RIASEC & World-of-Work Map 职业测评

转载 2012年03月27日 19:37:12

做了一下,更混乱了。只能说不太清晰,需要结合实际情况调整吧

有时候,我们会觉得工作不快乐,感觉到事业并没有向着成功前进,甚至希望渺茫。为什么会出现这样的情况呢?这往往是因为自己在做没有发挥自身特长、不感兴趣而倍感疲惫的工作,在工作中没有获得满足感。因此,适当地进行职业生涯规划很重要,对于刚从校园走入社会的学生尤为重要。

职业生涯规划的方法有很多,如人职匹配理论、理性决策理论、职业发展理论和心理发展理论。本文讨论人职匹配理论,这个理论与个人工作的快乐程度密切相关。每个人都有自己独特的性格特点和能力模式,这些特点与某些特定的职业相关联。

首先介绍World-of-Work Map。美国ACT将通常的职业划分为26种典型类型,这些类型可以按照其工作特点与Data、Things、Ideas和People以及处于中间地带的Data&Things、Things&Ideas、Ideas&People和People&Data来归类。如下图WOW Map所示:

RIASEC <wbr>& <wbr>World-of-Work <wbr>Map

简要定义解释:

  • Data: Facts, numbers, files, business procedures
  • Ideas: Knowledge, insights, theories, new ways of saying or doing something
  • People: Care, services, leadership, sales
  • Things: Machines, tools, living things, and materials such as food, wood, or metal


26种典型类型划分为6个族,如下面列表所示:

TECHNICAL

  1. Transport Operation & Related
    Aircraft Pilot; Astronaut; Bus Driver; Locomotive Engineer; Ship Captain; Truck Driver
  2. Agriculture, Forestry & Related
    Aquaculturist; Farm Manager; Forester; Nursery/Greenhouse Manager; Tree Surgeon (Arborist)
  3. Computer & Information Specialties
    Actuary; Archivist/Curator; Computer Programmer; Computer Systems Analyst; Web Site Developer
  4. Construction & Maintenance
    Carpenter; Electrician; Firefighter; Plumber; Security System Installer
  5. Crafts & Related
    Cabinetmaker; Chef/Cook; Jeweler; Tailor/Dressmaker; Winemaker
  6. Manufacturing & Processing
    Printing Press Operator; Sheet Metal Worker; Tool & Die Maker; Water Plant Operator; Welder
  7. Mechanical & Electrical Specialties
    Locksmith; Millwright; Technicians in various fields (for example, Automotive, Avionics, Broadcast, Sound)

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

  1. Engineering & Technologies
    Architect, Engineers (for example, Civil, Mechanical) & Technicians (for example, Energy, Quality Control) in various fields; Production Planner; Surveyor
  2. Natural Science & Technologies
    Biologist; Food Technologist; Geologist; Meteorologist; Physicist
  3. Medical Technologies
    Dietician/Nutritionist; Optician; Pharmacist; Radiographer Technologists in various fields (for example, Medical, Surgical)
  4. Medical Diagnosis & Treatment
    Anesthesiologist; Dentist; Nurse Practitioner; Physical Therapist; Physician; Veterinarian
  5. Social Science
    Anthropologist; Criminologist; Political Scientist; Experimental Psychologist; Sociologist

ARTS

  1. Applied Arts (Visual)
    Animator; Fashion Designer; Graphic Artist (Software); Photographer; Set Designer
  2. Creative & Performing Arts
    Actor; Composer (Music); Dancer/Choreographer; Fashion Model; Musician; Writer/Author
  3. Applied Arts (Written & Spoken)
    Advertising Copywriter; Columnist; Editor; Interpreter; Librarian; Reporter/Journalist

SOCIAL SERVICE

  1. Health Care
    Athletic Trainer; Dental Hygienist; Health Services; Administrator; Psychiatric Technician; Recreational Therapist
  2. Education
    Athletic Coach; College/University Faculty; Educational Administrator; Teachers in various specialties (for example, Art, Foreign Language, Music)
  3. Community Services
    Counselors in various specialties (for example, Mental Health, Rehabilitation); Director (Social Service); Lawyer; Social Worker
  4. Personal Services
    Barber; Flight Attendant; Gaming Occupations Worker; Hairstylist/Cosmetologist

ADMINISTRATION & SALES

  1. Employment-Related Services
    Employee Benefits Manager; Employment Interviewer; Human Resources Manager; Labor Relations Specialist; Training/Education Manager
  2. Marketing & Sales
    Advertising Manager; Buyer; Insurance Agent; Real Estate Agent; Sales/Marketing Manager; Travel Agent
  3. Management
    Financial Manager; Foreign Service Officer; General Manager/Executive; Hotel/Motel Manager; Property/Real Estate Manager
  4. Regulation & Protection
    Customs Inspector; Detective (Police); FBI Agent; Food & Drug Inspector; Park Ranger; Police Officer

BUSINESS OPERATIONS

  1. Communications & Records
    Abstractor; Court Reporter; Hotel Clerk; Medical Record Technician; Title Examiner/Searcher
  2. Financial Transactions
    Accountant/Auditor; Bank Teller; Budget/Credit Analyst; Insurance Underwriter; Real Estate Appraiser; Tax Accountant
  3. Distribution & Dispatching
    Air Traffic Controller; Flight Dispatcher; Mail Carrier; Shipping/Receiving Clerk; Warehouse Supervisor


在职业类型定义清晰后,我们需要对个人的性格特点进行定义和识别,这里使用Holland Types霍兰德职业兴趣,也称为RIASEC测试。点击这里可以进行霍兰德职业兴趣测试

RIASEC代表6种性格和工作环境类型,分别取自下述英文的第一字母:

  • Realistic - practical, physical, hands-on, tool-oriented
  • Investigative - analytical, intellectual, scientific, explorative
  • Artistic - creative, original, independent, chaotic
  • Social - cooperative, supporting, helping, healing/nurturing
  • Enterprising - competitive environments, leadership, persuading
  • Conventional - detail-oriented, organizing, clerical


通过测试获得个人的Holland Type性格类型后,将Holland Type与典型职业类型关联起来,如下图所示:

RIASEC <wbr>& <wbr>World-of-Work <wbr>Map

RIASEC分别对应6个族的职业类型:

Realistic - TECHNICAL

现实型R的共同特点:愿意使用工具从事操作性工作,动手能力强,做事手脚灵活,动作协调。偏好于具体任务,不善言辞,做事保守,较为谦虚。缺乏社交能力,通常喜欢独立做事。 

Investigative -SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

研究型I的共同特点:思想家而非实干家,抽象思维能力强,求知欲强,肯动脑,善思考,不愿动手。喜欢独立的和富有创造性的工作。知识渊博,有学识才能,不善于领导他人。考虑问题理性,做事喜欢精确,喜欢逻辑分析和推理,不断探讨未知的领域。

Artistic - ARTS

艺术型A的共同特点:有创造力,乐于创造新颖、与众不同的成果,渴望表现自己的个性,实现自身的价值。做事理想化,追求完美,不重实际。具有一定的艺术才能和个性。善于表达、怀旧、心态较为复杂。

Social - SOCIAL SERVICE

社会型S的共同特点:喜欢与人交往、不断结交新的朋友、善言谈、愿意教导别人。关心社会问题、渴望发挥自己的社会作用。寻求广泛的人际关系,比较看重社会义务和社会道德。

Enterprising - ADMINISTRATION & SALES

企业型E的共同特点:追求权力、权威和物质财富,具有领导才能。喜欢竞争、敢冒风险、有野心、抱负。为人务实,习惯以利益得失,权利、地位、金钱等来衡量做事的价值,做事有较强的目的性。

Conventional - BUSINESS OPERATIONS

常规型C的共同特点:尊重权威和规章制度,喜欢按计划办事,细心、有条理,习惯接受他人的指挥和领导,自己不谋求领导职务。喜欢关注实际和细节情况,通常较为谨慎和保守,缺乏创造性,不喜欢冒险和竞争,富有自我牺牲精神。


至此,每个人都可以通过霍兰德职业兴趣测试的结果,根据自己的性格特点来选择满意的、符合自己性格特点的和有效发挥自己特长的职业类型。

以我的情况来举例:

RIASEC <wbr>& <wbr>World-of-Work <wbr>Map

适合的职业范围优先选择E和I,更详细的职业细分可参照前面26种典型职业类型列表:

Enterprising - ADMINISTRATION & SALES

- 20. Employment-Related Services 21. Marketing & Sales 22. Management 23. Regulation & Protection

Investigative -SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

- 8. Engineering & Technologies 9. Natural Science & Technologies 10. Medical Technologies 11. Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 12. Social Science

我现在从事的工作性质可归为22. Management,之前从事过8. Engineering & Technologies,自己认为都是擅长的领域。

如果希望进一步确定准确的职业定位,可以参考美国劳工部职业信息网站:霍兰德职业兴趣。我测试结果EIS对应23-1021.00 Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers(法官、仲裁、听证官员)。我想当法官是一个不错的选择,不过在国内法官的要求可能不一样。


声明:以上内容来自ACT(http://www.act.org),受到版权保护。本文仅进行学术研究和分享,转载者请注意不得用于商业用途。ACT的版权警告:

Use: The purpose of this website is to provide information and services related to ACT's programs and services. All materials are provided solely for personal, institutional, or demonstration non-commercial use.
来源:http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_59cf798e0100r9vz.html

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