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一行代码解决Android M新的运行时权限问题

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Android M运行时权限是个啥东西

啥是运行时权限呢?Android M对权限管理系统进行了改版,之前我们的App需要权限,只需在manifest中申明即可,用户安装后,一切申明的权限都可来去自如的使用。但是Android M把权限管理做了加强处理,在manifest申明了,在使用到相关功能时,还需重新授权方可使用。当然,不是所有权限都需重新授权,所以就把这些需要重新授权方可使用的权限称之为运行时权限。

运行时权限的影响

运行时权限的好处可以让用户使用时更有主动权,不会让app随便乱来。
但是受害最深的却是我们这些受苦受难的开发者,为何这么说呢?如果你的app的targetSdkVersion 是23也就是android 6.0的话,遇到运行时权限不去做代码处理的话,程序直接崩掉。

所以,如果你的app没有在android 6.0上做足够的测试,请不要设置targetSdk为23,22以下就不会出现问题。
但是,作为开发者,我们还是必须要与时俱进的不是,而且以后的主流机型也必然是android M,怎么能不去适配他/她呢?继续往下看。

哪些是运行时权限

要先做好适配,那就必然要先了解哪些是运行时权限。
先看下哪些是不用特殊处理的权限,android称之为普通权限:
参考链接:http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/security/normal-permissions.html
As of API level 23, the following permissions are classified as PROTECTION_NORMAL:

android.permission.ACCESS_LOCATION_EXTRA_COMMANDS
android.permission.ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE
android.permission.ACCESS_NOTIFICATION_POLICY
android.permission.ACCESS_WIFI_STATE
android.permission.ACCESS_WIMAX_STATE
android.permission.BLUETOOTH
android.permission.BLUETOOTH_ADMIN
android.permission.BROADCAST_STICKY
android.permission.CHANGE_NETWORK_STATE
android.permission.CHANGE_WIFI_MULTICAST_STATE
android.permission.CHANGE_WIFI_STATE
android.permission.CHANGE_WIMAX_STATE
android.permission.DISABLE_KEYGUARD
android.permission.EXPAND_STATUS_BAR
android.permission.FLASHLIGHT
android.permission.GET_ACCOUNTS
android.permission.GET_PACKAGE_SIZE
android.permission.INTERNET
android.permission.KILL_BACKGROUND_PROCESSES
android.permission.MODIFY_AUDIO_SETTINGS
android.permission.NFC
android.permission.READ_SYNC_SETTINGS
android.permission.READ_SYNC_STATS
android.permission.RECEIVE_BOOT_COMPLETED
android.permission.REORDER_TASKS
android.permission.REQUEST_INSTALL_PACKAGES
android.permission.SET_TIME_ZONE
android.permission.SET_WALLPAPER
android.permission.SET_WALLPAPER_HINTS
android.permission.SUBSCRIBED_FEEDS_READ
android.permission.TRANSMIT_IR
android.permission.USE_FINGERPRINT
android.permission.VIBRATE
android.permission.WAKE_LOCK
android.permission.WRITE_SYNC_SETTINGS
com.android.alarm.permission.SET_ALARM
com.android.launcher.permission.INSTALL_SHORTCUT
com.android.launcher.permission.UNINSTALL_SHORTCUT

再看下运行时权限,android称之为危险权限(google还对其分了组):
参考链接:http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/security/permissions.html#normal-dangerous
危险权限表

同一组的任何一个权限被授权了,其他权限也自动被授权。例如,一旦WRITE_CONTACTS被授权了,app也有READ_CONTACTS和GET_ACCOUNTS了。

—————————— 关键部分来了———————————————

代码封装

目前对运行时权限,github上也有些代码封装库,但是都感觉用起来太麻烦,于是自己动手封装了下:
参考代码(google写的sample):
https://github.com/googlesamples/android-RuntimePermissions
http://developer.android.com/training/permissions/requesting.html

封装代码如下:

在BaseActivity添加如下代码:

//**************** Android M Permission (Android 6.0权限控制代码封装) 
*****************************************************
    private int permissionRequestCode = 88;
    private PermissionCallback permissionRunnable ;
    public interface PermissionCallback{
        void hasPermission();
        void noPermission();
    }

    /**
     * Android M运行时权限请求封装
     * @param permissionDes 权限描述
     * @param runnable 请求权限回调
     * @param permissions 请求的权限(数组类型),直接从Manifest中读取相应的值,比如Manifest.permission.WRITE_CONTACTS
     */
    public void performCodeWithPermission(@NonNull String permissionDes,PermissionCallback runnable,@NonNull String... permissions){
        if(permissions == null || permissions.length == 0)return;
//        this.permissionrequestCode = requestCode;
        this.permissionRunnable = runnable;
        if(checkPermissionGranted(permissions)){
            if(permissionRunnable!=null){
                permissionRunnable.hasPermission();
                permissionRunnable = null;
            }
        }else{
            //permission has not been granted.
            requestPermission(permissionDes,permissionRequestCode,permissions);
        }

    }
    private boolean checkPermissionGranted(String[] permissions){
        boolean flag = true;
        for(String p:permissions){
            if(ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(this, p) != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED){
                flag = false;
                break;
            }
        }
        return flag;
    }
    private void requestPermission(String permissionDes,final int requestCode,final String[] permissions){
        if(shouldShowRequestPermissionRationale(permissions)){
            // Provide an additional rationale to the user if the permission was not granted
            // and the user would benefit from additional context for the use of the permission.
            // For example, if the request has been denied previously.

//            Snackbar.make(getWindow().getDecorView(), requestName,
//                    Snackbar.LENGTH_INDEFINITE)
//                    .setAction(R.string.common_ok, new View.OnClickListener() {
//                        @Override
//                        public void onClick(View view) {
//                            ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(BaseAppCompatActivity.this,
//                                    permissions,
//                                    requestCode);
//                        }
//                    })
//                    .show();
            //如果用户之前拒绝过此权限,再提示一次准备授权相关权限
            new AlertDialog.Builder(this)
                    .setTitle("提示")
                    .setMessage(permissionDes)
                    .setPositiveButton(R.string.common_ok, new DialogInterface.OnClickListener() {
                        @Override
                        public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog, int which) {
                            ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(BaseAppCompatActivity.this, permissions, requestCode);
                        }
                    }).show();

        }else{
            // Contact permissions have not been granted yet. Request them directly.
            ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(BaseAppCompatActivity.this, permissions, requestCode);
        }
    }
    private boolean shouldShowRequestPermissionRationale(String[] permissions){
        boolean flag = false;
        for(String p:permissions){
            if (ActivityCompat.shouldShowRequestPermissionRationale(this,p)){
                flag = true;
                break;
            }
        }
        return flag;
    }

    /**
     * Callback received when a permissions request has been completed.
     */
    @Override
    public void onRequestPermissionsResult(int requestCode, @NonNull String[] permissions,
                                           @NonNull int[] grantResults) {
        if(requestCode == permissionRequestCode){
            if(verifyPermissions(grantResults)){
                if(permissionRunnable!=null) {
                    permissionRunnable.hasPermission();
                    permissionRunnable = null;
                }
            }else{
                showToast("暂无权限执行相关操作!");
                permissionRunnable.noPermission();
                permissionRunnable = null;
            }
        }else{
            super.onRequestPermissionsResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults);
        }

    }
    public boolean verifyPermissions(int[] grantResults) {
        // At least one result must be checked.
        if(grantResults.length < 1){
            return false;
        }

        // Verify that each required permission has been granted, otherwise return false.
        for (int result : grantResults) {
            if (result != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    //********************** END Android M Permission ****************************************

Tips:

1)BaseActivity要继承AppCompatActivity
2)support包使用尽量新的,我使用的是compile ‘com.android.support:appcompat-v7:23.0.1’ 以防里面的ActivityCompat找不到相关类或方法。
3)如果在Fragment中使用,直接在自己的BaseFragment写个方法调用此Activity的方法即可。

/**
     * Android M运行时权限请求封装
     * @param permissionDes 权限描述
     * @param runnable 请求权限回调
     * @param permissions 请求的权限(数组类型),直接从Manifest中读取相应的值,比如Manifest.permission.WRITE_CONTACTS
     */
    public void performCodeWithPermission(@NonNull String permissionDes,BaseAppCompatActivity.PermissionCallback runnable,@NonNull String... permissions){
        if(getActivity()!=null && getActivity() instanceof BaseAppCompatActivity){
            ((BaseAppCompatActivity) getActivity()).performCodeWithPermission(permissionDes,runnable,permissions);
        }
    }

一句代码使用:

比如,我们要请求相机:

performCodeWithPermission("XX App请求访问相机权限",new BaseAppCompatActivity.PermissionCallback() {
                        @Override
                        public void hasPermission() {
                            //执行打开相机相关代码
                        }
                        @Override
                        public void noPermission() {
                        }
                    }, Manifest.permission.CAMERA, Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE,Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE);

写在最后

  • 如果读者还是没有看过文章开头推荐的文章,建议先看一遍,有些知识和出现问题的场景此文没有细说,看完后对运行时权限会有更好的理解。
  • 另外,如果本文有描述不对之处,还望大家多多指正,多谢!

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