操作系统的初学者，如有疏漏或错误，欢迎指正 (^ _ ^)
1.What are the two main functions of an operating system?
(1) Makes computer systems easier to use/primarily providing abstractions to application programs (top-down)
OS provides interface to run apps, authentication and protection, read/write interface and implements TCP/IP stack.
(2) Manages the resources of the computer/manage all the pieces of a complex system (bottom-up)
Process management, Memory management,Storage management, Protection and security
2.In Section 1.4, nine different types of operating systems are described. Give a list of applications for each of these systems (one per operating systems type).
(1) Mainframe Operating Systems: claims processing in an insurance company, sales reporting for a chain of stores, check processing at a bank, airline reservations
(2) Server Operating Systems: Siri’s voice-to-text conversion service
(3) Multiprocessor Operating Systems: Video editing and rendering
(4) Personal Computer Operating Systems:word processing application
(5) Handheld Computer Operating Systems: QQ
(6) Embedded Operating Systems: A recording program for a DVD recorder
(7) Sensor-Node Operating Systems: measure temperature and precipitation for weather forecasting
(8) Real-Time Operating Systems: Air traffic control system
(9) Smart Card Operating Systems:electronic payments
3.What is the difference between timesharing and multiprogramming systems?
Multiprogramming have more than one active(running) program in memory at any one time; timesharing multiple users simultaneously access the system through terminals. Timesharing is a variant of multiprogramming, in which each user has an online terminal.
The principal objective is different: multiprogramming:maximize processor use; timesharing: minimize response time
The source of directives to operating system is different:multiprogramming: Job control language commands provided with the job; timesharing: Commands entered at the terminal.
10.What is the difference between kernel and user mode? Explain how having two distinct modes aids in designing an operating system.
Most computers have two modes of operation: kernel mode and user mode. The operating system, the most fundamental piece of software, runs in kernel mode. In this mode it has complete access to all the hardware and can execute any instruction the machine is capable of executing. The rest of the software runs in user mode, in which only a subset of the machine instructions is available. Two modes allow designers to run user
programs in user mode, thereby denying them access to key instructions.
21.What type of multiplexing (time, space, or both) can be used for sharing the following resources: CPU, memory, disk, network card, printer, keyboard, and display?