linux下配置php环境

转载 2013年12月05日 18:02:02



一.系统
系统版本                   centos5.0
软件源代码包存放位置      /usr/local/src
源码包编译安装位置(prefix)   /usr/local/software_name
脚本以及维护程序存放位置   /usr/local/sbin
MySQL 数据库位置          /var/lib/mysql
Apache 网站根目录          /home/www/wwwroot
Apache 虚拟主机日志根目录  /home/www/logs
Apache 运行帐户            www:www


关闭不需要的服务
   # ntsysv
   以下仅列出需要启动的服务,未列出的服务一律关闭:
   atd
   crond
   irqbalance
   microcode_ctl
   network
   sendmail
   sshd
   syslog

重新启动系统
   # reboot

使用yum程序安装所需软件包(以下为标准的RPM包名称)
   # yum install ntp vim-enhanced gcc gcc-c++ flex bison autoconf automake bzip2-devel ncurses-devel libjpeg-devel libpng-devel libtiff-devel freetype-devel pam-devel kernel

定时校正服务器时钟,定时与中国国家授时中心授时服务器同步
# crontab -e
加入一行:
*/30 * * * * ntpdate 210.72.145.44

源代码编译安装所需包
(1) GD2
       # cd /usr/local/src
       # wget http://www.libgd.org/releases/oldreleases/gd-2.0.34.tar.gz
       # tar xzvf gd-2.0.34.tar.gz
       # cd gd-2.0.34
       # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/gd2
       # make
       # make install
(2) LibXML2
       # cd /usr/local/src
       # wget ftp://xmlsoft.org/libxml2/libxml2-2.6.29.tar.gz
       # tar xzvf libxml2-2.6.29.tar.gz
       # cd libxml2-2.6.29
       # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/libxml2
       # make
       # make install
(3) LibMcrypt
       # cd /usr/local/src
       #wget http://jaist.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2
       # tar xjvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2
       # cd libmcrypt-2.5.8
       # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/libmcrypt
       # make
       # make install
(4) Apache 日志截断程序
        # cd /usr/local/src
       # wget http://cronolog.org/download/cronolog-1.6.2.tar.gz
       # tar xzvf cronolog-1.6.2.tar.gz
       # cd cronolog-1.6.2
       # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/cronolog
       # make
       # make install

8.升级OpenSSL和OpenSSH
    # cd /usr/local/src
    # wget http://www.openssl.org/source/openssl-0.9.8e.tar.gz
    # wget http://mirror.mcs.anl.gov/openssh/portable/openssh-4.6p1.tar.gz
    # tar xzvf openssl-0.9.8e.tar.gz
    # cd openssl-0.9.8e
    # ./config --prefix=/usr/local/openssl
    # make
    # make test
    # make install
    # cd ..
    # tar xzvf openssh-4.6p1.tar.gz
    # cd openssh-4.6p1
    # ./configure  \
"--prefix=/usr" \
"--with-pam" \
"--with-zlib" \
"--sysconfdir=/etc/ssh" \
"--with-ssl-dir=/usr/local/openssl" \
"--with-md5-passwords"
    # make
    # make install


(5)禁用客户端 GSSAPI
# vi /etc/ssh/ssh_config
找到:
GSSAPIAuthentication yes
将这行注释掉。

最后,确认修改正确后重新启动 SSH 服务
# service sshd restart
# ssh -v 
确认 OpenSSH 以及 OpenSSL 版本正确。

编译安装主控环境
1. 下载软件

2. 编译安装MySQL
    # tar xzvf mysql-5.0.27.tar.gz
    # cd mysql-5.0.27
    # ./configure \
        "--prefix=/usr/local/mysql" \
        "--localstatedir=/var/lib/mysql" \                (注意:/var 分区是否适合?)
         "--with-comment=Source" \
        "--with-server-suffix=-lanmang" \
        "--with-mysqld-user=mysql" \
        "--without-debug" \
        "--with-big-tables" \
        "--with-charset= gbk" \                (此处设置MySQL默认字符集)
         "--with-collation= gbk_chinese_ci" \        (此处设置MySQL校正字符集)
         "--with-extra-charsets=all" \
        "--with-pthread" \
        "--enable-static" \
        "--enable-thread-safe-client" \
        "--with-client-ldflags=-all-static" \
        "--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static" \
        "--enable-assembler" \
        "--without-isam" \
        "--without-innodb" \
        "--without-ndb-debug"
    # make
    # make install
    # useradd mysql
    # cd /usr/local/mysql
    # bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    # chown -R root:mysql .
    # chown -R mysql /var/lib/mysql
    # cp share/mysql/my-huge.cnf /etc/my.cnf
    # cp share/mysql/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
    # chmod 755 /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
    # chkconfig --add mysqld
    # chkconfig --level 3 mysqld on
    # /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld start
    # bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'password_for_root'  (指定mysqlroot密码)

编译安装Apache
    # cd /usr/local/src
    # tar xjvf httpd-2.2.4.tar.bz2
    # cd httpd-2.2.4
    # ./configure \
        "--prefix=/usr/local/apache2" \
        "--with-included-apr" \
        "--enable-so" \
        "--enable-deflate=shared" \
        "--enable-expires=shared" \
        "--enable-rewrite=shared" \
        "--enable-static-support" \
        "--disable-userdir"
    # make
    # make install
    # echo '/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start ' >> /etc/rc.local

4. 编译安装PHP
    # cd /usr/local/src
    # tar xjvf php-5.2.3.tar.bz2
    # cd php-5.2.3
    # ./configure \
        "--prefix=/usr/local/php" \
          "--with-config-file-path=/etc" \
        "--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql" \
        "--with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/libxml2" \
        "--with-gd=/usr/local/gd2" \
        "--with-jpeg-dir" \
        "--with-png-dir" \
        "--with-bz2" \
        "--with-freetype-dir" \
        "--with-iconv-dir" \
        "--with-zlib-dir " \
        "--with-openssl=/usr/local/openssl" \
        "--with-mcrypt=/usr/local/libmcrypt" \
        "--enable-soap" \
        "--enable-gd-native-ttf" \
        "--enable-memory-limit" \
        "--enable-ftp" \
        "--enable-mbstring" \
        "--enable-exif" \
        "--disable-ipv6" \
        "--enable-fastcgi" \
        "--enable-force-cgi-redirect"\
        "--disable-cli"
      "--with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs" \ 
    # make
    # make install
    # mkdir /usr/local/php/etc
    # cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini

安装Zend Optimizer
    # cd /usr/local/src
    # tar xzvf ZendOptimizer-3.2.8-linux-glibc21-i386.tar.gz
    # ./ZendOptimizer-3.2.8-linux-glibc21-i386/install.sh
    安装Zend Optimizer过程的最后不要选择重启Apache。

整合Apache与PHP
    # vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf
找到:
AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz
在该行下面添加
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php

找到:
<IfModule dir_module>
    DirectoryIndex index.html
</IfModule>
将该行改为
<IfModule dir_module>
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm index.php
</IfModule>

找到:
#Include conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf
#Include conf/extra/httpd-info.conf
#Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf
#Include conf/extra/httpd-default.conf
去掉前面的“#”号,取消注释。

注意:以上 4 个扩展配置文件中的设置请按照相关原则进行合理配置!

修改完成后保存退出。
# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl restart

7. 查看确认环境信息、提升 PHP 安全性
   在网站根目录放置 phpinfo.php 脚本,检查phpinfo中的各项信息是否正确。
   #vi phpinfo.php
   <?php
   phpinfo();
   ?>

   确认 PHP 能够正常工作后,在 php.ini 中进行设置提升 PHP 安全性。
   # vi /etc/php.ini
        找到:
        disable_functions =
        设置为:
        phpinfo,system,chroot,escapeshellcmd,escapeshellarg,proc_open,proc_get_status,socket_create,socket_bind,
        socket_listen,socket_accept,socket_write,socket_read


8. eaccelerator
     # tar -jxf eaccelerator-0.9.5.tar.bz2
     # cd eaccelerator-0.9.5
     # /usr/local/php/bin/phpize
     # ./configure     --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config
     # make && make install


三、服务器安全性设置
1. 设置系统防火墙
    # touch /usr/local/sbin/fw.sh
        将以下脚本命令(绿色部分)粘贴到 fw.sh 文件中。

#!/bin/bash

# Stop iptables service first
service iptables stop

# Load FTP Kernel modules
/sbin/modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp
/sbin/modprobe ip_nat_ftp

# Inital chains default policy
/sbin/iptables -F -t filter
/sbin/iptables -P INPUT DROP
/sbin/iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT

# Enable Native Network Transfer
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT

# Accept Established Connections
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

# ICMP Control
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m limit --limit 1/s --limit-burst 10 -j ACCEPT

# WWW Service
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

# FTP Service
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 21 -j ACCEPT

# SSH Service
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT

   # chmod 755 /usr/local/sbin/fw.sh
   # echo '/usr/local/sbin/fw.sh' >> /etc/rc.local
   # /usr/local/sbin/fw.sh


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