SQL练习48题(SQLServer版本)

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写在最前面

最近复习了一遍数据库的知识以及相关的SQL查询语句,复习完找了一下网上常见的关于SQL的练习题目,一共50题,在这里记录一下,也当自己以后的复习使用。

数据准备

建表

总共4张表,包括学生、成绩、科目和教师,建表SQL如下:

-- 学生表
if OBJECT_ID('student') is not null drop table student;
create table student(
	s_id varchar(20) not null,
	s_name varchar(20) not null default '',
	s_birth varchar(20) not null default '',
	s_sex varchar(10) not null default '男',
	primary key(s_id)
);
-- 成绩表
if OBJECT_ID('score') is not null drop table score;
CREATE TABLE score(
	s_id VARCHAR(20),
	c_id  VARCHAR(20),
	s_score INT,
	PRIMARY KEY(s_id,c_id)
);
-- 教师表
if OBJECT_ID('teacher') is not null drop table teacher;
CREATE TABLE teacher(
	t_id VARCHAR(20),
	t_name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
	PRIMARY KEY(t_id)
);
--课程表
if OBJECT_ID('course') is not null drop table course;
CREATE TABLE course(
	c_id  VARCHAR(20),
	c_name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
	t_id VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
	PRIMARY KEY(c_id)
);

数据插入

--插入学生表测试数据
insert into Student values('01' , '赵雷' , '1990-01-01' , '男');
insert into Student values('02' , '钱电' , '1990-12-21' , '男');
insert into Student values('03' , '孙风' , '1990-05-20' , '男');
insert into Student values('04' , '李云' , '1990-08-06' , '男');
insert into Student values('05' , '周梅' , '1991-12-01' , '女');
insert into Student values('06' , '吴兰' , '1992-03-01' , '女');
insert into Student values('07' , '郑竹' , '1989-07-01' , '女');
insert into Student values('08' , '王菊' , '1990-01-20' , '女');
--课程表测试数据
insert into Course values('01' , '语文' , '02');
insert into Course values('02' , '数学' , '01');
insert into Course values('03' , '英语' , '03');
--教师表测试数据
insert into teacher values('01' , '张三');
insert into teacher values('02' , '李四');
insert into teacher values('03' , '王五');
--成绩表测试数据
insert into Score values('01' , '01' , 80);
insert into Score values('01' , '02' , 90);
insert into Score values('01' , '03' , 99);
insert into Score values('02' , '01' , 70);
insert into Score values('02' , '02' , 60);
insert into Score values('02' , '03' , 80);
insert into Score values('03' , '01' , 80);
insert into Score values('03' , '02' , 80);
insert into Score values('03' , '03' , 80);
insert into Score values('04' , '01' , 50);
insert into Score values('04' , '02' , 30);
insert into Score values('04' , '03' , 20);
insert into Score values('05' , '01' , 76);
insert into Score values('05' , '02' , 87);
insert into Score values('06' , '01' , 31);
insert into Score values('06' , '03' , 34);
insert into Score values('07' , '02' , 89);
insert into Score values('07' , '03' , 98);

SQL练习

-- 1、查询"01"课程比"02"课程成绩高的学生的信息及课程分数
select s.*, sc.s_score, sc1.s_score from student as s 
join score as sc on s.s_id=sc.s_id and sc.c_id=01
left join score as sc1 on s.s_id=sc1.s_id and sc1.c_id=02 
where sc.s_score > sc1.s_score
-- 第二种写法
select s.*, a.s_score, b.s_score from student as s, score as a, score as b 
where s.s_id=a.s_id
and s.s_id=b.s_id
and a.c_id=01
and b.c_id=02
and a.s_score>b.s_score

-- 2、查询"01"课程比"02"课程成绩低的学生的信息及课程分数
select a.*, c.s_score, b.s_score from student as a
join score as b on a.s_id=b.s_id and b.c_id=02
left join score as c on a.s_id=c.s_id and c.c_id=01
where b.s_score > c.s_score

-- 3、查询平均成绩大于等于60分的同学的学生编号和学生姓名和平均成绩
select s.*, a.avg_num from student as s, 
(select s_id, avg(s_score) as avg_num from score group by s_id having avg(s_score) >= 60) as a
where s.s_id=a.s_id
--第二种写法
select s.s_id, s.s_name, avg(a.s_score) as avg_score from student as s
join score as a on s.s_id=a.s_id
group by s.s_id, s.s_name having avg(a.s_score) >= 60

-- 4、查询平均成绩小于60分的同学的学生编号和学生姓名和平均成绩(包括有成绩的和无成绩的)
select s.s_id, s.s_name, avg(a.s_score) as avg_score from student as s
join score as a on s.s_id=a.s_id
group by s.s_id, s.s_name having avg(a.s_score) <= 60
union
select s.s_id, s.s_name, 0 from student as s
where s.s_id not in
(select distinct s_id from score)

-- 5、查询所有同学的学生编号、学生姓名、选课总数、所有课程的总成绩
select s.s_id, s.s_name, count(a.c_id) as 课程数量, sum(a.s_score) as 课程总成绩 from student as s
left join score as a on a.s_id=s.s_id
group by s.s_id, s.s_name
 
-- 6、查询"李"姓老师的数量 
select count(*) from teacher where t_name like '李%'

-- 7、查询学过"张三"老师授课的同学的信息 
select s.* from student as s, score as sc where s.s_id=sc.s_id and sc.c_id in
(select a.c_id from course as a
join teacher as b on a.t_id=b.t_id and b.t_name='张三')
--第二种写法
select s.* from student as s, score as a, course as b, teacher as c
where c.t_name='张三'
and c.t_id=b.t_id
and b.c_id=a.c_id
and s.s_id=a.s_id

-- 8、查询没学过"张三"老师授课的同学的信息 
select * from student where s_id not in 
(select s.s_id from student as s, score as a, course as b, teacher as c 
where s.s_id=a.s_id
and a.c_id=b.c_id
and b.t_id=c.t_id
and c.t_name='张三')

-- 9、查询学过编号为"01"并且也学过编号为"02"的课程的同学的信息
select distinct s.* from student as s, score as sc where s.s_id=sc.s_id and sc.c_id in (01, 02)
-- 第二种写法
select s.* from student as s, score as a, score as b 
where s.s_id=a.s_id and s.s_id=b.s_id and a.c_id=01 and b.c_id=02

-- 10、查询学过编号为"01"但是没有学过编号为"02"的课程的同学的信息
select s.* from student as s
where s.s_id in (select s_id from score where c_id=01)
and s.s_id not in (select s_id from score where c_id=02)

-- 11、查询没有学全所有课程的同学的信息 
select s.* from student as s
where s.s_id in
(select s_id from score group by s_id having count(c_id) < (select count(c_id) from course))

-- 12、查询至少有一门课与学号为"01"的同学所学相同的同学的信息 
select distinct s.* from student as s, score as sc
where s.s_id=sc.s_id and s.s_id <> 01
and sc.c_id in 
(select c_id from score where s_id=01)

-- 14、查询没学过"张三"老师讲授的任一门课程的学生姓名 
select * from student 
where s_id not in
(select s_id from score
where c_id in 
(select a.c_id from course as a, teacher as b where a.t_id=b.t_id and b.t_name='张三'))

-- 15、查询两门及其以上不及格课程的同学的学号,姓名及其平均成绩
select s.s_id, s.s_name, avg(sc.s_score) from student as s, score as sc where s.s_id=sc.s_id and s.s_id in 
(select a.s_id from (select * from score where s_score < 60) as a group by a.s_id having count(a.s_score) >= 2)
group by s.s_id, s.s_name

-- 16、检索"01"课程分数小于60,按分数降序排列的学生信息
select s.*, sc.c_id, sc.s_score from student as s, score as sc
where s.s_id=sc.s_id and sc.c_id=01
and sc.s_score < 60
order by sc.s_score desc

-- 17、按平均成绩从高到低显示所有学生的所有课程的成绩以及平均成绩
select s.s_id as 学生编号,
avg(s.s_score) as 平均成绩,
sum(case when s.c_id=01 then s.s_score else 0 end) as 科目1成绩,
sum(case when s.c_id=02 then s.s_score else 0 end) as 科目2成绩,
sum(case when s.c_id=03 then s.s_score else 0 end) as 科目3成绩
from score as s group by s.s_id
order by 平均成绩 desc

--18.查询各科成绩最高分、最低分和平均分:以如下形式显示:课程ID,课程name,最高分,最低分,平均分,及格率,中等率,优良率,优秀率
--及格为>=60,中等为:70-80,优良为:80-90,优秀为:>=90
select c.c_id as 课程id, c.c_name as课程名称,
max(s.s_score) as 最高分,
min(s.s_score) as 最低分,
avg(s.s_score) as 平均分,
round(sum(case when s.s_score >= 60 then 1 else 0 end)*1.00/count(*)*100, 2) as [及格率%],
round(sum(case when s.s_score between 70 and 80 then 1 else 0 end)*1.00/count(*)*100, 2) as [中等率%],
round(sum(case when s.s_score between 80 and 90 then 1 else 0 end)*1.00/count(*)*100, 2) as [优良率%],
round(sum(case when s.s_score >= 90 then 1 else 0 end)*1.00/count(*)*100, 2) as [优秀率%]
from score as s, course as c
where s.c_id=c.c_id
group by c.c_id, c.c_name

-- 19、按各科成绩进行排序,并显示排名
select sc.c_id as 课程编号, c.c_name as 课程名称, s.s_name as 学生姓名, sc.s_score as 分数, rank() over(partition by sc.c_id order by s_score desc) as 成绩排名 
from score as sc, course as c, student as s
where sc.s_id=s.s_id and sc.c_id=c.c_id

-- 20、查询学生的总成绩并进行排名
select s.s_name as 学生姓名, sum(sc.s_score) as 学生总成绩, rank() over(order by sum(sc.s_score) desc) 
from student as s, score as sc
where s.s_id=sc.s_id
group by s.s_name

-- 21、查询不同老师所教不同课程平均分从高到低显示 
select t.t_name as 教师姓名,c.c_name as 所教科目, avg(s.s_score) as 科目平均成绩 from score as s, course as c, teacher as t
where s.c_id = c.c_id and t.t_id = c.t_id
group by t.t_name, c.c_name
order by 科目平均成绩 desc

-- 22、查询所有课程的成绩第2名到第3名的学生信息及该课程成绩
select * from 
(select s.*, sc.s_score, dense_rank() over(partition by sc.c_id order by sc.s_score desc) as kcpm 
from score as sc, student as s
where s.s_id=sc.s_id) as a
where a.kcpm between 2 and 3

-- 23、统计各科成绩各分数段人数:课程编号,课程名称,[100-85],[85-70],[70-60],[0-60]及所占百分比
select s.c_id as 课程编号, c.c_name as 课程名称,
sum(case when s.s_score between 85 and 100 then 1 else 0 end) as [85-100分的人数],
round(sum(case when s.s_score between 85 and 100 then 1 else 0 end)*1.00/count(*)*100, 2) as [85-100分百分比],
sum(case when s.s_score between 70 and 85 then 1 else 0 end) as [70-85分的人数],
round(sum(case when s.s_score between 70 and 85 then 1 else 0 end)*1.00/count(*)*100, 2) as [70-85分百分比],
sum(case when s.s_score between 60 and 70 then 1 else 0 end) as [60-70分的人数],
round(sum(case when s.s_score between 60 and 70 then 1 else 0 end)*1.00/count(*)*100, 2) as [60-70分百分比],
sum(case when s.s_score between 0 and 60 then 1 else 0 end) as [0-60分的人数],
round(sum(case when s.s_score between 0 and 60 then 1 else 0 end)*1.00/count(*)*100, 2) as [0-60分百分比]
from score as s, course as c
where s.c_id=c.c_id
group by s.c_id, c.c_name

-- 24、查询学生平均成绩及其名次 
select s.s_name as 学生姓名, avg(sc.s_score) as 平均成绩, rank() over(order by avg(sc.s_score) desc) as 平均成绩排名 from student as s, score as sc
where s.s_id=sc.s_id
group by s.s_name

-- 25、查询各科成绩前三名的记录
select * from 
(select s.*, rank() over(partition by c_id order by s_score) as 成绩排名 from score as s) as a
where a.[成绩排名] <= 3

-- 26、查询每门课程被选修的学生数 
select c_id, count(s_id) from score
group by c_id

-- 27、查询出只有两门课程的全部学生的学号和姓名 
select * from student
where s_id in
(select s_id from score group by s_id having count(*) = 2)

-- 28、查询男生、女生人数 
select s_sex, count(*) from student
group by s_sex

-- 29、查询名字中含有"风"字的学生信息
select * from student
where s_name like '%风%'

-- 30、查询同名同性别学生名单,并统计同名人数
select a.s_name,a.s_sex,count(*) from student a JOIN 
student b on a.s_id != b.s_id and a.s_name = b.s_name and a.s_sex = b.s_sex
GROUP BY a.s_name,a.s_sex

-- 31、查询1990年出生的学生名单
select * from student where s_birth like '1990%'

-- 32、查询每门课程的平均成绩,结果按平均成绩降序排列,平均成绩相同时,按课程编号升序排列
select c_id, avg(s_score) from score
group by c_id
order by avg(s_score) desc, c_id asc

-- 33、查询平均成绩大于等于85的所有学生的学号、姓名和平均成绩
select s.*, a.[平均成绩] from student as s,
(select s_id, avg(s_score) as 平均成绩 from score 
group by s_id
having avg(s_score) >= 85) as a
where s.s_id=a.s_id

-- 34、查询课程名称为"数学",且分数低于60的学生姓名和分数 
select s.s_name, sc.s_score from student as s, score as sc, course as c
where s.s_id=sc.s_id and sc.c_id=c.c_id and c.c_name='数学' and sc.s_score < 60

-- 35、查询所有学生的课程及分数情况
select s.s_id, s.s_name,
sum(case when c_id=01 then sc.s_score else 0 end) as 科目01成绩,
sum(case when c_id=02 then sc.s_score else 0 end) as 科目02成绩,
sum(case when c_id=03 then sc.s_score else 0 end) as 科目03成绩
from student as s
left join score as sc on s.s_id=sc.s_id
group by s.s_id, s.s_name

-- 36、查询任何一门课程成绩在70分以上的姓名、课程名称和分数
select s.s_name, c.c_name, sc.s_score from student as s, score as sc, course as c
where s.s_id=sc.s_id and sc.c_id=c.c_id and sc.s_score > 70

-- 37、查询不及格的课程
select s.s_name, c.c_name, sc.s_score from student as s, score as sc, course as c
where s.s_id=sc.s_id and sc.c_id=c.c_id and sc.s_score < 60

--38、查询课程编号为01且课程成绩在80分以上的学生的学号和姓名
select s.s_id, s.s_name, sc.s_score from student as s, score as sc
where s.s_id=sc.s_id and sc.c_id=01 and sc.s_score >= 80

-- 39、求每门课程的学生人数
select c_id, count(*) from score
group by c_id

-- 40、查询选修"张三"老师所授课程的学生中,成绩最高的学生信息及其成绩
select top 1 s.*, sc.s_score from student as s, score as sc, course as c, teacher as t
where s.s_id=sc.s_id and sc.c_id=c.c_id and c.t_id=t.t_id and t.t_name='张三'
order by sc.s_score desc

-- 41、查询不同课程成绩相同的学生的学生编号、课程编号、学生成绩
select * from score as a, score as b
where a.s_id != b.s_id and a.c_id = b.c_id and a.s_score = b.s_score

-- 42、查询每门课成绩最好的前两名
select s.*, a.s_score, a.c_id from student as s,
(select s_id, s_score, c_id, rank() over(partition by c_id order by s_score desc) as kmpm from score) as a
where s.s_id=a.s_id and a.kmpm <= 2

-- 43、统计每门课程的学生选修人数(超过5人的课程才统计)。要求输出课程号和选修人数,查询结果按人数降序排列,若人数相同,按课程号升序排列
select c_id, count(*) from score 
group by c_id
having count(*) > 5
order by count(*) desc

-- 44、检索至少选修两门课程的学生学号
select s_id from score
group by s_id
having count(*) >= 2

-- 45、查询选修了全部课程的学生信息 
select s.* from student as s where s.s_id in
(select s_id from score group by s_id having count(*) = 
(select count(*) from course))

--46、查询各学生的年龄
select s_name, year(getdate())-year(s_birth) as 年龄 from student

-- 47、查询本周过生日的学生
-- 48、查询下周过生日的学生

-- 49、查询本月过生日的学生
select s.* from student as s
where month(GETDATE()) = MONTH(s.s_birth)

-- 50、查询下月过生日的学生
select s.* from student as s
where month(GETDATE()) = MONTH(s.s_birth)-1
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