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格式化字符串

标签: Stringformatterprintf
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Formatter类:printf 风格的格式字符串的解释程序。此类提供了对布局对齐和排列的支持,以及对数值、字符串和日期/时间数据的常规格式和特定于语言环境的输出的支持。支持诸如 byte、BigDecimalCalendar 等常见 Java 类型。

1. 主要讲下字符串的格式化,上个例子:
package string;

import java.util.Formatter;

public class Turtle {
	
	private String name;
	private Formatter format;
	
	public Turtle(String name, Formatter format) {
		this.name = name;
		this.format = format;
	}
	
	public void move(int x, int y) {
		//%s 格式化字符串    %d格式化整数
		format.format("%s The Turtle is at (%d, %d),\n", name, x, y);
	}
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		Turtle t1 = new Turtle("xiaoqiang", new Formatter(System.out));
		t1.move(0, 0);
		t1.move(0, 3);
		t1.move(0, 6);
		t1.move(3, 6);
	}
	
}
//output
xiaoqiang The Turtle is at (0, 0).
xiaoqiang The Turtle is at (0, 3).
xiaoqiang The Turtle is at (0, 6).
xiaoqiang The Turtle is at (3, 6).
2 .排版格式的控制能力
package string;

import java.util.Formatter;

public class Receipt {
	
	private double total = 0;
	private Formatter f = new Formatter(System.out);
	
	public void printTitle() {
		//-表示左对齐
		f.format("%-15s %5s %10s\n", "Item", "Qty", "Price");
		f.format("%-15s %5s %10s\n", "---", "---", "---");
	}
	
	public void print(String item, int qty, double price) {
		f.format("%-15.15s %5d %10.2f\n", item, qty, price);
		total += price;
	}
	
	public void printTotal() {
		f.format("%-15s %5s %10.2f\n", "Tax", "", total*0.06);
		f.format("%-15s %5s %10s\n", "", "", "---");
		f.format("%-15s %5s %10.2f\n", "Total", "", total*1.06);
		
	}
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		Receipt r = new Receipt();
		r.printTitle();
		r.print("big ice", 2, 9);
		r.print("little ice", 1, 1.25);
		r.print("old ice", 5, 5.5);
		r.printTotal();
	}
	
}
//output
Item              Qty      Price
---               ---        ---
big ice             2       9.00
little ice          1       1.25
old ice             5       5.50
Tax                         0.95
                             ---
Total                      16.70
3.类型转换
package string;

import java.math.BigInteger;
import java.util.Formatter;

public class Conversion {
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		Formatter f = new Formatter(System.out);
		char u = 'a';
		System.out.println("--------u = 'a'");
		f.format("s: %s\n", u);  //字符串
		f.format("c: %c\n", u);  //Unicode  字符
		f.format("b: %b\n", u);  //boolean值
		f.format("h: %h\n", u);  //16进制哈希值
		
		int v = 21;
		System.out.println("\n----------v = 21");
		f.format("d: %d\n", v);  //十进制整数
		f.format("c: %c\n", v);  //Unicode  字符
		f.format("b: %b\n", v);  //boolean值
		f.format("s: %s\n", v);  //字符串
		f.format("x: %x\n", v);  //16进制整数
		f.format("h: %h\n", v);  //16进制哈希值  hasCode-->toHex
		
		BigInteger w = new BigInteger("5000000000000");
		System.out.println("\n-------w = new BigInteger(\"5000000000000\")");
		f.format("d: %d\n", w);  //十进制整数
		f.format("b: %b\n", w);  //boolean值
		f.format("s: %s\n", w);  //字符串
		f.format("x: %x\n", w);  //16进制整数
		f.format("h: %h\n", w);  //16进制哈希值  hasCode-->toHex
		
		double x = 1234.567;
		System.out.println("\n-------x = 1234.567");
		f.format("b: %b\n", x);  //boolean
		f.format("s: %s\n", x);  //字符串
		f.format("f: %f\n", x);  //float
		f.format("e: %e\n", x);  //计算机科学记数法表示的十进制数
		f.format("h: %h\n", x);  //16进制哈希值  hasCode-->toHex
		
		Conversion c = new Conversion();
		System.out.println("\n-------c = new Conversion()");
		f.format("b: %b\n", c);  //boolean
		f.format("s: %s\n", c);  //字符串
		f.format("h: %h\n", c);  //16进制哈希值  hasCode-->toHex
		
		boolean b = false;
		System.out.println("\n-------b = false");
		f.format("b: %b\n", b);  //boolean
		f.format("s: %s\n", b);  //字符串
		f.format("h: %h\n", b);  //16进制哈希值  hasCode-->toHex
	}
}
4. String.format :静态方法,实际使用的Formatter类,可简化编程
package string;

public class Hex {
	
	//byte[]数组做16进制输出
	public static String format(byte[] bytes) {
		StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
		int n = 0;
		for(byte b : bytes) {
			if(n % 16 == 0) {
				sb.append(String.format("%05X : ", n));
			}
			sb.append(String.format("%02X ", b));
			n++;
			if(n % 16 == 0) {
				sb.append("\n");
			}
		}
		sb.append("\n");
		return sb.toString();
	} 
	
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		System.out.println(format("xiaoqiangqumaidabinggun".getBytes()));
	}
	
}
5. System.out.printf()   System.out.format() 同样使用Formatter进行格式化输出
6. 格式化输出的语法JDK的API中很详细了,这里主要描述一些应用场景和类的关系

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