Redis源码分析 List实现

在版本3.2之前,Redis中的列表是 ziplist 和 linkedlist 实现的,在3.2之后,由quicklist实现。

 

双向链表linkedlist在表的两端进行push和pop操作非常方便,但是地址不连续,而且需要保持额外的指针。
ziplist是连续内存,存储效率高。但不利于修改操作,插入和删除需要重新申请和释放内存。
 

先看quicklist数据结构

/* Node, quicklist, and Iterator are the only data structures used currently. */

/* quicklistNode is a 32 byte struct describing a ziplist for a quicklist.
 * We use bit fields keep the quicklistNode at 32 bytes.
 * count: 16 bits, max 65536 (max zl bytes is 65k, so max count actually < 32k).
 * encoding: 2 bits, RAW=1, LZF=2.
 * container: 2 bits, NONE=1, ZIPLIST=2.
 * recompress: 1 bit, bool, true if node is temporarry decompressed for usage.
 * attempted_compress: 1 bit, boolean, used for verifying during testing.
 * extra: 10 bits, free for future use; pads out the remainder of 32 bits */
typedef struct quicklistNode {
    struct quicklistNode *prev;
    struct quicklistNode *next;
    unsigned char *zl;
    unsigned int sz;             /* ziplist size in bytes */
    unsigned int count : 16;     /* count of items in ziplist */
    unsigned int encoding : 2;   /* RAW==1 or LZF==2 */
    unsigned int container : 2;  /* NONE==1 or ZIPLIST==2 */
    unsigned int recompress : 1; /* was this node previous compressed? */
    unsigned int attempted_compress : 1; /* node can't compress; too small */
    unsigned int extra : 10; /* more bits to steal for future usage */
} quicklistNode;

/* quicklistLZF is a 4+N byte struct holding 'sz' followed by 'compressed'.
 * 'sz' is byte length of 'compressed' field.
 * 'compressed' is LZF data with total (compressed) length 'sz'
 * NOTE: uncompressed length is stored in quicklistNode->sz.
 * When quicklistNode->zl is compressed, node->zl points to a quicklistLZF */
typedef struct quicklistLZF {
    unsigned int sz; /* LZF size in bytes*/
    char compressed[];
} quicklistLZF;

/* quicklist is a 40 byte struct (on 64-bit systems) describing a quicklist.
 * 'count' is the number of total entries.
 * 'len' is the number of quicklist nodes.
 * 'compress' is: -1 if compression disabled, otherwise it's the number
 *                of quicklistNodes to leave uncompressed at ends of quicklist.
 * 'fill' is the user-requested (or default) fill factor. */
typedef struct quicklist {
    quicklistNode *head;
    quicklistNode *tail;
    unsigned long count;        /* total count of all entries in all ziplists */
    unsigned long len;          /* number of quicklistNodes */
    int fill : 16;              /* fill factor for individual nodes */
    unsigned int compress : 16; /* depth of end nodes not to compress;0=off */
} quicklist;

quicklist数据结构说明

fill是ziplist大小

compress是节点压缩深度

 

quicklistNode 数据结构说明

*zl是数据指针,如果没有被压缩,就指向ziplist,否则指向quicklistLZF 

count是ziplist的数据个数

encoding : 2; 编码方式,1:ziplist,2:quicklistLZF

 

quicklist整体数据结构图

 PUSH操作

/*-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * List Commands
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

void pushGenericCommand(client *c, int where) {
    int j, pushed = 0;
    robj *lobj = lookupKeyWrite(c->db,c->argv[1]);

    if (lobj && lobj->type != OBJ_LIST) {
        addReply(c,shared.wrongtypeerr);
        return;
    }

    for (j = 2; j < c->argc; j++) {
        if (!lobj) {
            lobj = createQuicklistObject();
            quicklistSetOptions(lobj->ptr, server.list_max_ziplist_size,
                                server.list_compress_depth);
            dbAdd(c->db,c->argv[1],lobj);
        }
        listTypePush(lobj,c->argv[j],where);
        pushed++;
    }
    addReplyLongLong(c, (lobj ? listTypeLength(lobj) : 0));
    if (pushed) {
        char *event = (where == LIST_HEAD) ? "lpush" : "rpush";

        signalModifiedKey(c->db,c->argv[1]);
        notifyKeyspaceEvent(NOTIFY_LIST,event,c->argv[1],c->db->id);
    }
    server.dirty += pushed;
}

void lpushCommand(client *c) {
    pushGenericCommand(c,LIST_HEAD);
}

void rpushCommand(client *c) {
    pushGenericCommand(c,LIST_TAIL);
}

lpush和rpush操作都是调用pushGenericCommand

pushGenericCommand调用listTypePush

/*-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * List API
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/* The function pushes an element to the specified list object 'subject',
 * at head or tail position as specified by 'where'.
 *
 * There is no need for the caller to increment the refcount of 'value' as
 * the function takes care of it if needed. */
void listTypePush(robj *subject, robj *value, int where) {
    if (subject->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_QUICKLIST) {
        int pos = (where == LIST_HEAD) ? QUICKLIST_HEAD : QUICKLIST_TAIL;
        value = getDecodedObject(value);
        size_t len = sdslen(value->ptr);
        quicklistPush(subject->ptr, value->ptr, len, pos);
        decrRefCount(value);
    } else {
        serverPanic("Unknown list encoding");
    }
}

quicklistPush和quicklistPop

/* Default pop function
 *
 * Returns malloc'd value from quicklist */
int quicklistPop(quicklist *quicklist, int where, unsigned char **data,
                 unsigned int *sz, long long *slong) {
    unsigned char *vstr;
    unsigned int vlen;
    long long vlong;
    if (quicklist->count == 0)
        return 0;
    int ret = quicklistPopCustom(quicklist, where, &vstr, &vlen, &vlong,
                                 _quicklistSaver);
    if (data)
        *data = vstr;
    if (slong)
        *slong = vlong;
    if (sz)
        *sz = vlen;
    return ret;
}

/* Wrapper to allow argument-based switching between HEAD/TAIL pop */
void quicklistPush(quicklist *quicklist, void *value, const size_t sz,
                   int where) {
    if (where == QUICKLIST_HEAD) {
        quicklistPushHead(quicklist, value, sz);
    } else if (where == QUICKLIST_TAIL) {
        quicklistPushTail(quicklist, value, sz);
    }
}

quicklistPushHead和quicklistPushTail 

/* Add new entry to head node of quicklist.
 *
 * Returns 0 if used existing head.
 * Returns 1 if new head created. */
int quicklistPushHead(quicklist *quicklist, void *value, size_t sz) {
    quicklistNode *orig_head = quicklist->head;
    if (likely(
            _quicklistNodeAllowInsert(quicklist->head, quicklist->fill, sz))) {
        quicklist->head->zl =
            ziplistPush(quicklist->head->zl, value, sz, ZIPLIST_HEAD);
        quicklistNodeUpdateSz(quicklist->head);
    } else {
        quicklistNode *node = quicklistCreateNode();
        node->zl = ziplistPush(ziplistNew(), value, sz, ZIPLIST_HEAD);

        quicklistNodeUpdateSz(node);
        _quicklistInsertNodeBefore(quicklist, quicklist->head, node);
    }
    quicklist->count++;
    quicklist->head->count++;
    return (orig_head != quicklist->head);
}

/* Add new entry to tail node of quicklist.
 *
 * Returns 0 if used existing tail.
 * Returns 1 if new tail created. */
int quicklistPushTail(quicklist *quicklist, void *value, size_t sz) {
    quicklistNode *orig_tail = quicklist->tail;
    if (likely(
            _quicklistNodeAllowInsert(quicklist->tail, quicklist->fill, sz))) {
        quicklist->tail->zl =
            ziplistPush(quicklist->tail->zl, value, sz, ZIPLIST_TAIL);
        quicklistNodeUpdateSz(quicklist->tail);
    } else {
        quicklistNode *node = quicklistCreateNode();
        node->zl = ziplistPush(ziplistNew(), value, sz, ZIPLIST_TAIL);

        quicklistNodeUpdateSz(node);
        _quicklistInsertNodeAfter(quicklist, quicklist->tail, node);
    }
    quicklist->count++;
    quicklist->tail->count++;
    return (orig_tail != quicklist->tail);
}

最重要就是这一行代码:

 ziplistPush

unsigned char *ziplistPush(unsigned char *zl, unsigned char *s, unsigned int slen, int where) {
    unsigned char *p;
    p = (where == ZIPLIST_HEAD) ? ZIPLIST_ENTRY_HEAD(zl) : ZIPLIST_ENTRY_END(zl);
    return __ziplistInsert(zl,p,s,slen);
}

__ziplistInsert在 ziplist.c太长了不贴代码了。

 

关于LZF压缩算法是第三方的,redis直接引用了。

LZF的压缩算法,该算法用于对quicklist的节点进行压缩操作。list的设计目的是能够存放很长的数据列表,当列表很长时,必然会占用很高的内存空间,且list中最容易访问的是两端的数据,中间的数据访问率较低,于是就可以从这个出发点来进一步节省内存用于其他操作。

lzh.h

/*
 * Copyright (c) 2000-2008 Marc Alexander Lehmann <schmorp@schmorp.de>
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modifica-
 * tion, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
 *
 *   1.  Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
 *       this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *
 *   2.  Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *       documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
 * WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MER-
 * CHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO
 * EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPE-
 * CIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
 * PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS;
 * OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY,
 * WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTH-
 * ERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED
 * OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 *
 * Alternatively, the contents of this file may be used under the terms of
 * the GNU General Public License ("GPL") version 2 or any later version,
 * in which case the provisions of the GPL are applicable instead of
 * the above. If you wish to allow the use of your version of this file
 * only under the terms of the GPL and not to allow others to use your
 * version of this file under the BSD license, indicate your decision
 * by deleting the provisions above and replace them with the notice
 * and other provisions required by the GPL. If you do not delete the
 * provisions above, a recipient may use your version of this file under
 * either the BSD or the GPL.
 */

#ifndef LZF_H
#define LZF_H

/***********************************************************************
**
**	lzf -- an extremely fast/free compression/decompression-method
**	http://liblzf.plan9.de/
**
**	This algorithm is believed to be patent-free.
**
***********************************************************************/

#define LZF_VERSION 0x0105 /* 1.5, API version */

/*
 * Compress in_len bytes stored at the memory block starting at
 * in_data and write the result to out_data, up to a maximum length
 * of out_len bytes.
 *
 * If the output buffer is not large enough or any error occurs return 0,
 * otherwise return the number of bytes used, which might be considerably
 * more than in_len (but less than 104% of the original size), so it
 * makes sense to always use out_len == in_len - 1), to ensure _some_
 * compression, and store the data uncompressed otherwise (with a flag, of
 * course.
 *
 * lzf_compress might use different algorithms on different systems and
 * even different runs, thus might result in different compressed strings
 * depending on the phase of the moon or similar factors. However, all
 * these strings are architecture-independent and will result in the
 * original data when decompressed using lzf_decompress.
 *
 * The buffers must not be overlapping.
 *
 * If the option LZF_STATE_ARG is enabled, an extra argument must be
 * supplied which is not reflected in this header file. Refer to lzfP.h
 * and lzf_c.c.
 *
 */
unsigned int
lzf_compress (const void *const in_data,  unsigned int in_len,
              void             *out_data, unsigned int out_len);

/*
 * Decompress data compressed with some version of the lzf_compress
 * function and stored at location in_data and length in_len. The result
 * will be stored at out_data up to a maximum of out_len characters.
 *
 * If the output buffer is not large enough to hold the decompressed
 * data, a 0 is returned and errno is set to E2BIG. Otherwise the number
 * of decompressed bytes (i.e. the original length of the data) is
 * returned.
 *
 * If an error in the compressed data is detected, a zero is returned and
 * errno is set to EINVAL.
 *
 * This function is very fast, about as fast as a copying loop.
 */
unsigned int
lzf_decompress (const void *const in_data,  unsigned int in_len,
                void             *out_data, unsigned int out_len);

#endif

扩展阅读参考:

https://blog.csdn.net/belalds/article/details/91976367

https://blog.csdn.net/harleylau/article/details/80534159

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