HttpClient工具类1

最近在工作中需要在后台调用短信接口,经过研究决定使用HttpClient,自己封装了一个HttpClient工具类,简单轻松的实现get,post,put和delete请求,希望分享给大家。

1. 什么是HttpClient

HTTP 协议可能是现在 Internet 上使用得最多、最重要的协议了,越来越多的 Java 应用程序需要直接通过 HTTP 协议来访问网络资源。虽然在 JDK 的 java net包中已经提供了访问 HTTP 协议的基本功能,但是对于大部分应用程序来说,JDK 库本身提供的功能还不够丰富和灵活。HttpClient 是Apache HttpComponents 下的子项目,用来提供高效的、最新的、功能丰富的支持 HTTP 协议的客户端编程工具包,并且它支持 HTTP 协议最新的版本和建议。

2. 功能介绍

  • 实现了所有 HTTP 的方法(GET,POST,PUT,DELETE 等)
  • 支持自动转向
  • 支持 HTTPS 协议
  • 支持代理服务器等

3. 版本比较

注意本篇博客主要是基于 HttpClient4.5.5 版本的来讲解的,也是现在最新的版本,之所以要提供版本说明的是因为 HttpClient 3 版本和 HttpClient 4 版本差别还是很多大的,基本HttpClient里面的接口都变了,你把 HttpClient 3 版本的代码拿到 HttpClient 4 上面都运行不起来,会报错的。所以一定要注意 HtppClient 的版本问题。

4. HttpClient不能做的事情

HttpClient 不是浏览器,它是一个客户端 HTTP 协议传输类库。HttpClient 被用来发送和接受 HTTP 消息。HttpClient 不会处理 HTTP 消息的内容,不会进行 javascript 解析,不会关心 content type,如果没有明确设置,HttpClient 也不会对请求进行格式化、重定向 url,或者其他任何和 HTTP 消息传输相关的功能。

5. HttpClient使用流程

使用HttpClient发送请求、接收响应很简单,一般需要如下几步即可。

  1. 创建HttpClient对象。
  2. 创建请求方法的实例,并指定请求URL。如果需要发送GET请求,创建HttpGet对象;如果需要发送POST请求,创建HttpPost对象。
  3. 如果需要发送请求参数,可调用HttpGetsetParams方法来添加请求参数;对于HttpPost对象而言,可调用setEntity(HttpEntity entity)方法来设置请求参数。
  4. 调用HttpClient对象的execute(HttpUriRequest request)发送请求,该方法返回一个HttpResponse对象。
  5. 调用HttpResponse的getAllHeaders()、getHeaders(String name)等方法可获取服务器的响应头;调用HttpResponse的getEntity()方法可获取HttpEntity对象,该对象包装了服务器的响应内容。程序可通过该对象获取服务器的响应内容。
  6. 释放连接。无论执行方法是否成功,都必须释放连接

6. HttpClient工具类

本项目采用spring-boot构建,话不多说,上代码

优秀

6.1 添加依赖

<properties>
        <httpclient.version>4.5.5</httpclient.version>

        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <!-- springboot的web和test启动库 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- apache httpclient组件 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
            <artifactId>httpclient</artifactId>
        </dependency>

    </dependencies>

    <build>
        <finalName>${project.artifactId}</finalName>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
            <!-- 跳过单元测试 -->
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <skipTests>true</skipTests>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

6.2 编写spring-boot启动类

/**
 * Description: springboot启动类
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
    }

}

6.3 编写get和post请求测试controller

/**
 * Description: get和post请求测试controller
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/hello")
public class HelloWorldController {

    @GetMapping("/get")
    public String get() throws InterruptedException {
        return "get无参请求成功";
    }

    @GetMapping("/getWithParam")
    public String getWithParam(@RequestParam String message) {
        return "get带参请求成功,参数message: " + message;
    }

    @PostMapping("/post")
    public String post(@RequestHeader("User-Agent") String userAgent,
            @RequestHeader("Accept") String accept,
            @RequestHeader("Accept-Language") String acceptLanguage,
            @RequestHeader("Accept-Encoding") String acceptEncoding,
            @RequestHeader("Cookie") String cookie,
            @RequestHeader("Connection") String conn) {
        // 打印请求头信息
        System.out.println("Cookie = " + cookie);
        System.out.println("Connection = " + conn);
        System.out.println("Accept = " + accept);
        System.out.println("Accept-Language = " + acceptLanguage);
        System.out.println("Accept-Encoding = " + acceptEncoding);
        System.out.println("User-Agent = " + userAgent);
        
        return "post无参请求成功";
    }

    @PostMapping("/postWithParam")
    public String postWithParam(@RequestParam String code, @RequestParam String message) {
        return "post带参请求成功,参数code: " + code + ",参数message: " + message;
    }

}

6.4 创建httpClient响应结果对象

/**
 * Description: 封装httpClient响应结果
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
public class HttpClientResult implements Serializable {

    /**
     * 响应状态码
     */
    private int code;

    /**
     * 响应数据
     */
    private String content;

}

6.5 重点,编写httpclient工具类

/**
 * Description: httpClient工具类
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
public class HttpClientUtils {

    // 编码格式。发送编码格式统一用UTF-8
    private static final String ENCODING = "UTF-8";
    
    // 设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒。
    private static final int CONNECT_TIMEOUT = 6000;
    
    // 请求获取数据的超时时间(即响应时间),单位毫秒。
    private static final int SOCKET_TIMEOUT = 6000;

    /**
     * 发送get请求;不带请求头和请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doGet(String url) throws Exception {
        return doGet(url, null, null);
    }
    
    /**
     * 发送get请求;带请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @param params 请求参数集合
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doGet(String url, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
        return doGet(url, null, params);
    }

    /**
     * 发送get请求;带请求头和请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @param headers 请求头集合
     * @param params 请求参数集合
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doGet(String url, Map<String, String> headers, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
        // 创建httpClient对象
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();

        // 创建访问的地址
        URIBuilder uriBuilder = new URIBuilder(url);
        if (params != null) {
            Set<Entry<String, String>> entrySet = params.entrySet();
            for (Entry<String, String> entry : entrySet) {
                uriBuilder.setParameter(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
            }
        }

        // 创建http对象
        HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(uriBuilder.build());
        /**
         * setConnectTimeout:设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒。
         * setConnectionRequestTimeout:设置从connect Manager(连接池)获取Connection
         * 超时时间,单位毫秒。这个属性是新加的属性,因为目前版本是可以共享连接池的。
         * setSocketTimeout:请求获取数据的超时时间(即响应时间),单位毫秒。 如果访问一个接口,多少时间内无法返回数据,就直接放弃此次调用。
         */
        RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
        httpGet.setConfig(requestConfig);
        
        // 设置请求头
        packageHeader(headers, httpGet);

        // 创建httpResponse对象
        CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;

        try {
            // 执行请求并获得响应结果
            return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpGet);
        } finally {
            // 释放资源
            release(httpResponse, httpClient);
        }
    }

    /**
     * 发送post请求;不带请求头和请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doPost(String url) throws Exception {
        return doPost(url, null, null);
    }
    
    /**
     * 发送post请求;带请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @param params 参数集合
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doPost(String url, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
        return doPost(url, null, params);
    }

    /**
     * 发送post请求;带请求头和请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @param headers 请求头集合
     * @param params 请求参数集合
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doPost(String url, Map<String, String> headers, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
        // 创建httpClient对象
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();

        // 创建http对象
        HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
        /**
         * setConnectTimeout:设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒。
         * setConnectionRequestTimeout:设置从connect Manager(连接池)获取Connection
         * 超时时间,单位毫秒。这个属性是新加的属性,因为目前版本是可以共享连接池的。
         * setSocketTimeout:请求获取数据的超时时间(即响应时间),单位毫秒。 如果访问一个接口,多少时间内无法返回数据,就直接放弃此次调用。
         */
        RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
        httpPost.setConfig(requestConfig);
        // 设置请求头
        /*httpPost.setHeader("Cookie", "");
        httpPost.setHeader("Connection", "keep-alive");
        httpPost.setHeader("Accept", "application/json");
        httpPost.setHeader("Accept-Language", "zh-CN,zh;q=0.9");
        httpPost.setHeader("Accept-Encoding", "gzip, deflate, br");
        httpPost.setHeader("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/65.0.3325.181 Safari/537.36");*/
        packageHeader(headers, httpPost);
        
        // 封装请求参数
        packageParam(params, httpPost);

        // 创建httpResponse对象
        CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;

        try {
            // 执行请求并获得响应结果
            return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpPost);
        } finally {
            // 释放资源
            release(httpResponse, httpClient);
        }
    }

    /**
     * 发送put请求;不带请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @param params 参数集合
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doPut(String url) throws Exception {
        return doPut(url);
    }

    /**
     * 发送put请求;带请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @param params 参数集合
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doPut(String url, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
        HttpPut httpPut = new HttpPut(url);
        RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
        httpPut.setConfig(requestConfig);
        
        packageParam(params, httpPut);

        CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;

        try {
            return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpPut);
        } finally {
            release(httpResponse, httpClient);
        }
    }

    /**
     * 发送delete请求;不带请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @param params 参数集合
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doDelete(String url) throws Exception {
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
        HttpDelete httpDelete = new HttpDelete(url);
        RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
        httpDelete.setConfig(requestConfig);

        CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;
        try {
            return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpDelete);
        } finally {
            release(httpResponse, httpClient);
        }
    }

    /**
     * 发送delete请求;带请求参数
     * 
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @param params 参数集合
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult doDelete(String url, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
        if (params == null) {
            params = new HashMap<String, String>();
        }

        params.put("_method", "delete");
        return doPost(url, params);
    }
    
    /**
     * Description: 封装请求头
     * @param params
     * @param httpMethod
     */
    public static void packageHeader(Map<String, String> params, HttpRequestBase httpMethod) {
        // 封装请求头
        if (params != null) {
            Set<Entry<String, String>> entrySet = params.entrySet();
            for (Entry<String, String> entry : entrySet) {
                // 设置到请求头到HttpRequestBase对象中
                httpMethod.setHeader(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Description: 封装请求参数
     * 
     * @param params
     * @param httpMethod
     * @throws UnsupportedEncodingException
     */
    public static void packageParam(Map<String, String> params, HttpEntityEnclosingRequestBase httpMethod)
            throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
        // 封装请求参数
        if (params != null) {
            List<NameValuePair> nvps = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>();
            Set<Entry<String, String>> entrySet = params.entrySet();
            for (Entry<String, String> entry : entrySet) {
                nvps.add(new BasicNameValuePair(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue()));
            }

            // 设置到请求的http对象中
            httpMethod.setEntity(new UrlEncodedFormEntity(nvps, ENCODING));
        }
    }

    /**
     * Description: 获得响应结果
     * 
     * @param httpResponse
     * @param httpClient
     * @param httpMethod
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static HttpClientResult getHttpClientResult(CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse,
            CloseableHttpClient httpClient, HttpRequestBase httpMethod) throws Exception {
        // 执行请求
        httpResponse = httpClient.execute(httpMethod);

        // 获取返回结果
        if (httpResponse != null && httpResponse.getStatusLine() != null) {
            String content = "";
            if (httpResponse.getEntity() != null) {
                content = EntityUtils.toString(httpResponse.getEntity(), ENCODING);
            }
            return new HttpClientResult(httpResponse.getStatusLine().getStatusCode(), content);
        }
        return new HttpClientResult(HttpStatus.SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
    }

    /**
     * Description: 释放资源
     * 
     * @param httpResponse
     * @param httpClient
     * @throws IOException
     */
    public static void release(CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse, CloseableHttpClient httpClient) throws IOException {
        // 释放资源
        if (httpResponse != null) {
            httpResponse.close();
        }
        if (httpClient != null) {
            httpClient.close();
        }
    }

}

6.6 启动spring-boot,测试get、post请求

/**
 * Description: HttpClientUtils工具类测试
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
public class HttpClientUtilsTest {

    /**
     * Description: 测试get无参请求
     * 
     * @throws Exception
     */
    @Test
    public void testGet() throws Exception {
        HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doGet("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/get");
        System.out.println(result);
    }

    /**
     * Description: 测试get带参请求
     * 
     * @throws Exception
     */
    @Test
    public void testGetWithParam() throws Exception {
        Map<String, String> params = new HashMap<String, String>();
        params.put("message", "helloworld");
        HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doGet("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/getWithParam", params);
        System.out.println(result);
    }

    /**
     * Description: 测试post带请求头不带请求参数
     * 
     * @throws Exception
     */
    @Test
    public void testPost() throws Exception {
        Map<String, String> headers = new HashMap<String, String>();
        headers.put("Cookie", "123");
        headers.put("Connection", "keep-alive");
        headers.put("Accept", "application/json");
        headers.put("Accept-Language", "zh-CN,zh;q=0.9");
        headers.put("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/65.0.3325.181 Safari/537.36");
        HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doPost("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/post", headers, null);
        System.out.println(result);
    }

    /**
     * Description: 测试post带参请求
     * 
     * @throws Exception
     */
    @Test
    public void testPostWithParam() throws Exception {
        Map<String, String> params = new HashMap<String, String>();
        params.put("code", "0");
        params.put("message", "helloworld");
        HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doPost("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/postWithParam", params);
        System.out.println(result);
    }

}

完整代码下载链接



作者:JourWon
链接:https://www.jianshu.com/p/9504ecc7abad

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