基于以太坊的投票系统(Solidity by Example —— Voting)

原文如下
pragma solidity ^0.4.16;

/// @title Voting with delegation.
contract Ballot {
    // This declares a new complex type which will
    // be used for variables later.
    // It will represent a single voter.
    struct Voter {
        uint weight; // weight is accumulated by delegation
        bool voted;  // if true, that person already voted
        address delegate; // person delegated to
        uint vote;   // index of the voted proposal
    }

    // This is a type for a single proposal.
    struct Proposal {
        bytes32 name;   // short name (up to 32 bytes)
        uint voteCount; // number of accumulated votes
    }

    address public chairperson;

    // This declares a state variable that
    // stores a `Voter` struct for each possible address.
    mapping(address => Voter) public voters;

    // A dynamically-sized array of `Proposal` structs.
    Proposal[] public proposals;

    /// Create a new ballot to choose one of `proposalNames`.
    function Ballot(bytes32[] proposalNames) public {
        chairperson = msg.sender;
        voters[chairperson].weight = 1;

        // For each of the provided proposal names,
        // create a new proposal object and add it
        // to the end of the array.
        for (uint i = 0; i < proposalNames.length; i++) {
            // `Proposal({...})` creates a temporary
            // Proposal object and `proposals.push(...)`
            // appends it to the end of `proposals`.
            proposals.push(Proposal({
                name: proposalNames[i],
                voteCount: 0
            }));
        }
    }

    // Give `voter` the right to vote on this ballot.
    // May only be called by `chairperson`.
    function giveRightToVote(address voter) public {
        // If the argument of `require` evaluates to `false`,
        // it terminates and reverts all changes to
        // the state and to Ether balances. It is often
        // a good idea to use this if functions are
        // called incorrectly. But watch out, this
        // will currently also consume all provided gas
        // (this is planned to change in the future).
        require(
            (msg.sender == chairperson) &&
            !voters[voter].voted &&
            (voters[voter].weight == 0)
        );
        voters[voter].weight = 1;
    }

    /// Delegate your vote to the voter `to`.
    function delegate(address to) public {
        // assigns reference
        Voter storage sender = voters[msg.sender];
        require(!sender.voted);

        // Self-delegation is not allowed.
        require(to != msg.sender);

        // Forward the delegation as long as
        // `to` also delegated.
        // In general, such loops are very dangerous,
        // because if they run too long, they might
        // need more gas than is available in a block.
        // In this case, the delegation will not be executed,
        // but in other situations, such loops might
        // cause a contract to get "stuck" completely.
        while (voters[to].delegate != address(0)) {
            to = voters[to].delegate;

            // We found a loop in the delegation, not allowed.
            require(to != msg.sender);
        }

        // Since `sender` is a reference, this
        // modifies `voters[msg.sender].voted`
        sender.voted = true;
        sender.delegate = to;
        Voter storage delegate_ = voters[to];
        if (delegate_.voted) {
            // If the delegate already voted,
            // directly add to the number of votes
            proposals[delegate_.vote].voteCount += sender.weight;
        } else {
            // If the delegate did not vote yet,
            // add to her weight.
            delegate_.weight += sender.weight;
        }
    }

    /// Give your vote (including votes delegated to you)
    /// to proposal `proposals[proposal].name`.
    function vote(uint proposal) public {
        Voter storage sender = voters[msg.sender];
        require(!sender.voted);
        sender.voted = true;
        sender.vote = proposal;

        // If `proposal` is out of the range of the array,
        // this will throw automatically and revert all
        // changes.
        proposals[proposal].voteCount += sender.weight;
    }

    /// @dev Computes the winning proposal taking all
    /// previous votes into account.
    function winningProposal() public view
            returns (uint winningProposal_)
    {
        uint winningVoteCount = 0;
        for (uint p = 0; p < proposals.length; p++) {
            if (proposals[p].voteCount > winningVoteCount) {
                winningVoteCount = proposals[p].voteCount;
                winningProposal_ = p;
            }
        }
    }

    // Calls winningProposal() function to get the index
    // of the winner contained in the proposals array and then
    // returns the name of the winner
    function winnerName() public view
            returns (bytes32 winnerName_)
    {
        winnerName_ = proposals[winningProposal()].name;
    }
}

中文注释:

pragma solidity ^0.4.16;  //注释Solidity版本


//合约名
contract Ballot {
    // 投票者结构体
    struct Voter {
        uint weight; // 份额(既拥有多少票)
        bool voted;  // 是否已经投票
        address delegate; // 委任谁进行投票
        uint vote;   // 第几个投票议案
    }

    // 议案机构体
    struct Proposal {
        bytes32 name;   // 议案名(最多32字节)
        uint voteCount; // 累计投票数
    }

    address public chairperson; //投票主持人

    // 投票者与其地址的映射
    mapping(address => Voter) public voters;

    // 提案指针
    Proposal[] public proposals;

    /// Ballot函数,创建新投票,输入多个议案名
    function Ballot(bytes32[] proposalNames) public {
        chairperson = msg.sender;
        voters[chairperson].weight = 1;

        for (uint i = 0; i < proposalNames.length; i++) {
            // `Proposal({...})` 创建一个临时Proposal对象
            proposals.push(Proposal({
                name: proposalNames[i],
                voteCount: 0
            }));
        }
    }

    //输入投票者地址,给予投票者投票权限
    function giveRightToVote(address voter) public {
        // require防止函数被错误调用,判断为错误时终止调用
        // 并恢复到调用前的状态,但是注意会消耗gas
        require(
            (msg.sender == chairperson) &&
            !voters[voter].voted &&
            (voters[voter].weight == 0)
        );
        voters[voter].weight = 1;
    }

    /// 输入他人地址,委任他人投票
    function delegate(address to) public {
        Voter storage sender = voters[msg.sender];
        require(!sender.voted);

        // 不允许委任自己
        require(to != msg.sender);

        // 循环委任直至被委任人不再委任他人,
        // 但注意这种循环是危险的,有可能耗尽gas来进行计算。
        while (voters[to].delegate != address(0)) {
            to = voters[to].delegate;

            // 避免循环委任,形成委任环链
            require(to != msg.sender);
        }

        // 此处sender为voters[msg.sender]
        sender.voted = true;
        sender.delegate = to;
        Voter storage delegate_ = voters[to];
        if (delegate_.voted) {
            // 如果被委任人已经投票,直接增加该议案票数
            proposals[delegate_.vote].voteCount += sender.weight;
        } else {
            // 如果被委任人未投票,增加被委任人持有票数
            delegate_.weight += sender.weight;
        }
    }

    /// 向议案投票
    function vote(uint proposal) public {
        Voter storage sender = voters[msg.sender];
        require(!sender.voted);
        sender.voted = true;
        sender.vote = proposal;

        // 提案超出数组范围时自动中断并恢复所以修改
        proposals[proposal].voteCount += sender.weight;
    }

    /// 返回获得票数最高的议案索引
    function winningProposal() public view
            returns (uint winningProposal_)
    {
        uint winningVoteCount = 0;
        for (uint p = 0; p < proposals.length; p++) {
            if (proposals[p].voteCount > winningVoteCount) {
                winningVoteCount = proposals[p].voteCount;
                winningProposal_ = p;
            }
        }
    }

    // 返回获得票数最高的议案名
    function winnerName() public view
            returns (bytes32 winnerName_)
    {
        winnerName_ = proposals[winningProposal()].name;
    }
}
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