果objective function是一个很陡的谷底,那么每次update都很容易从谷的一边跑到另外一边,即在谷内震荡下行。


filter / kernel: for example, it is the 8*8 patch for convolution

after convolution, we get feature map.

CNN consists of three parts.
normal fully connected NN layers in CNN.
subsampling layer is the pooling layer in CNN.
convolutional layer in CNN


对比普通NN, CNN就是可以利用convolution and pooling 处理高维的输入数据

Sparse coding && PCA


unsupervised learning


feature extraction for unsupervised learning when we don’t have the trained labels.

Statistical Language Modeling (SLM)

p(w1,...,wT) the probability of a word sequence
probabilistic chain rule
p(w1,...,wT)=p(w1)Ti=2p(wi|w1,...,wi1)=p(w1)Ti=2p(wi|hi) where hi denotes the history of the ith word wi



The idea behind RNNs is to make use of sequential information. In a traditional neural network we assume that all inputs (and outputs) are independent of each other. But for many tasks that’s a very bad idea.

i.e. RNN considers the dependency of the training samples. In other words, each training sample has somewhat dependency or sequential relationship

the ref ( wildml has provided a specific implementation example.
several issues should be noted:

1.在generating text的code中

next_word_probs = model.forward_propagation(new_sentence)


while sampled_word == word_to_index[unknown_token]:
            samples = np.random.multinomial(1, next_word_probs[-1])
            sampled_word = np.argmax(samples)

所以这里next_word_probs[-1] 其实是表示的o[-1],对应input x的最后一个word,然后samples就是一个one-hot-vector,再用np.argmax取得index。


a type of RNN can capture a long dependency

只是为了克服RNN cannot capture the long dependency的问题。


loss function

least mean square
cross-entropy loss, i.e. log loss function or logistic loss

Backpropagation Alg.


注意δli是 total error 对 zli的偏导数

computational graph
forward-mode differentiation,一次只能计算output对其中一个input的偏导数,即如果在computational graph 中input很多,那么这种方法计算偏导数就会很慢。求从其中一条input到output所有的path的


reverse-mode differentiation 更快,可以一次性计算 output对所有的node的偏导数,就是backpropagation. ZAllNode


Deep Learning(深度学习)学习笔记整理系列之(一)

Deep Learning(深度学习)学习笔记整理系列 作者:Zouxy version 1.0  20...
  • zouxy09
  • zouxy09
  • 2013年04月08日 23:35
  • 751439

Deep Learning(深度学习)学习笔记整理系列之(一)

转载: Deep Learning(深度学习)学习笔记整理系列 zouxy09@q...

Deep Learning(深度学习)学习笔记整理系列之(七)

Deep Learning(深度学习)学习笔记整理系列 作者:Zouxy version 1.0 201...
  • zouxy09
  • zouxy09
  • 2013年04月10日 10:48
  • 498693


上一节我们介绍了隐马尔科夫的概率计算问题,本节,我们介绍一下隐马尔科夫的学习问题。在介绍学习问题之前,先让我们用python来实现几个重要概念。#!/usr/bin/env python # -*- ...

【Deep Learning】循环神经网络(RNN)推导和实现

主要参考wildml的博客所写,所有的代码都是python实现,并且没有使用深度学习的框架,所以对理解RNN可以起到很大的帮助。 一、语言模型         如果一个句子有m个词,那么这个句子生...

numpy教程:随机数模块numpy.random随机数种子RandomStateRandomState exposes a number ...

(MIT)Deep learning 学习笔记(3)

最近事情很多,房子漏水要换房整整折腾了一周。 虽然是第三次写学习笔记了,但才刚刚读完序章,第一章还没开始。绪论后半部分是围绕着深度学习因何而变得炙手可热的。随着计算机硬件发展,运算能力进一步提高,那么...
  • logicor
  • logicor
  • 2017年03月28日 23:40
  • 100

《Wide and Deep Learning for Recommender Systems》学习笔记

顾名思义,Google提出的这篇文章将Wide Model和Deep Model结合起来进行,思路非常值得学习。1.Wide Model首先说一下Wide Model,就是上图中左边的那一部分,是一个...
您举报文章:deep learning 学习笔记