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[Timer]PC上8253计时器芯片精确频率到底是多少?

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File:      i8253Clk.txt
Name:      [Timer]PC上8253计时器芯片精确频率到底是多少?
Author:    zyl910
Blog:      http://blog.csdn.net/zyl910/
Version:   V1.0
Updata:    2006-6-3


  很多书上说PC机的8253的计时器#0的输出频率是每秒18.2次(每隔55ms触发一次),但都说这个只是约值,精确值有很长一串小数。计算机应该是靠整数运算的,那些小数值应该只是换算成现实时间的结果。所以我想知道精确的频率,于是查找了大量的资料,结果发现都有一点出入:
1.许多书上所说的(计数器#0)精确值:
  F: 每秒18.2064819336次
  T: 每隔54.925ms。
2.Terrv Dettmann《DOS Programmer's Reference》:
  H: 由系统时钟每秒大约调用18.2次(每小时65536次)。
  D: int 1Ah的00h功能: 该中断获取系统时钟计数器,该计数器从零点开始,每秒计数18.2065次。从零点(midnight)开始的一整天共需计86400秒,这段时间内的计数次数(时钟计数1573040次,经过的时间为86399.9129秒)。
3.Mazid《汇编语言、设计与接口技术》:8284芯片连接到一个14.31818MHz的晶振源,输出的Clr引脚是(8088中)CPU、内存(系统总线)的主频,1/3分频,4.772776MHz。PClk接8253/54计时器,1/6分频,2.386383MHz。在8284与8253之间存在一个72LS175的D触发器,所以频率又除以了2,1.1931817MHz。
4.在某些接口技术的书上说晶振源的频率周期是70ns,与内存速度匹配。
5.在很多计算机上,QueryPerformanceFrequency(Win32 API)的返回值是3579545。3579545 * 4 = 14318180,与3一致。

 

常数分析
~~~~~~~~

  现在对这些常数进行计算分析:

[1F]第1种,根据频率(每秒18.2064819336次)

晶振源频率:18.2064819336Hz * 65536 * 12 = 14,318,160.0000049152Hz
周期:1s / 14,318,160.0000049152Hz = 0.000000069841376266200176256402804053989s = 69.841376266200176256402804053989ns

8253输入频率:18.2064819336Hz * 65536 = 1,193,180.0000004096Hz
周期:1s / 1,193,180.0000004096Hz = 0.00000083809651519440211507683364864787s = 838.09651519440211507683364864787ns

计时器#0输出频率:18.2064819336Hz
周期:1s / 18.2064819336Hz = 0.054925493219780337013675369997787s = 54.925493219780337013675369997787ms

计时器#0触发65536次:(1s / 18.2064819336Hz) * 65536 = 65536s / 18.2064819336Hz = 3599.597123651524166528229048175s
计时器#0触发1573040次:(1s / 18.2064819336Hz) * 1573040 = 1573040s / 18.2064819336Hz = 86399.997854443261335991904021318s


[1T]第1种,根据周期(每隔54.925ms)

晶振源频率:(1s / 54.925ms) * 65536 * 12 = (65536 * 12)s / 0.054925s = 14,318,288.575329995448338643604916Hz
周期:54.925ms / (65536 * 12) = 0.000000069840749104817708333333333333333s = 69.840749104817708333333333333333ns

8253输入频率:(1s / 54.925ms) * 65536 = 65536s / 0.054925s = 1,193,190.7146108329540282203004096Hz
周期:54.925ms / 65536 = 0.0000008380889892578125s = 838.0889892578125ns

计时器#0输出频率:1s / 54.925ms = 18.206645425580336822940373236231Hz
周期:54.925ms

计时器#0触发65536次:54.925ms * 65536 = 3599.5648s
计时器#0触发1573040次:54.925ms * 1573040 = 86399.222s

 

[2H]第2种,根据小时(每小时65536次)

晶振源频率:1s / (3600s / 65536 / 65536 / 12) = (65536 * 65536 * 12)s / 3600s = 14,316,557.653333333333333333333333Hz
周期:3600s / 65536 / 65536 / 12 = 3600s / (65536 * 65536 * 12) = 0.000000069849193096160888671875s = 69.849193096160888671875ns

8253输入频率:1s / (3600s / 65536 / 65536) = (65536*65536)s / 3600s = 1,193,046.4711111111111111111111111Hz
周期:3600s / 65536 / 65536 = 3600s / (65536 * 65536) = 0.0000008381903171539306640625s = 838.1903171539306640625ns

计时器#0输出频率:1s / (3600s / 65536) = 65536s / 3600s = 18.204444444444444444444444444444Hz
周期:3600s / 65536 = 0.054931640625s = 54.931640625ms

计时器#0触发65536次:3600s
计时器#0触发1573040次:(3600s / 65536) * 1573040 = (3600s * 1573040) / 65536 = 86409.66796875s


[2D]第2种,根据天(时钟计数1573040次,经过的时间为86399.9129秒)

晶振源频率:1s / (86399.9129s / 1573040 / 65536 / 12) = (1573040 * 65536 * 12)s / 86399.9129s = 14,318,174.078622248240715529702808Hz
周期:86399.9129s / 1573040 / 65536 / 12 = 86399.9129s / (1573040 * 65536 * 12) = 0.000000069841307593336928084579328349353s = 69.841307593336928084579328349353ns

8253输入频率:1s / (86399.9129s / 1573040 / 65536) = (1573040 * 65536)s / 86399.9129s = 1,193,181.1732185206867262941419007Hz
周期:86399.9129s / 1573040 / 65536 = 86399.9129s / (1573040 * 65536) = 0.00000083809569112004313701495194019224s = 838.09569112004313701495194019224ns

计时器#0输出频率:1s / (86399.9129s / 1573040) = 1573040s / 86399.9129s = 18.206499835487681377049165983592Hz
周期:86399.9129s / 1573040 = 0.054925439213243147027411890352439s = 54.925439213243147027411890352439ms

计时器#0触发65536次:(86399.9129s / 1573040) * 65536Hz = (86399.9129s * 65536) / 1573040 = 3599.5935842791028835884656461374s
计时器#0触发1573040次:86399.9129s

 

[3]第3种(8284芯片连接到一个14.31818MHz的晶振源)

晶振源频率:14.31818MHz = 14,318,180Hz
周期:1s / 14,318,180Hz = 0.000000069841278710003645714748662190306s = 69.841278710003645714748662190306ns

8253输入频率:14,318,180Hz / 12 = 1,193,181.6666666666666666666666667Hz
周期:1s / (14,318,180Hz / 12) = 12s / 14,318,180Hz = 0.00000083809534452004374857698394628368s = 838.09534452004374857698394628368ns

计时器#0输出频率:14,318,180Hz / 12 / 65536 = 14,318,180Hz / (12 * 65536) = 18.206507364908854166666666666667Hz
周期:1s / (14,318,180Hz / 12 / 65536) = (12 * 65536)s / 14,318,180Hz = 0.054925416498465587106741219903647s = 54.925416498465587106741219903647ms

计时器#0触发65536次:(1s / (14,318,180Hz / 12 / 65536)) * 65536 = (12 * 65536 * 65536)s / 14,318,180Hz = 3599.5920956434407166273925876054s
计时器#0触发1573040次:(1s / (14,318,180Hz / 12 / 65536)) * 1573040 = (12 * 65536 * 1573040)s / 14,318,180Hz = 86399.877168746307142388208557233s


[4]第4种(晶振源的频率周期是70ns,与内存速度匹配)

晶振源频率:1s / 0.00000007s = 14,285,714.285714285714285714285714Hz
周期:70ns = 0.00000007s

8253输入频率:1s / (0.00000007s * 12) = 1,190,476.1904761904761904761904762Hz
周期:0.00000007s * 12 = 0.00000084s = 840ns

计时器#0输出频率:1s / (0.00000007s * 12 * 65536) = 18.165225074404761904761904761905Hz
周期:0.00000007s * 12 * 65536 = 0.05505024s = 55.05024ms

计时器#0触发65536次:(0.00000007s * 12 * 65536) * 65536 = 3607.77252864s
计时器#0触发1573040次:(0.00000007s * 12 * 65536) * 1573040 = 86596.2295296s

 

总表
~~~~

  晶振源频率(Hz):
1F: 14,318,160.0000049152
1T: 14,318,288.575329995448338643604916
2H: 14,316,557.653333333333333333333333
2D: 14,318,174.078622248240715529702808
3 : 14,318,180
4 : 14,285,714.285714285714285714285714

  晶振源周期(ns):
1F: 69.841376266200176256402804053989
1T: 69.840749104817708333333333333333
2H: 69.849193096160888671875
2D: 69.841307593336928084579328349353
3 : 69.841278710003645714748662190306
4 : 70

  8253输入频率(Hz):
1F: 1,193,180.0000004096
1T: 1,193,190.7146108329540282203004096
2H: 1,193,046.4711111111111111111111111
2D: 1,193,181.1732185206867262941419007
3 : 1,193,181.6666666666666666666666667
4 : 1,190,476.1904761904761904761904762

  8253输入周期(ns):
1F: 838.09651519440211507683364864787
1T: 838.0889892578125
2H: 838.1903171539306640625
2D: 838.09569112004313701495194019224
3 : 838.09534452004374857698394628368
4 : 840
--: 838.1(《图形程序开发人员指南(Michael Abrash's Graphics Programming Black Book Special Editior)》采用的值)

  计时器#0输出频率(Hz):
1F: 18.2064819336
1T: 18.206645425580336822940373236231
2H: 18.204444444444444444444444444444
2D: 18.206499835487681377049165983592
3 : 18.206507364908854166666666666667
4 : 18.165225074404761904761904761905

  计时器#0输出周期(ms):
1F: 54.925493219780337013675369997787
1T: 54.925
2H: 54.931640625
2D: 54.925439213243147027411890352439
3 : 54.925416498465587106741219903647
4 : 55.05024

  计时器#0触发65536次(s):
1F: 3599.597123651524166528229048175
1T: 3599.5648
2H: 3600
2D: 3599.5935842791028835884656461374
3 : 3599.5920956434407166273925876054
4 : 3607.77252864

  计时器#0触发1573040次(s):
1F: 86399.997854443261335991904021318
1T: 86399.222
2H: 86409.66796875
2D: 86399.9129
3 : 86399.877168746307142388208557233
4 : 86596.2295296

 

结论
~~~~

  个人认为最可信的是《汇编语言、设计与接口技术》上的说法,晶振源频率为14,318,180Hz,因为它跟许多数字吻合。

 

PS: 我一直存在这个疑问,但是一直没有去研究。直到前两天看到风云的一篇文章《不太精准的时钟》(http://blog.codingnow.com/2006/05/iaeeoeo.html)后,才认识到这个问题的严重性,引起我关注这个问题。

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