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linux基础之Shell Script入门介绍

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本文介绍下,学习shell script编程的入门知识,通过几个入门实例,带领大家走进shell script的神圣殿堂,呵呵,有需要的朋友参考下

linux基础之Shell Script

1 Shell Scipt
使用指令和基本程序设计结构写成的程序,可以完成复杂的处理流程

1.1 程序书写

复制代码代码如下:

#!/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program shows "Hello Wrold" in your screen.
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
echo -e "Hello World!\a\n"
exit 0

第一行 #!/bin/bash 说明使用的shell类型,不同shell语法可能不同,所以要说明使用的是哪种shell
其它#开始的表示注释,注释一般需要说明
程序功能
版本历史
作者及联系方式
设置好PATH变量,以便直接可以调用相应路径下的命令
程序主体部分
exit 0 表示程序执行成功,向环境返回0
1.2 程序执行
bash $bash sh01.sh #如果用sh sh01.sh而sh又不是指向bash,那么sh01.sh内的语法就会不一致,因为用 #sh去解释了bash语法写的shell script,针对这个程序,如果 #$type sh #得到sh is hashed (/bin/sh) #那么会输出-e Hello world!,而非Hello world!

复制代码代码如下:

$./xxx.sh $chmod +x sh01.sh $./sh01.sh
source $ source sh01.sh

注:用bash和用source的不同在于,用bash执行时,shell script其实是在在父程序bash下新建了一个 bash子程序,这个子程序中执行,当程序执行完后,shell script里定义的变量都会随子程序的结束而消失, 而用source执行时,是在父程序bash中执行,shell script里定义的变量都还在。

2 简单Shell练习

2.1 例1 接收用户输入

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program is used to read user's input 
# Site: www.jb51.net
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
read -p "Your first name:" firstname # tell user to input
read -p "Your last name:" lastname # tell user to input
echo -e "\nYour full name: $firstname $lastname"
exit 0 

调用:

复制代码代码如下:

$ bash sh02.sh
Your first name:Minix
Your last name:007
Your full name: Minix 007

2.2 例2 按日期建立相似名字的文件

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program is used to create files according to date
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
# Get filename from user
echo -e "I will use 'touch' to create three files."
read -p "Please input your filename:" tmpfilename
# Prevent the user input [Enter]
# Check whether filename exists or not
filename=${tmpfilename:-"filename"}
# Get the final filename according to date
date1=$(date --date='2 days ago' +%Y%m%d) # date of 2 days ago
date2=$(date --date='1 days ago' +%Y%m%d) # date of yesterday
date3=$(date +%Y%m%d) # date of today
filename1=${filename}${date1}
filename2=${filename}${date2}
filename3=${filename}${date3}
# Create file
touch "$filename1"
touch "$filename2"
touch "$filename3"
exit 0 

调用:

复制代码代码如下:

$ bash sh03.sh
I will use 'touch' to create three files.
Please input your filename:WhoKnows
$ ls W*
WhoKnows20130201  WhoKnows20130202  WhoKnows20130203

3 判断式
3.1 测试文件是否存在
test -e filename会根据filename是否存在返回0或1,再交由echo显示结果:

复制代码代码如下:

$ test -e sh01.sh  && echo "Exists" || echo "Not exists"
Exists
$ test -e sh0x.sh  && echo "Exists" || echo "Not exists"
Not exists

3.2 test常用选项
3.2.1 文件类型

复制代码代码如下:

-e file :file是否存在
-f file :file是否存在且为文件
-d file :file是否存在且为目录

3.2.2 权限
-r file :file是否有读的权限

3.2.3 文件新旧比较
-nt file1 file2 : file1 是否比 file2新

3.2.4 整数,字符串,多重条件判断
-z string: string是否为空
例:输出指定文件类型及属性

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program is used to output type and permission of the target file
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
# Get filename from user
echo -e "Input name of the file that you want to check.\n"
read -p "Filename:" filename
test -z $filename && echo "You must input a filename." && exit 0
# Check whether the file exists or not
test ! -e $filename && echo "The file '$filename' DO NOT exists" && exit 0
# Check type and permission of the file
test -f $filename && filetype="regular file"
test -d $filename && filetype="directory"
test -r $filename && perm="readable"
test -w $filename && perm="$perm writable"
test -x $filename && perm="$perm executable"
# Output result
echo "The filename:$filename is a $filetype"
echo "And Permissions are :$perm"
exit 0

调用:

复制代码代码如下:

$ bash sh04.sh
Input name of the file that you want to check.

Filename:sh01.sh
The filename:sh01.sh is a regular file
And Permissions are :readable writable executable

3.3 使用[]判断

测试文件是否存在

复制代码代码如下:

$ [ -e "sh01.sh" ] ; echo $?
0
$ [ -e "sh0x.sh" ] ; echo $?

注意[]内空格必须有
这种方法和test的test -e "sho1.sh" ; echo $? 是一致的

4 Shell Script 参数

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program is used to ouput parameter of the shell script
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
echo "The script's name is ==> $0"
echo "Total parameter number is ==> $#"
# Check whether number of the parameter is less than 2
[ "$#" -lt 2 ] && echo "The number of parameter is less than 2.Stop here." && exit 0
echo "The whole parameter is ==> '$@'"
echo "The first parameter is ==> $1"
echo "The first parameter is ==> $2"
exit 0

调用:

复制代码代码如下:

$ bash sh05.sh 1a 2b 3c 4d
The script's name is ==> sh05.sh
Total parameter number is ==> 4
The whole parameter is ==> '1a 2b 3c 4d'
The first parameter is ==> 1a
The first parameter is ==> 2b

注:从以上程序可以看出与参数有关的预设变量如何表示

5 条件表达式

5.1 if 结构

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program is used to show if else expression
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
read -p "Please input [Y/N]" choice
if [ "$choice" == "Y" ] || [ "$choice" == "y" ];then
    echo "OK, continue"
    exit 0
fi
if [ "$choice" == "N" ] || [ "$choice" == "n" ];then
    echo "Oh, interupt"
    exit 0
fi
exit 0 

调用:

复制代码代码如下:

$ bash sh06.sh
Please input [Y/N]y
OK, continue
$ bash sh06.sh
Please input [Y/N]n
Oh, interupt

5.2 if else 结构

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program is used to show if else expression
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
read -p "Please input [Y/N]" choice
if [ "$choice" == "Y" ] || [ "$choice" == "y" ];then
    echo "OK, continue"
    exit 0
elif [ "$choice" == "N" ] || [ "$choice" == "n" ];then
    echo "Oh, interupt"
    exit 0
else
    echo "Input [Y/N]"
fi
exit 0 

5.3 case

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program is used to show case expression
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
read -p "Tell me your choice:[1-3]=>" choice
case $choice in
    "1")
        echo "Your choice is ONE"
;;
    "2")
        echo "Your choice is TWO"
;;
    "3")
        echo "Your choice is THREE"
;;
esac
exit 0

调用:

复制代码代码如下:

$ bash sh08.sh
Tell me your choice:[1-3]=>2
Your choice is TWO
$ bash sh08.sh
Tell me your choice:[1-3]=>1
Your choice is ONE
$ bash sh08.sh
Tell me your choice:[1-3]=>3
Your choice is THREE

6 函数

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program is used to test function
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
function myprint(){
    echo -n "Your choice is "
}
read -p "Tell me your choice:[1-3]=>" choice
case $choice in
    "1")
        myprint;echo "ONE"
;;
    "2")
        myprint;echo "TWO"
;;
    "3")
        myprint;echo "THREE"
;;
esac
exit 0 

调用:

复制代码代码如下:

$ bash sh09.sh 
Tell me your choice:[1-3]=>1
Your choice is ONE
$ bash sh09.sh 
Tell me your choice:[1-3]=>2
Your choice is TWO
$ bash sh09.sh 
Tell me your choice:[1-3]=>3
Your choice is THREE
补充测试代码如下:
#!/bin/bash
# program is used to read user's input 
# Site: www.jb51.net
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:~/bin
export PATH
function myprint(){
    echo -n "Your choice is "
}
read -p "Tell me your choice:[1-3]=>" choice
case $choice in
    "1")
        myprint;echo "ONE"|tr -d 'N'
        ;;
    "2")
        myprint;echo "TWO,you konw"|tr 'a-z' 'A-Z'
        ;;
    "3")
        myprint;echo "THREE"|tr 'A-Z' 'a-z'
        ;;
*)
        echo "usage $0 {1,2,3}"
esac
exit 0

7 循环
7.1 while

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program shows while expression
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
while [ "$choice" != "yes" ]
do
    read -p "Give your choice [yes/no]:" choice
done
exit 0 

调用:

复制代码代码如下:

$ bash sh10.sh 
Give your choice [yes/no]:no
Give your choice [yes/no]:no
Give your choice [yes/no]:nx
Give your choice [yes/no]:yes

7.2 for

复制代码代码如下:

# !/bin/bash
# Program:
#       This program is used to demo for expression
# History:
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=$PATH
export PATH
for choice in 1 2 3
do
    echo "your choice is $choice"
done
exit 0

调用示例:

复制代码代码如下:

$ bash sh11.sh
your choice is 1
your choice is 2
your choice is 3
获取系统账户检查
#!/bin/bash
# program is used to read user's input 
# Site: www.jb51.net
# 2013/2/3 on_1y First release
PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:~/bin
export PATH
users=$(cut -d ':' -f1 /etc/passwd);
for username in $users
do
    id $username;
    finger $username;
done
exit 0

8 shell script的追踪与Debug
sh -n xx.sh # 语法检查
sh -x xx.sh # 列出xx.sh的执行过程


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