比特币(BSV)知识库:交易-双重支付(Double-spending)

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双重支付

定义

“双重支付”是指一种通过生成一笔包含已经花费的输入的交易,而试图在网络上进行欺诈的行为。

后果

“双重支付”是比特币系统中最常见的攻击之一,但迄今为止还没有使用比特币在商业中实施“双重支付”的成功案例。

其原因是,“双重支付”是一种类似于故意拒付支票的犯罪,然而在比特币系统当中,当顾客试图发起双重支付的时候,商家可以通过密码学来验证并防止这样的事情发生。

经济激励措施

比特币系统通过其经济激励机制解决了“双重支付”问题。矿工有强烈的动机拒绝将“双花”交易打包到区块中,因为如果这样做,他们承担着区块被其他矿工拒绝的风险;此外这种行为还可能被定性为犯罪。

这也就说明了比特币系统是通过经济手段解决了“双重支付”问题,而不是通过技术方案。过去很多技术开发人员曾就此展开争论,认为必须修改协议才能解决“双重支付”问题,但这些论争已被认为是没有必要的

Double-spending

Definition

Double-spending is the act of sending a transaction containing inputs that have already been spent, in an attempt to commit fraud on the network.

Consequences

Double spends are one of the most commonly discussed attacks on Bitcoin, however there has yet to be a documented case of someone executing a successful double-spend using Bitcoin in commerce.

The reason for this is that double-spending is a crime and analogous to intentionally bouncing a check - the difference is that the merchant would have cryptographic proof that the customer attempted such an act.

Economic incentives

Bitcoin solves the double-spending problem via its economic incentives. Miners have a strong incentive not to include these transactions in a block because they are at risk of having their block rejected by other Miners, and in addition, would be complicit in carrying out a crime.

These factors highlight why the solution to double-spending is an economic solution, not a technical one. Many arguments have been made by developers in the past that changes are necessary to the protocol to fix this issue, but they have been deemed unnecessary.

声明:

比特币(BSV)知识库项目由比特币协会(Bitcoin Association)发起并支持,更多信息请参见知识库官网:https://wiki.bitcoinsv.io/


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