# poj 3250 Bad Hair Day

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 Time Limit: 2000MS Memory Limit: 65536K Total Submissions: 15968 Accepted: 5395

Description

Some of Farmer John's N cows (1 ≤ N ≤ 80,000) are having a bad hair day! Since each cow is self-conscious about her messy hairstyle, FJ wants to count the number of other cows that can see the top of other cows' heads.

Each cow i has a specified height hi (1 ≤ h≤ 1,000,000,000) and is standing in a line of cows all facing east (to the right in our diagrams). Therefore, cow i can see the tops of the heads of cows in front of her (namely cows i+1, i+2, and so on), for as long as these cows are strictly shorter than cow i.

Consider this example:

        =
=       =
=   -   =         Cows facing right -->
=   =   =
= - = = =
= = = = = =
1 2 3 4 5 6 

Cow#1 can see the hairstyle of cows #2, 3, 4
Cow#2 can see no cow's hairstyle
Cow#3 can see the hairstyle of cow #4
Cow#4 can see no cow's hairstyle
Cow#5 can see the hairstyle of cow 6
Cow#6 can see no cows at all!

Let ci denote the number of cows whose hairstyle is visible from cow i; please compute the sum of c1 through cN.For this example, the desired is answer 3 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 5.

Input

Line 1: The number of cows, N
Lines 2..N+1: Line i+1 contains a single integer that is the height of cow i.

Output

Line 1: A single integer that is the sum of c1 through cN.

Sample Input

6
10
3
7
4
12
2

Sample Output

5

刚开始一直在用循环优化，几乎无奈了，最后万万没想到竟然用的是栈，哎，没想到。。。。
思路： 单调栈-----所谓单调栈也就是每次加入一个新元素时，把栈中小于等于这个值的元素弹出。
接下来回到这道题。求所有牛总共能看到多少牛，可以转化为：这n头牛共能被多少头牛看见。
当我们新加入一个高度值时，如果栈中存在元素小于新加入的高度值，那么这些小的牛肯定看不见这个高度的牛(那就看不见这头牛后边的所有牛)，
所以就可以把这些元素弹出。每次加入新元素，并执行完弹出操作后，栈中元素个数便是可以看见这个牛的“牛数”~~~。

        还要注意long long ..
  贴下代码：
    #include<stdio.h>
#include<iostream>
#include<algorithm>
#include<stack>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int n;

while(scanf("%d",&n)!=EOF)
{
int i,k;
__int64 sum;
sum=0;
stack<int > s;
scanf("%d",&k);
s.push(k);
for(i=1;i<n;i++)
{
scanf("%d",&k);
while(!s.empty() &&k>=s.top())
s.pop();
sum+=s.size();
s.push(k);
}
printf("%I64d\n",sum);
while(!s.empty())
s.pop();
}
}

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