[规范资料]Excel文件格式

原创 2005年03月02日 10:45:00


      MICROSOFT EXCEL FILE FORMAT
Microsoft Excel is a popular spreadsheet. It uses a file format called BIFF (Binary
File Format). There are many types of BIFF records.  Each has a 4 byte header. The
first two bytes are an opcode that specifies the record type.  The second two bytes
specify record length. Header values are stored in byte-reversed form (less significant
byte first). The rest of the record is the data itself (Figure 2-1).
Figure 2-1. BIFF record header.
         | Record Header  | Record Body
Byte Number   | 0   1  2  3 |  0  1  ...
         -----------------------------------
Record Contents | XX | XX | XX | XX | XX | XX | ...
         -----------------------------------
         | opcode  | length | data
  
Each X represents a hexadecimal digit
Two X's form a byte. The least significant (low) byte of the opcode is byte 0 and the
most significant (high) byte is byte 1. Similarly, the low byte of the record length
field is byte 2 and the high byte is byte 3.

BOF (Beginning of File)
The first record in every spreadsheet is always of the BOF type (Figure 2-2).
Figure 2-2. BOF record.
      | Record Header  |  Record Body  |
Byte    |  0  1  2  3 | 0  1  2   3 |
      -----------------------------------------
Contents  | 09 | 00 | 04 | 00 | 02 | 00 | 10 | 00 |
      -----------------------------------------
      | opcode | length | version | file  |
      |     |     | number | type  |
The first two bytes, arranged with the low byte first, show that the opcode for BOF is
09h. The second two bytes indicate that the record body is 4 bytes long. The first two
bytes of the body are the version number (2 for the initial version of Excel). The last
two bytes are the file type. Type 10h is a worksheet file.

Relating Spreadsheet Cells to Record Data Bytes
A spreadsheet appears on a screen or printout as a matrix of rectangular cells. Each
column is identified by a letter at its top, and each row is identified by a number.
Thus cell A1 is in the first column and the first row. Cell C240 is in the third column
and the 240th row. This scheme identifies cells in a way easily understood by people.
However, it is not particularly convenient for computers, as they do not handle letters
efficiently. They are best at dealing with binary numbers. Thus, Excel stores cell
identifiers as binary numbers, that people can read as hexadecimal. The first number in
the system is 0 rather than 1.
Figure 2-3, which shows the form of an INTEGER record, illustrates the storage of column
and row information.

Figure 2-3. INTEGER record.
   | Record Header  | Record Body
Byte | 0  1   2  3 | 0   1  2  3   4  5  6   7  8 |
    ------------------------------------------------------------------
Value | 02 | 00 | 09 | 00 | 00 | 00 | 02 | 00 | 00 | 00 | 00 | 39 | 00 |
    ------------------------------------------------------------------
   | opcode | length  |  row  | column |  rgbAttr  |  w   |
Opcode 2 indicates an integer record. The length bytes show that the record body is 9
bytes long. Row 0 in the body corresponds to spreadsheet row 1. Row 1 corresponds to
spreadsheet row 2, and so on. Column 2 corresponds to spreadsheet column C. Thus,
Figure 2-3 deals with cell C1. The next three bytes, labeled "rgbAttr," specify cell
attributes (Table 2-3). The final pair of bytes, (labeled "w") holds the integer's
value. Here it is 39H or 57 decimal. Thus the record specifies that cell C1 of the
spreadsheet contains an integer with the value 57.
Standard File Record Order
Excel worksheet files have each record type in a predetermined position. A file need
not have all types, but the ones that are present are always be in the same order.
Table 2-1 lists the record types for Excel document (spreadsheet) files, in the order
they would appear in a BIFF file. Table 2-2 lists the types in opcode order.
Several record types in a BIFF file, namely, ROW, BLANK, INTEGER, NUMBER, LABEL,
BOOLERR, FORMULA, and COLUMN DEFAULT, describe the contents of a cell. These records
contain a 3 byte attribute field labeled "rgbAttr". The following table describes how
the bits in the field correspond to cell attributes.
Table 2-1. Cell Attributes
Byte Offset   Bit  Description           Contents
   0      7   Cell is not hidden        0b
            Cell is hidden          1b
         6   Cell is not locked        0b
            Cell is locked          1b
         5-0  Reserved, must be 0       000000b
         7-6  Font number (4 possible)
         5-0  Cell format code
   2      7   Cell is not shaded        0b
            Cell is shaded          1b
         6   Cell has no bottom border    0b
            Cell has a bottom border     1b
         5   Cell has no top border     0b
            Cell has a top border      1b
         4   Cell has no right border    0b
            Cell has a right border     1b
         3   Cell has no left border     0b
            Cell has a left border     1b
         2-0  Cell alignment code
              general           000b
              left            001b
              center           010b
              right            011b
              fill            100b
              Multiplan default align.  111b
The font number field is a zero-based index into the document's table of fonts. the
cell format code is a zero-based index into the document's table of picture formats.
There are 21 different standard formats. Additional custom formats may be defined by
the user. See the FONT and FORMAT record descriptions form additonal details.
Table 2-2. Excel Record Type in Order of Appearance
Record Type         Opcode (Hexadecimal)
BOF              09
FILEPASS            2F
INDEX             0B
CALCCOUNT           0C
CALCMODE            0D
PRECISION           0E
REFMODE            0F
DELTA             10
ITERATION           11
1904              22
BACKUP             40
PRINT ROW HEADERS       2A
PRINT GRIDLINES        2B
HORIZONTAL PAGE BREAKS     1B
VERTICAL PAGE BREAKS     1A
DEFAULT ROW HEIGHT       25
FONT              31
FONT2             32
HEADER             14
FOOTER             15
LEFT MARGIN          26
RIGHT MARGIN          27
TOP MARGIN           28
BOTTOM MARGIN         29
COLWIDTH            24
EXTERNCOUNT          16
EXTERNSHEET          17
EXTERNNAME           23
FORMATCOUNT          1F
FORMAT             1E
NAME              18
DIMENSIONS           00
COLUMN DEFAULT         20
ROW              08
BLANK             01
INTEGER            02
NUMBER             03
LABEL             04
BOOLERR            05
FORMULA            06
ARRAY             21
CONTINUE            3C
STRING             07
TABLE             36
TABLE2             37
PROTECT            12
WINDOW PROTECT         19
PASSWORD            13
NOTE              1C
WINDOW1            3D
WINDOW2            3E
PANE              41
SELECTION           1D
EOF              0A
Table 2-3. Excel Record Types in Opcode Order
Record Type       Opcode (hexadecimal)
DIMENSIONS         00
BLANK            01
INTEGER           02
NUMBER           03
LABEL            04
BOOLERR           05
FORMULA           06
STRING           07
ROW             08
BOF             09
EOF             0A
INDEX            0B
CALCCOUNT          0C
CALCMODE          0D
PRECISION          0E
REFMODE           0F
DELTA            10
ITERATION          11
PROTECT           12
PASSWORD          13
HEADER           14
FOOTER           15
EXTERNCOUNT         16
EXTERNSHEET         17
NAME            18
WINDOW PROTECT       19
VERTICAL PAGE BREAKS    1A
HORIZONTAL PAGE BREAKS   1B
NOTE            1C
SELECTION          1D
FORMAT           1E
FORMATCOUNT         1F
COLUMN DEFAULT       20
ARRAY            21
1904            22
EXTERNNAME         23
COLWIDTH          24
DEFAULT ROW HEIGHT     25
LEFT MARGIN         26
RIGHT MARGIN        27
TOP MARGIN         28
BOTTOM MARGIN        29
PRINT ROW HEADERS      2A
PRINT GRIDLINES       2B
FILEPASS          2F
FONT            31
FONT2            32
TABLE            36
TABLE2           37
CONTINUE          3C
WINDOW1           3D
WINDOW2           3E
BACKUP           40
PANE            41

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